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Resourcd File

  1. 1. • Write down your OWN guess as to how many paperclips are in the jar • Do NOT confer! What did everyone guess?
  2. 2. You have the opportunity to have a second guess Hands up who changed their guess? Why?
  3. 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Outline the key terms: conformity (majority influence) compliance, Identification and Internalisation • Understand the difference between these key terms • describe research into conformity,
  5. 5. CONFORMITY (MAJORITY INFLUENCE) DEFINITION Conformity is the tendency to change what we do, think or say in response to the influence of real or imagined pressure from others’. ‘
  6. 6. EXAMPLES Do we need to conform ? Have you ever conformed?
  8. 8. WATCH THIS CLIP CAREFULLY Why does this clip show conformity?
  9. 9. WHY IS THIS A STUDY OF CONFORMITY? Write up Sherif‟s study in your own words
  10. 10. SHERIF Ambiguous task (not an obvious answer) Had to say how far a spot of light moved and in what direction (autokinectic effect) Condition 1= estimate by themselves Condition2= estimate by themselves in groups of 3 Findings: All conformed= group norm
  11. 11. There are different types of conformity: 1. Compliance Shallow Level 2. Identification 3. Internalisation Kelman, 1958: types of conformity Deep Level Deep Level
  12. 12. COMPLIANCE The person conforms publicly but continues privately to disagree It is the shallowest form of conformity Example A person might laugh at the joke that others are laughing at while privately not finding it very funny
  13. 13. IDENTIFICATION The person conforms publicly as well as privately because they have identified with the group and they feel a sense of group membership The change of belief or behaviour is often temporary Example A person might support a new football team every time they move to a new town
  14. 14. INTERNALISATION The person conforms publicly and privately because they have internalised and accepted the views of the group It is the deepest form of conformity Example A person may become a vegetarian after sharing a flat with a group of vegetarians at university
  16. 16. ASCH (1956)
  17. 17. PROCEDURE 123 American male students who thought they were taking part in a study of visual perception PPTs placed in groups with between 7-9 others, who were confederates (in on experiment!)
  18. 18. PROCEDURE Had to say which comparison line. A, B or C was the same as stimulus line On 12/18 „critical‟ trials the confederates gave identical wrong answers Real PPTs were always answering last or last but one
  19. 19. PROCEDURE There was a control group of which confederates always gave the right answer Why?
  20. 20. FINDINGS On 12 critical trials, 37% of the responses made by true PPTs were incorrect 25% never conformed on any of the trials Control: 1% inaccurate response
  21. 21. WHY DID THEY CONFORM? Distortion of action: Didn‟t want to „stand out‟ so conformed to group publicly but not privately Distortion of judgement: doubted their accuracy
  22. 22. ACTIVITY Answer the questions using your knowledge of what you have just learnt...
  23. 23. How can we Evaluate this study? Hint: Ethical issues and methodological issues
  24. 24. EVALUATION  laboratory experiment: controlled conditions which allowed Asch to measure conformity and control EV’s.  lacks ecological validity: It is not often in everyday life that people are asked to judge the length of a line against three other lines.
  25. 25. EVALUATION  The sample size: Large sample size of 123 participants and were all similar in demographics (age, sex, etc.) which means that they were with their peers and people are more likely to conform with peers in real life.  All American males: Difficult to generalised to other groups such as females or people in other cultures.
  26. 26. EVALUATION  Ethical issues: not able to give their fully informed consent as not told true nature of study. It would have been impossible to carry out the study if known true aim Subjected to a stressful situation and experienced temporary discomfort
  28. 28. TASK Write up the story of Zimbardo‟s Stanford Prison Experiment What type of Conformity is it?
