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  • 1. Green Crime Unit 4 – Crime and Deviance
  • 2. Objectives To understand and explore the impact of environmental crime within sociology To explore different theoretical considerations of environmental crime 2
  • 3. Green issues are vital for the survival of the planet and humans. Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Starter Task: On your post it note write your name, then then place your post on the line indicating whether you think green issues are vital . What gives crime a global dimension? Give yourself a rank when it comes to being ‘green’. 1=not green at all to 10 super green.
  • 4. Video Overview of Green Crime http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3yP9sZJKvmU 4
  • 5. Green Crime Green crime is defined by Nigel South as „Crime against the environment’. It is linked to Globalisation and the idea of transnational boundaries Regardless of the division of nation – states, the planet is one unified ecosystem which is global rather than local. Therefore, Green Crime goes beyond political boarders. 5
  • 6. Green crime and Global Risk Ulrich Beck (1992) argues that society today is a Global Risk Society. This means that risks in the modern era are „man-made‟ or „manufactured risks‟, and so we cannot predict the consequences to these, e.g., global warming, flooding etc. This links in with the idea that individuals have adopted „Risk Consciousness’. Green crime is therefore on the socio-political agenda. 6
  • 7. TPS  Give some examples of the ‘man made’ or manufactured risks that are risking the planet. . 7
  • 8. TPS  Air pollution  Deforestation  Species extinction  Water pollution  Dumping of hazardous waste  Fly tipping  Bush fires 8
  • 9. 9
  • 10. Garbage Island:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SJ_mkE yOWcI 10
  • 11. The two Green Criminologies - Traditional Traditional green criminology focuses on Green Crime which has by definition broken environmental law. They are interested with regulations concerning the environment. For example, sociologists such as Situ and Emmons (2000) define environmental crime as “an unauthorised act or omission that violates the law”. It investigates the patterns and causes of law breaking. These sociologists are holistic/structuralist sociologists and positivists in methodology. 11
  • 12. The two Green Criminologies Contemporary Contemporary green criminology (CGC) is more concerned with the idea of harm rather than criminal law. They are interested in zemiology. (The study of social harms). Rob White (2008) argues that „proper‟ criminology is about action which is deviant or harmful and which does not necessarily break the law. For this reason, Contemporary Green criminology is known as Transgressive Criminology. It crosses the boundaries between lawbreaking and new issues of harm. 12
  • 13. The Two Green Criminologies Contemporary For these theorists, because criminal law is relative to each country, the same harmful environmental action may not be a crime in one country to the next. Legal definitions cannot provide a consistent standardisation of the harm. Definitions of green crime are tangled in political processes. Contemporary Green Criminologists have developed a global perspective on environmental harm. These sociologists are cultural sociologists. 13
  • 14. Types of Green Crimes Air pollution Deforestation Primary Species decline/Animal rights Types of green crimes Water pollution Secondary Hazardous waste and organised crime 14
  • 15. Primary Crimes: Are „Those crimes where the environment itself is damaged‟. South defines them as… 1. Crimes of Air Pollution: Burning fossil fuels from industry and transport adds 3 billion tons of Carbon to the atmosphere every year 2. Crimes of deforestation: 3. Crimes of Species Decline and Animal Rights:50 species a day are becoming extinct, and 46% of Between 1960 and 1990, one fifth of the world‟s tropical rainforests was destroyed, for example through illegal logging mammals and 11% of bird species are at risk. 4. Crimes of Water Pollution: Half a billion people lack access to drinking water and 25 million die annually from drinking contaminated water. 15
  • 16. Transnational organisations Transnational corporations adopt an anthropocentric view of environmental harm. This means that humans have the right to dominate nature for their own ends. Economic growth comes before the environment. Transnational organisations sell toxic waste to developing nations to dispose of, contributing to ecopoverty. Eco-Mafia also deal with toxic waste. 16
  • 17. Transnational organisations: Trafigura  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQWaG w0d1zo 17
  • 18. Secondary Crimes: Are „Are crimes that come out of conflicts between humans and the environment but are not defined as the harm to the environment. ’ South suggests two example of them as… 1. State Violence against oppositional Groups: States condemn terrorism, but they have been prepared to resort to similar illegal methods themselves. For example in 1985 the French secret police blew up a Greenpeace Rainbow Warrior ship in Auckland Harbour, New Zealand, killing one member of the crew. 2. Hazardous Waste and Organised Crime:. Disposal of toxic waste from the chemical, nuclear and other industries is highly profitable. Because of the high costs of safe and legal disposal, businesses may seek to dispose of such waste illegally. 18
  • 19. The Development of Legislation      A major part of criminology is concerned with the study of lawmaking – criminalisation. Most industrialised countries, health statutes and criminal laws usually date from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Prior to the 1970s there was little legislation – it only occurred when death rates increased because of such an issue. The issue was brought into the limelight by The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in 1972. Since then there has been an enhanced awareness of green issues and with this conferences such as The Earth Summit held at Rio in 1992 and Earth Summit 2 in New York in 1997 and Rio Earth Summit 2012. 19
  • 20. Green Crime and Social Exclusion An important aspect of green crimes – as with so many crimes – is their link to inequalities. Indeed, we can speak of environmental racism as the pattern by which environmental hazards are perceived to be greatest in proximity to poor people, and especially those belonging to minorities. For example, while many homes in rich countries can consume more than 2,000 litres of good-quality water every day, some 500 million people around the globe suffer from an almost total lack of drinking water. The World Health Organisation suggests a basic requirement of 150 litres per day per household. 20
  • 21. Theory and Green Crime: 21
  • 22. Marxism and Green Crime Marxism focuses on green crime as an act of power. The ruling class shape and define the law to benefit their own exploitative interests on the environment. Such laws benefit transnational corporations. White-collar crime is uneasily detected, esp. if in developing nations. Green crime is focused on a smaller scale to detract from large organisations. 22
  • 23. Eco-Feminism Eco-feminists believe in an eco-centric view that humans, and particularly women are interdependent with the environment. Environmental harm hurts humans too. Both the environment and humans are liable to exploitation, particularly by global capitalism. Eco-feminists believe that the earth is oppressed and exploited in the way women face patriarchy. Men are to blame for environmental harm. Women do not harm the earth due to their „natural‟ and maternal instincts. 23
  • 24. An Evaluation of Green Criminology Strengths It recognises the growing importance of environmental issues and the need to address the harms and risks of environmental damage, both to humans and non human animals. . 24
  • 25. An Evaluation of Green Criminology Weaknesses However, by focusing on the much broader concern of harms rather than simply on legally defined crimes, it is hard to define the boundaries of its field of study clearly. Defining these boundaries involves making moral judgements about which actions should be regarded as wrong. Critics argue that this is a matter of values and cannot be established objectively. 25
  • 26. Plenary Draw a diagram or a picture to explain what you have learnt on Green Crime. 26
  • 27. Homework Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess different Marxist views of the relationship between crime and social class. (21 marks) You will find this essay in The Marxist Perspective on Crime with an exemplar to help you on your way! This will be due in on Monday 10th February. 27