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  • DEFINING GLOBALISATION ❖ According to Giddens, globalisation is: “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa”.! ❖ By this, Giddens means that modern forms of communication have made distance and national borders far less important than barriers between social groups.! ❖ What happens in one society can quickly impact on other societies - anywhere in the world.
  • LESSON OBJECTIVES ! ❖ To  inves)gate  what  sociologists  can  tell  us  about  green  crime   ! ❖ Look  at  the  rela)onship  between  state  crimes  and  human  rights   ! ❖ To  understand  the  ways  in  which  globalisa)on  and  crime  are  related
  • UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (1999) The result of globalisation has been a massive growth in the following forms of crime:! ❖ dealing in illicit drugs! ❖ illegal trafficking in weapons! ❖ illegal trafficking in human beings! ❖ corruption! ❖ violent crimes, including terrorism! ❖ war crimes!
  • Transnational organised crime estimated by UN to be worth £1 trillion per year ❖ There is both a demand side (the West) and a supply side (developing/third world countries)! ❖ The global criminal economy could not function without a supply side that provides drugs, sex workers, payments to corrupt officials and so on! ❖ This can take many forms:
  • Trafficking and smuggling people http://www.derbytelegraph.co.uk/Lying-humantraffickers-promised-jobs-money/story-20588321-detail/ story.html
  • Trafficking body parts An estimated 2,000 organs are taken from criminals in China every year.! http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/newsdesk/ 2014/01/can-china-stop-organ-trafficking.html
  • Sex Tourism http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/feb/09/ brazil-sex-tourism-world-cup!
  • Cyber Crime The 2011 Norton Cyber Crime Report found that: ! 1. 4 in 10 adults surveyed do not have an up-to-date security software suite to protect their personal information online;! 2. 54% of online adults have experienced viruses or malware on their computers; ! 3. 10% of all adults surveyed have experienced cybercrime on their mobile device;! 4. The top 3 cyber crimes are: malware/viruses; online scams; phishing.
  • ENVIRONMENTAL/GREEN CRIMES ❖ There is debate about what constitutes a crime! ❖ Situ and Emmons argue that ‘an environmental crime is an action that breaks the national or international laws’! ❖ However, more radical approaches explore other actions that may not be currently defined as ‘crimes’ but which are equally damaging to the environment
  • South’s (2004) twofold framework 1. Primary environmental crimes - currently legal under international law but the extent of environmental damage means they should be analysed by criminologists e.g. air and water pollution, deforestation and species decline! 2. Environmental law breaking - already illegal, but these laws may not be enforced e.g. dumping of hazardous waste
  • Smuggling of illegal goods https://crimestoppers-uk.org/in-your-area/south-east/surrey/illegal-tobacco-is-adrag-on-our-community/! ! http://www.amazon.co.uk/Smuggle-Your-Booze-Tampon-Wrappers/dp/ B00CRG27SI! ! According to HMRC, alcohol duty fraud is damaging the legitimate UK alcohol industry resulting in losses of up to £1.2bn per annum to the UK taxpayer.! ! !
  • International Terrorism http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/wanted_terrorists! !
  • Trafficking  cultural  artefacts ❖ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-18522165
  • Trafficking endangered species ❖ http://worldwildlife.org/threats/illegal-wildlife-trade!
  • Illegal drugs trade ❖ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2442923/ Silk-Road-inside-look-billion-dollar-drug-traffickingwebsite-operated.html!
  • Money laundering ❖ http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-07-02/hsbcjudge-approves-1-9b-drug-money-launderingaccord.html!
  • STATE-CORPORATE CRIME ❖ There is a close relationship between large corporations and governments! ❖ At its simplest, governments rely upon large corporations for tax revenues and to provide employment! ❖ Corporations rely upon governments for a sympathetic and organised environment in which they can engage in their activities! ❖ They are therefore mutually dependent
  • TAX EVASION OR TAX AVOIDANCE? BBC REPORT 21/05/13 ❖ Global firms such as Starbucks, Google and Amazon have come under fire for avoiding paying tax on their British sales. There seems to be a growing culture of naming and shaming companies. But what impact does it have?! ❖ Companies have long had complicated tax structures, but a recent spate of stories has highlighted a number of tax-avoiding firms that are not seen to be playing their part.! ❖ Starbucks, for example, had sales of £400m in 2012 in the UK , but paid no corporation tax. It transferred some money to a Dutch sister company in royalty payments, bought coffee beans from Switzerland and paid high interest rates to borrow from other parts of the business.! ❖ Amazon, which had sales in the UK of £3.35bn in 2011, only reported a "tax expense" of £1.8m.! ❖ And Google's UK unit paid just £6m to the Treasury in 2011 on UK turnover of £395m.! ❖ Everything these companies are doing is legal. It's avoidance and not evasion.