  29. 29. ZIMBARDO PPTs? How many? What were the like? What were they told the study was about? Method- how was study carried out?  Stanford University  roles assigned to PPTs  Behaviours produced when in role Findings
  30. 30. MATCHING TIME A. Internalisation 1. Change what we do, think or say in response to the influence of real or imagined pressure from others’. 2. The person conforms publicly but continues privately to disagree 3. The person conforms publicly as well as privately. The change of belief or behaviour is often temporary 4. The person conforms publicly and privately because they have internalised and accepted the views of the group B. Conformity C. Compliance D. Identification
  31. 31. WHICH TYPE OF CONFORMITY AM I? Complete the sheet Emma= Internalisation Sam= Compliance Parvinder= Identification
  32. 32. 1. The following phrases refer to different types of conformity. Select the two phrases that describe internalisation. A The deepest level of conformity. B The individual conforms publicly with the rest of the group but may privately disagree with them. C The beliefs of the group become part of the individual‟s own belief system. D The individual goes along with the group but does not agree with them. E The individual changes his/her beliefs, but it is a temporary change. ANSWER: A + C (2 marks)
  33. 33. 2. It is Ani’s first day in a new job and he spends a lot of time watching to see what his colleagues are doing, so that he will fit in with them and be liked. Explain Ani’s behaviour in terms of compliance.
  34. 34. ANSWER Compliance refers to behaviour that involves going along with the majority, even if privately their views are not accepted. He wants to fit in and be liked, so will change his behaviour to be like the others but does not change his beliefs. 1 mark for a brief outline explanation of compliance and a further mark for elaboration. The marks for this question are for the explanation.
  35. 35. LESSON OBJECTIVES Describe research into conformity Outline factors affecting conformity Apply these factors to studies into conformity
  36. 36. THINKING BACK... What type of conformity is Asch‟s study? Why? What type of conformity is Zimbardo‟s study? Why?
  38. 38. CLARK 1998/99 Carried out a series of experiments using the 1954 film 12 Angry Men
  39. 39. METHOD PPTs were asked to play the role of jurors and to make up their minds about the guilt or innocence of the young man 220 Psychology students. 129 women and 91 men.
  40. 40. METHOD Given a 4 page booklet with summary of the plot of 12 angry mencontained evidence for the defendants guilt: Purchased/used a rare knife from a local store Seen by 2 eyewitnesses
  41. 41. METHOD Clark varied whether they were given information about the criminals defence/counter arguments “ He didn‟t kill his father” “ one of the eyewitnesses had very bad eye sight and wasn‟t wearing glasses!” “ the knife wasn‟t rare, you can get an identical one from the local joke shop!”
  42. 42. FINDINGS People did change their minds about the defendant's guilt if the single juror provided counter-evidence to the charge If he didnt provide counter evidence people didn‟t change their mind
  44. 44. NEW FASHION! SHELL SUITS What factors do you think could affect whether someone conforms to this new fashion?
  45. 45. FACTORS AFFECTING CONFORMITY Difficulty of task When (comparison) lines (e.g. A, B, C) were made more similar in length it was harder to judge the correct answer When we are uncertain, it seems we look to others for confirmation. Conformity increased
  46. 46. FACTORS AFFECTING CONFORMITY What factor can affect conformity? What does this graph show?
  47. 47. SIZE OF GROUP Asch found that conformity tends to increase as the size of the group increases. With one other confederate in the group conformity was 3%, with two others it increased to 13% and with three or more it was 32% little change in conformity once the group size reaches 4-5. 4= considered the optimal group size for conformity to occur
  48. 48. GIVING ANSWERS IN PRIVATE When participants could write their answers down rather than announce them in public, conformity dropped. Fear of ridicule and disapproval are important factors
  49. 49. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES Smith and Bond (1993) Meta-analysis using Asch‟s method in different cultures Highest conformity in Fiji= 58% Lowest conformity in Belgium= 14% Why?
  50. 50. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES Individualist cultures= value independence and individuality, so encouraged to make OWN decisions (25.3% conformity) Collectivist= attach importance to the social group, so encouraged to fit in with views of group (37.1% conformity)
  51. 51. TIME Perrin and Spencer (1981) Carried out Asch‟s study 25 years later PPT: 33 male students, 20 male students on Probation (confederates were Probation officers) and 16 unemployed West Indian men, with average age of 19 years old
  52. 52. TIME- FINDINGS Male students NOT on Probation= almost non-existent Male students on Probation= similar rates to Asch‟s rate of conformity WHY? West Indian PPTs= high rates of conformity when in groups with majority white confederates
  53. 53. INDIVIUDAL DIFFERENCES Eagly and Carli (1981) women more compliant than men because women are more interpersonally oriented . Could be research more aimed at men so women less confident
  54. 54. HIGHER OR LOWER? Group size decreased from four to two:
  55. 55. HIGHER OR LOWER? Task is very difficult
  56. 56. HIGHER OR LOWER? Carried out at the present time (not 1950s)
  57. 57. HIGHER OR LOWER? Carried out in a collectivist culture
  58. 58. HIGHER OR LOWER? Answers are given in public
  59. 59. MIND MAP MAYHEM You have 3 minutes to mind map everything you know about social influence (WITHOUT NOTES!) Remember key terms and studies
  60. 60. LESSON OBJECTIVES • Understand explanations for why people conform • To identify theories which explain why people conform • To outline research which supports these theories
  61. 61. What is the difference between majority and minority influence?
  62. 62. EXPLAINING MAJORITY INFLUENCE Dual-process dependency model (Deutsch and Gerard, 1955)
  63. 63. DUAL-PROCESS MODEL (DEUTSCH AND GERARD 1955) • Normative social influence – behaviour to fit in with the group and avoid ridicule – an example of compliance. • Informational social influence – changing behaviour to be right based on the information available from the majority. What studies support the two parts of dualprocess dependency model?
  66. 66. DUAL PROCESS DEPENDENCY MODEL People conform because they depend on other people for.... 1. Social approval 2. Information
  67. 67. EVALUATION BUT Doesn‟t acknowledge the sense of belonging to a group E.g. How some people still conform to group norms even long after the group no longer exists
  68. 68. Internalisation Definition of conformity Normative influence Compliance Clarke 12 Angry men Informational influence Asch line experiment Identification Zimbardo Prison experiment
  69. 69. • Identify key terms relating to conformity to check prior learning. • Understand how the SIT can explain conformity and apply it to your own behaviour • Justify Reasons for why we conform
  70. 70. Zimbardo prison experiment Definition of conformity compliance Asch – line experiment Internalisation Identification Clarke 12 angry men Normative Informational
  71. 71. • Outline and evaluate one or more explanations of why people conform. (support with relevant studies) / 12 marks
  72. 72. GROUP TASK You will be given a tub of play dough and you are in competition with an allocated group. • • You have to have a group name – write you group name on your stickers • You have to create a dinosaur and give it a name • Then you have to explain why your dinosaur is better than the competitive team • Make sure that you have the best dinosaur • The winning team is the one that works together and all contribute Michigan Buckley Chelsea Clark James Cork Ella Dalton Group C: Hannah Lewis Izzy Morris Lucy Rampling Dan Rayner Group B: Jack Ford Amy Herbert Gabi Hollow Laura Kneller Group D: Jack Robinson Maddy Rogers Sophie Selway Charlotte Stevens Group E: Group F: Jordan Stevens Jorja Stockle Chloe Taylor Natalie Tubb Chloe Vine Lauren Whenman Daisy Whetlor Frederica Spence Aquila Miah You have 8 minutes to make the best play dough dinosaur • Group A: Group G Group H
  73. 73. SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY (TAJFEL) Minimal group experiments (1971) Boys aged 14-15 Allocated to groups based on their preference for one Artist or another Played a game in which they were able to give points (exchanged for money) to their own group or other Findings: gave more points to own group
  74. 74. SOCIAL IDENTITY EXPLANATIONS Importance of social belonging Referent informational influence: pressure to conform with the norms set by a group because we have defined ourselves as a member of that group
  75. 75. SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY • People identify themselves as belonging to particular social groups •We favour our own group (in group) over any group to which we do not belong (out group). • We maximise the similarities within the group and the differences between our group and others. E.g. Provide rules/norms for that group
  76. 76. SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY Our group membership shapes our behaviour through group norms The group norms are internalised so our behaviour is shaped even when we are not with other group members
  77. 77. PLENARY: MEAN GIRLS Why did the main character conform to the group?