  • Global Risk Consciousness ❖ Globalisa)on  creates  new  insecuri)es  or  ‘risk  consciousness’.  Risk  is   seen  as  global  rather  than  )ed  to  par)cular  places  e.g.  economic   migrants  and  asylum  seekers  fleeing  persecu)on  have  given  rise  to   anxie)es  in  western  countries  about  risks  of  crime  and  deviance  and   need  to  protect  borders.   ! ❖ Along  with  the  mass  media  crea)ng  moral  panics  e.g.  nega)ve  coverage   of  immigrants  leads  to  hate  crimes  leading  to  intensifica)on  of  social   control  at  the  na)onal  level  e.g.  UK  aGemp)ng  to  )ghten  border   controls.   ! ❖ Another  result  of  globalised  risk  is  the  increased  aGempts  at   interna)onal  coopera)on  and  control  in  various  ‘wars’  on  terror,   drugs  and  crime.
  • Globalisation, capitalism and crime ❖ From  a  Marxist  perspec)ve,  Taylor  (1997)  argues  that  by  giving   free  reign  to  market  forces,  globalisa)on  has  led  to  greater   inequality  and  rising  crime.   ! ❖ Transac)onal  corpora)ons  (TNCs)  can  now  switch  manufacturing   to  low  wage  countries  to  gain  higher  profits,  producing  job   insecurity,  unemployment  and  poverty.   ! ❖ Deregula)on  means  governments  have  liGle  control  over  their   own  economies  and  state  spending  on  welfare  has  declined.
  • ❖ Marke)sa)on  has  encouraged  people  to  see  themselves  as   individual  consumers,  calcula)ng  the  personal  costs  and   benefits  of  each  ac)on,  undermining  social  cohesion   ! ❖ The  increasingly  materialis)c  culture  promoted  by  the   global  media  portrays  success  in  terms  of  a  lifestyle  of   consump)on   ! ❖ These  factors  create  insecurity  and  widening  inequali)es   that  encourage  people  to  turn  to  crime  e.g.  lucra)ve   drug  trade  (deindustrialisa)on  in  Los  Angeles  led  to   growth  of  drug  gangs)
  •   1.   For  the  elite,  globalisa)on  creates  large  scale  criminal  opportuni)es   e.g.  deregula)on  of  financial  markets  creates  opportuni)es  for  insider   trading  and  tax  evasion.   !   2.   Globalisa)on  has  also  led  to  new  employment  paGerns  crea)ng  new   opportuni)es  for  crime  e.g.  using  subcontrac)ng  to  recruit  ‘flexible’   workers  oVen  working  illegally,  or  for  less  than  minimum  wage,  or  working   in  breach  of  health  and  safety  or  labour  laws.  Changing  paGerns  of  work   have  also  created  more  opportuni)es  and  incen)ves  for  criminal  ac)vity   based  on  work.     !   Ruggiero,  South  and  Taylor  (1998)  believe  subcontrac)ng  encourages  the   employment  of  people  who  are  working  illegally,  fraudulent  benefit   claimers  and  those  employed  in  condi)ons  or  wage  levels  which  fail  to   conform  to  na)onal  laws.  This  oVen  happens  in  clothing,  food  and  building   industries.  Subcontractors  may  break  rules  to  cut  costs  in  order  to  get  and   retain  contracts  in  compe))ve  industries  and  to  maximise  their  profits.  
  • Patterns of criminal organisation   As  globalisa)on  creates  new  criminal  opportuni)es,  it  is  also  giving   rise  to  new  forms  of  criminal  organisa)on:   ! 1.   ‘Glocal’  organisa.on-­‐  Hobbs  &  Dunningham  found  that  the  way   crime  is  organised  is  linked  to  globalisa)on.  It  involves  individuals   with  contacts  ac)ng  as  a  ‘hub’  around  which  a  loose-­‐knit  network   forms,  oVen  linking  legi)mate  and  illegi)mate  ac)vi)es.    