  78. 78. HOW CAN YOU EXPLAIN SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY HERE? Outgroup In-group Group norms Similarities /difference s
  79. 79. Can you think of examples of minority influence? Hint: Famous figures in history
  80. 80. MINORITY INFLUENCE CAN BE STRONG. What type of conformity takes place when both your public and own private view change?
  81. 81. EXPLAINING MINORITY INFLUENCE What study have we investigated that looked at the influence of the minority on the majority? A, P, F,C,C?
  82. 82. CLARK (1998) Study 1 found that if the minority juror did NOT provide counter evidence to the charge then people didn‟t move from majority BUT carried out 2nd study to see the impact of changing behaviour of others (defectors)on people‟s own beliefs
  83. 83. CLARK (1998/1999) Found that when you see people changing their view and adopting a minority viewpoint you are more likely to conform E.g. When PPTs were shown 4 jurors changing their mind to „not guilty‟ they began to conform to the minority view
  84. 84. MOSCOVICI (1969) “CALLING A BLUE SLIDE GREEN” Laboratory Experiment Groups of 6 people were brought together. 4 were real P‟s and 2 were confederates. The were shown 36 slides of varying shades of blue and asked to say out loud what the colour was. There were two conditions: 1. consistent – the confederates called all 36 green 2. inconsistent – the confederates called 24/36 of the slides green
  85. 85. MOSCOVICI (1969) “CALLING A BLUE SLIDE GREEN” Results Consistent condition- 8% moved across to the minority position Inconsistent condition- 1.25% moved across. Conclusion? In order to influence others a minority needs to be consistent.
  86. 86. BINGO Normative Social impact Immediacy Strength Clark Informational Referent Moscovici Internalisation Social influence Minority Social identity Dual-process dependency
  87. 87. Warm up! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Stand up Tuck chair under table Turn around Clap your hands together five times Moo like a cow
  88. 88. Why did you do that?
  89. 89. define the key term: obedience describe Milgram’s (1963) research study Learning Objectives
  90. 90. What is obedience? Definition Obedience is a type of social influence which causes a person to act in response to an order given by another person. The person who gives the order usually has power or authority.
  91. 91. How is obedience different from conformity?
  92. 92. Difference between  Obedience is from someone Obedience and conformity with power NOT a peer group  In conformity there is no explicit demand to act in a certain wayin obedience the orders are direct  Obey to avoid punishment, belief in authority figure  Conform to be liked or accepted
  93. 93. Can you think of examples in history when people have obeyed an authority figure?
  94. 94. How far would you go to obey orders?
  95. 95. Context 6 million Jews killed throughout Hitler‟s reign On 11 April 1961, the trial of Adolf Eichmann, a Nazi soldier in World War II began
  96. 96. Milgram (1963) Research Study “The Germans are different!’ Aim: Will everyday people obey an authority figure even if it involves causing harm to another human being?
  97. 97. Watch Milgram‟s Study....
  98. 98. Activity Read pg 202 Answer questions to summarise the procedure of Milgram‟s study on obedience to authority DO NOT turn over to page 202!!!
  99. 99. What % of participants do you think delivered the maximum 450-Volt shock, which was labelled XXX? 65%
  100. 100. Findings  All 40 PPTs went to 300 volts  65% administered the maximum shock of 450 volts  35% managed to disobey the considerable pressure of the experiment!
  101. 101. Milgram found results SHOCKING...  Carried out Presumptive consent before the experiment took place  asked a variety of people, including Psychiatrists and Students “ how many people do you think would obey to 450 volts”  “Most would refuse from 150 V onwards, less than 1% would go all the way”
  102. 102. How can we evaluate Milgram‟s study on Obedience to Authority? Hint: Ethical and Methodological issues
  103. 103. Charges against Milgram...How can it be Charges against The defence justified? Lack of informed consent Deception Protection from psychological damage Lack of right to withdraw
  104. 104. Evaluation Matching time... Match the evaluation issue to the correct definition and example from Milgram‟s study
  105. 105. How is obedience different from conformity? A) B) C) There is no explicit demand to act in a certain way It does not necessarily involve a group of people The social pressure is from a peer group
  106. 106. Who carried out research into obedience? A) B) C) Milgram Asch Sherif
  107. 107. What was the role of the learner? a) To administer the shocks b) To read out word pairs c) To press a switch when word pairs match
  108. 108. What role did the participant play in Milgrams study? A) B) C) Learner Teacher Experimenter
  109. 109. How did they increase the realism of the experiment? a) b) c) Given a sample electric shock Shown the electric chair All the above
  110. 110. How did the researchers deceive participants about the real aim of the study? A) Participants were told that the experiment was concerned with the effects of punishment on learning B) Were told experiment was concerned with how far people would be prepared to go in obeying an authority figure C) Were told experiment was concerned with visual discrimination
  111. 111. What were the actual results of Milgrams experiment? A) All participants shocked to 300v and 65% shocked to 450 volts. B) 65% went to 300 volts, 100% to 450 volts C) 100% to 300 volts and 60% went to 450 volts
  112. 112. Before the study, Milgram asked students, psychiatrists to predict how many people would continue to 450 volts. What did participants predict? A)Every Participant would shock to maximum voltage B) All participants would shock to 300 volts C) Most people would shock to 150 volts and only 1% would shock 450 volts
  113. 113. Review Power 5  Write down 5 sentences to summarise the lesson  Reduce the 5 sentences down to 5 words  Reduce the 5 words down to 1 word
  114. 114. Who wants to be a Milgramaire MILGRAMAIRE
  115. 115. Lesson Objectives  To outline factors which could affect obedience  To identify whether these factors increase or decrease obedience  To explore studies into obedience carried out in the field: Hofling and Bickman
  116. 116. Factors affecting obedience Milgram replicated his experiment 18 studies with over 1000 participants Aim was to gain more understanding of when and why people obey or disobey
  117. 117. Decide what % of people will shock to the max voltage in the variations of Milgram’s study
  118. 118. Original study ? % of participants continued to give shocks up to 450 volts
  119. 119. Change of location  Experiment moved from prestigious Yale university to rundown office in nearby town
  120. 120. LOWER 47.5%
  121. 121. Proximity of learner  Teacher and learner in same room (1.5 feet from each other)
  122. 122. Lower 40%
  123. 123. Proximity of the learner: Physical force  Teacher had to force learner‟s hand onto the plate to receive electric shock
  124. 124. Lower 30%
  125. 125. Social Support  Teacher given support from two other „teachers‟ (confederates)  Teacher gave shocks, confederates read out list of word-pairs  After 150 volts one confederate refused to continue, 210 volts other refused
  126. 126. Lower 10%
  127. 127. Proximity of authority figure  Experimenter left the room and gave instructions to „teacher‟ by telephone
  128. 128. Lower 20.5%
  129. 129. Peer administers shock  Confederate gave shocks whilst teacher read out word pairs
  130. 130. Higher 92.5%
  131. 131. Participants Percentage Cross- Cultural research Country USA Male general public 63% Germany Male general public 85% UK Male students 50% Spain Students 90% Australia General public 56% (40% men, 16% women)
  132. 132. Obedience in the the What are field advantages and disadvantages of carrying out research in the field?
  133. 133. Hofling (1966)  Read the study and answer the following questions
  134. 134. Evaluation of HoflingEcological Validity  Would experienced nurses come across and use a drug they had never heard of?  Is it likely that a experienced nurse on that ward would not know consultants covering that ward?  Is it likely that a nurse would be on the ward by herself?
  135. 135. Means experimenting in real life situations •Bickman (1974) carried out a field experiment on 153 randomly occurring participants in New York •½ time the experimenter was dressed in security guards uniform and the rest of the time in street clothes (IV) •DV?