  • http://www.bodleyhead.co.uk/features/mcmafia/imap.asp 2.  McMafia-­‐  refers  to  the  organisa)ons  that  emerged  in  Russia  &  Eastern  Europe   following  the  fall  of  Communism  (which  was  a  major  factor  in  the  process  of   globalisa)on).     !   The  new  Russian  government  deregulated  much  of  the  economy,  leading  to   huge  rises  in  food  prices  and  rents.           However  commodity  prices  (for  oil,  gas,  metals  etc)  were  kept  at  old  prices   (lower  than  world  market  price).  Therefore  well  connected  ci)zens  with  access   to  large  funds  could  buy  these  up  very  cheaply  and  sell  them  on  the  world   market  (selling  at  profit  -­‐  crea)ng  Russia’s  new  capitalist  class  ‘oligarchs’).   ! ! ! ! (The  above  is  based  on  research  by  historian  and  journalist  Misha  Glenny).  
  • 1.   To  protect  themselves  from  increasing   disorder,  oligarchs  turned  to  the  new   ‘mafias’  (ex-­‐state  security/secret   servicemen  from  old  communist   regimes).   ! 2.   With  their  assistance,  the  oligarchs   were  able  to  find  protec)on  for  their   wealth  and  a  means  of  moving  it  out  of   the  country.   ! 3.   These  criminal  organisa)ons  were  vital   for  the  entry  of  the  new  Russian   capitalist  class  into  the  world  economy.  
  • ❖ Some sociologists have argued that growing globalisation and marketisation have resulted in more opportunities for criminality. They have also argued that to an extent they have encouraged crime because of the potential to make vast sums of money. They believe that capitalism has resulted in corporate greed and as a result has led to more criminal activity within businesses that extend their influence throughout the world. ! ❖ The deregulation of financial markets has provided increased opportunities for crimes such as insider trading. ! ❖ Taylor (1997) lists the example of Wall Street stockbrokers Drexel, Burnham and Lambert who were accused of manipulating the US stock market in 1990 and paid $650 million to the Securities and Exchange Commission in compensation. ! ❖ Globalisation and marketisation have also increased the opportunities for various types of crime based directly upon growth of market, consumer societies, for example insurance fraud by claimants and salespeople.
  • ❖ The growth of the EU has, according to Taylor, provided an enormous scope for defrauding the EU of money by making false claims for various subsidies. Taylor states that the EU loses some $7 billion per year due to fraud.! ❖ The failure to clamp down on this, he argues, has encouraged others to try their luck. While such crimes may not be ‘sexy’ and fail to attract too much media attention, they are still crimes. Ultimately the money lost to fraud should have gone to good causes within the EU. So while the crime is painless, it still can have a marked impact on society.
  • ❖ Other crimes related to the changing nature of employment and unemployment. Taylor (1998) identified a fundamental shift in employment patterns in capitalist societies. Both mass manufacturing and public sector employment areas have experienced substantial job losses. At present there is little prospect of anything like a return to full employment in some regions of G20 nations. Taylor noted that the latest economic thinking suggests Britain could enjoy economic growth of 3% a year without any increase in employment opportunities.! ❖ Currently the UK is gradually moving out of recession, but many people do not seem to benefit. Those with modern and technical skills will be in a position to do better during the economic gloom. Those with dated skills may find it difficult – and some say – impossible to get back into the jobs market at a level they previously had. Another issue is that multi-national corporations are going through a phase of moving out of the UK and setting up in countries where there is a cheaper and larger source of labour. Countries in Asia have benefitted from this but clearly the UK has suffered.
  • ❖ Taylor describes that areas most affected by unemployment suffer ‘the massively destructive effects that this joblessness clearly has had on the self-respect of individuals and communities’. ! ❖ Areas blighted by unemployment have little hope of major improvement, and the longer that high levels of unemployment last, the greater the cumulative effects.! ❖ Taylor believes that the lack of opportunity and hope leads some to turn to crime.
  • Conclusion ❖ The activities of transnational companies illustrate a lack of global control by national governments and agencies such as the UN.! ❖ Quite simply, there is no international law in place to regulate the activities of such organisations, despite their blatant and consistent infringement of human rights.! ❖ Globalisation also results in opportunities for cross-border crime e.g. illegal arms dealing, computer fraud, drug trafficking.! ❖ Globalisation increases the possibility of white-collar crime because of more open borders and the internet.! ❖ Violence is also taking on a global dimension.
  • Essay Question Assess the impact of globalisation on patterns and types of crime and deviance.! (21 marks)