  136. 136. Picking up litter “Pick up this bag for me” Lend money to a stranger for a parking meter “This man is overparked at the meter, but doesn‟t have any change – give him a dime” Stand on other side of Bus Stop “Don‟t you know you have to stand on the other side of this pole? The sign says no standing”
  137. 137. Obedience rate (%) 100 92% 49% 50 0 Security guard Street clothes Type of dress
  138. 138. Bushman (1988)  Used the same method but used a female confederate  Dressed in uniform or smart clothes  Ordered passerby to give money to a motorist for the car park  Findings= 70% obeyed in uniform, 58% in Compare and smart dress contrast this study with Bickman‟s study into obedience
  139. 139. Homework  Read the sheet and highlight the key evaluation points on research into obedience  Then summarise in your own words on the sheet
  140. 140. Why do people obey? You should be able to • Know and understand reasons for why people obey • Apply the reasons to examples from Milgram’s experiment
  141. 141. What is The Buffer Effect? • The buffer is when the person following instructions is protected from seeing the effects of their actions. How does it work? The buffer effect is basically a comfort blanket to disguise the harsh results from the orders obeyed. By doing this people are likely to be more obedient since it is hard to fully realise/accept mental responsibility when you are unable to see the effects made. An example of the Buffer Effect. Milgram exposes the effectiveness of the buffer effect by having two experiments. The first person obeying cannot see the effects, however the second can. The amount of orders obeyed dramatically decreased when the person obeying could see the consequences of their actions. Therefore showing how the buffer effect can cause us to be more obedient, due to limiting the amount of personal responsibility.
  142. 142. Legitimate authority • People are more likely to obey depending on the amount of social power held by one person • Societies are ordered in hierarchical way, so the people below are more likely to obey the people above who have more authority • We obey people with legitimate authority because we trust them or because they have the power to punish • This is supported by Hofling et al found 21 out of 22 nurses were willing to carry out an instruction by an unknown doctor this was explained by the degree of power and trust at that time held by hospital doctors • In Mailgram's study people were more likely to obey as it was in Yale university than in an experiment in a new York office this was influenced by the setting as the degree of trust participants felt to the experimenter
  143. 143. Agentic State • The state in which an individual carries out orders of another person acting as their agent with little personal responsibilities. • Don’t feel personal consequences. • Hofling et al, the nurses carries out orders (an example of agentic state) • Milgram when told full responsibility with the experimenter they continued to obey despite reservations
  144. 144. Gradual Commitment(Foot in the door technique) • The idea that a gradual increase in seriousness of the command will make someone more likely to obey than a drastic increase, as it establishes a basis for obedience and makes it difficult to disobey. • In Milgram’s study, he used small increases in the voltage, beginning at a small request of 15 volts and increasing by 15 volts each time.
  146. 146. INDEPENDENT BEHAVIOUR • In some cases, individuals can resist pressures to conform or obey and can maintain independent behaviour • The role of personality has been studied and in particular a concept known as locus of control
  147. 147. LOCUS OF CONTROL • Locus of Control refers to a person’s perception of personal control over their own behaviour • It is measured along a dimension of ‘high internal’ to ‘high external’
  148. 148. INTERNAL VS EXTERNAL 1. Amanda doesn’t bother applying for the position of Head Girl because she feels she is not popular enough to win. 2. Isobel checks her horoscope every day to see if she is going to have a good or a bad day. 3. Richard feels confident that he will get the job he applied for because he has good exam results and did well in the interview.
  149. 149. How does LOC affect conformity/obedience? • High internals are active seekers of information that is useful to them, so rely less on the opinions of others (unlike externals) • High internals are more achievement- oriented and so more likely to become leaders • High internals are better able to resist coercion from others
  150. 150. RESISITNG PRESSURES TO CONFORM Asch introduced another dissident (someone else who did not conform) – reduced conformity Explained by informational social influence Asch found with just one other member of the group giving the correct answer, the conformity of the participant went down to 5.5%. Asch‟s original study – 24% did not conform More independent when making moral judgement
  151. 151. RESISTANCE TO CONFORMITY: EXPOSURE TO DISSENT • Imagine a society where everyone thinks the same… • What would happen if they were suddenly exposed to alternative ideas…?
  152. 152. GAMSON ET AL (1982) • • • • • • Page 217 Aims Procedure Findings Conclusion Criticisms • WHY DID PEOPLE DISOBEY IN GAMSON‟s STUDY?
  153. 153. RESISTANCE TO CONFORMITY: NEMETH (1986) • Nemeth argues that if we are exposed to a different viewpoint, it is more likely to make us think about it, even if it is the view of a minority. • E.g. the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and women‟s suffrage.
  154. 154. RESISTANCE TO CONFORMITY: PSYCHOSOCIAL IDENTITY • Mugny (1980) argues we are more likely to resist conformity if the minority group is one we identify with. • If we feel we share a “psychosocial identity” with them, it doesn‟t matter that we are doing something socially unacceptable by going with the minority.
  155. 155. RESISTANCE TO OBEDIENCE: PERSONALITY • Instead of Milgram‟s situational explanation of obedience, we can take a dispositional explanation, which would argue that personalities differ and can influence levels of obedience. • Milgram (1974) identified the “authoritarian personality” as one more likely to obey as they are intolerant of others, like structure and are submissive to authority.
  156. 156. RESISTANCE TO OBEDIENCE • Factors which led to people to disobey in Milgram‟s experiment: • 1. location – when moved to downtown offices • 2. when victim could be seen • 3. when another confederate refused to carry out the task • Milgram‟s original experiment – 35% disobeyed • Hofling‟s study – 1/22 resisted Dr Smith‟s charms • Moral principles - more defiant
  157. 157. ACTIVITY A group of protesters is fixing a banner to the top of a tall crane. A plain-clothes policeman on the ground uses a loudhailer to order them to stop and come down but the protestors refuse. Use your knowledge of psychology to explain why the protestors defy the order. Use examples from studies to illustrate your answer.
  159. 159. * Today’s Lesson: To investigate how social influence research can help us understand social change and the role of minority influence in social change
  160. 160. SOCIAL CHANGE When a whole society adopts a new belief or way of behaving which then becomes widely accepted as the ‘norm’ Starter… Mind map some examples of social change.
  161. 161. SOCIAL CHANGE Social Change
  162. 162. Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 • The protests were triggered in April 1989 by the death of former Communist Party General Secretary, Hu Yaobang, a liberal reformer, who was deposed after losing a power struggle with hardliners over the direction of Chinese economic and political reforms.[10] University students who marched and gathered in Tiananmen Square to mourn Hu also voiced grievances against inflation, limited career prospects, and corruption of the party elite.[11] They called for government accountability, freedom of the press, freedom of speech, and the restoration of workers' control over industry.[12][13] At the height of the protests, about a million people assembled in the Square.[14]
  163. 163. Suffragette • 1912 was a turning point for the Suffragettes in the UK as they turned to using more militant tactics such as chaining themselves to railings, setting fire to mailbox contents, smashing windows and occasionally detonating bombs.[9] This was because the current Prime Minister at the time, Asquith, nearly signed a document giving women (over 30 and either married to a property-owner or owning a property themselves) the right to vote. But he pulled out at the last minute, as he thought the women may vote against him in the next General Election, stopping his party (Liberals) from getting into Parliament/ruling the country. • In November 1918, the Eligibility of Women Act was passed, allowing women to be elected into Parliament.[12] The Representation of the People Act 1928 extended the voting franchise to all women over the age of 21, granting women the vote on the same terms as men
  164. 164. LGBT rights in the United Kingdom • • In 1967, homosexuality was partially decriminalised in England and Wales. Since then, terms like 'clause 28', 'the age of consent' and 'civil partnerships' have become part of the political language in the fight for gay rights.
  165. 165. Fox hunting BAN • • • • • United Kingdom The controversy around fox hunting led to the passing of the Hunting Act 2004 in November of that year, after a free vote in the House of Commons, which made hunting with dogs unlawful in England and Wales from February 18, 2005.[24] An amendment which allowed licensed hunting under stricter conditions, advocated by the then Prime Minister Tony Blair[4] and some members of the government's independent inquiry on fox hunting (including its chairman Lord Burns[25]), was voted down.[26] The passing of the Hunting Act was also notable in that it was implemented through the use of the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 after the House of Lords refused to pass the legislation, despite the Commons passing it by a majority of 356 to 166.[4][27] Scotland, which has its own Parliament, banned fox hunting in 2002, more than two years before the ban in England and Wales.[28] Fox hunting remains legal in Northern Ireland.[29][30] After the ban on fox hunting, hunts say that they follow artificially laid trails, although the League Against Cruel Sports has alleged widespread law breaking.[31] Supporters of fox hunting claim that the number of foxes killed has increased since the ban, that hunts have reported an increase in membership [32] and that around 320,000 people (their highest recorded number) turned up to fox hunts on Boxing Day 2006.[33] The Master of Foxhounds association lists 184 active hunts as of November 2008.
  166. 166. SMOKING BAN • Smoke-free regulations came into effect in Scotland on 26 March 2006,[84] in Wales on 2 April 2007, in Northern Ireland on 30 April 2007 and in England on 1 July 2007.[85] The legislation was cited as an example of good regulation which has had a favourable impact on the UK economy by the Department of Business Innovation and Skills[86] and a review of the impact of smoke-free legislation carried out for the Department of Health concluded that there was no clear adverse impact on the hospitality industry[87] despite initial criticism from some voices within the pub trade.
  167. 167. Learning Outcomes ALL should be able to identify a selection of examples of social change. MOST should be able to demonstrate their understanding of how social change can be explained using at least one area of social influence research. SOME may be able to demonstrate their understanding of social change using more than one area of social influence research, including minority influence.
  169. 169. •
  170. 170. HOMEWORK Task: answer the following question: For years, smoking in public places such as trains, pubs and restaurants was quite acceptable. People could smoke wherever they wanted and non-smokers had to put up with smoky atmospheres. However, in 2007, a law was introduced banning smoking in public places. Using your knowledge of psychology of social change, explain how this social change has occurred (4 marks)
  171. 171. Social Psychology: Social Influence Lesson objectives To understand the aspects of social influence we will be looking at throughout the topic To gain an understanding as to why this information is useful in everyday life
  172. 172. What if…. • What if no one ever had to obey rules?
  173. 173. Task • You will be given a picture. • In your groups I would like you to look at this picture and decide why it has be included in this lesson. • What does it say about social influence? • How does it make you feel?
  174. 174. • ‘It would have been comforting to believe that …………. was a monster… The trouble with …………… was precisely that so many were like him, and that the many were neither perverted nor sadistic, that they were, and still are terribly and terrifyingly normal’ Arendt, 1965
  175. 175. What do these images conjure up? • Who’s involved in the positive ones? • Who’s involved in the negative ones? • Can a ‘normal’ person be made to do ‘evil’ things? • Do they take much convincing?
  176. 176. Eichmann • In charge of implementing the ‘final solution’ (Nazi extermination towards the Jews) • Found guilty of crimes against Jews and hanged in 1962 • ‘it would have been comforting to believe that Eichmann was a monster… The trouble with Eichmann was precisely that so many were like him, and that the many were neither perverted nor sadistic, that they were, and still are terribly and terrifyingly normal’ • Why did he do it?
  177. 177. Milgram’s Experiment • What do we know about the electric shock experiment?
  178. 178. Zimbardo: Stanford Prison Experiment • Prisoners and guards experiment….
  179. 179. Abu Ghraib • 2004 • Striking similarities between SPE and Abu Ghraib • Guards expanded their authority to include horrific acts of abuse and degradation against the Iraqi prisoners
  180. 180. Why do we need to study this? • What is it that we gain from knowledge of social influence?
  181. 181. Joe Darby • It was this man who stood up against the majority and brought the horrific incidents to an end – also stood up in court against his peers to see them brought to justice.
  182. 182. Task – In your groups • What are the reasons for social influence? • What do you think are the different types of social influence? • Do you conform/obey? Why?