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  • 2. Liberty When an individual has the right to behave according to one’s own personal responsibility & free will
  • 3. LIBERALISM • Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defence of individual liberty as the purpose of government. • It typically favours the right to dissent from orthodox tenets or established authorities in political or religious matters. In this respect, it is sometimes held in contrast to conservatism. • Since liberalism also focuses on the ability of individuals to structure a society, it is almost always opposed to totalitarianism, and often to collectivist ideologies, particularly communism.
  • 4. ORIGINS OF LIBERAL IDEOLOGY • The origins of liberalism in the Enlightenment era contrasted this philosophy to feudalism and mercantilism. • Later, as more radical philosophies articulated themselves in the course of the French Revolution and through the nineteenth century, liberalism equally defined itself in contrast to socialism and communism, • Although some adherents of liberalism sympathize with some of the aims and methods of social democracy.
  • 6. PRINCIPALS OF LIBERALISM • • • • • • • • • • • Stress on individual liberty Tolerance Equal rights and protection of rights Strong constitutional controls on government Equality of opportunity Social justice Welfare state Removal of artificial privilege Anti discrimination Stress on democratic values Separation of Church & State
  • 8. CLASSICAL LIBERALISM • Idea of Limited government and HIGH Liberty of individuals – Freedom of religion, press, speech, etc. Free Markets, more referendums & reforms. • Power to the people (self-reliant) • Government is always in danger of becoming a tyranny so it should be limited
  • 9. SOCIAL/MODERN LIBERALISM • Liberty of individuals has created inequalities. Therefore, government intervention is required and its role is to address unemployment, health care & education • The state should ‘help individuals to help themselves’ Neo Liberalism
  • 10. NEO LIBERALISM • Against Social/Modern Liberalism – Late 20th Century – Thought that government had too much control = reduction in government & provision of services • Government continued to provide social services and retained control over economic policy Liberal International
  • 11. LIBERAL INTERNATIONAL • The main international organisation of Liberal Parties • Emphasis on: Human Rights, free & fair elections, multiparty democracies, social justice, tolerance, social market economies, free trade, environmental sustainability and a strong sense of international solidarity
  • 12. SOCIAL LIBERALS VS. MARKET LIBERALS • Both believe in Basic Human Rights & Political Freedoms BUT, Social Liberals see that the state should provide economic and social rights to the citizen whereas Market Liberals see the economy as a free market and there should be freedom in that sense
  • 13. DISCUSSION • Are there any liberal principles which are seriously contested in current UK politics?
  • 14. CONCLUSION • Liberal principles may be held, to a greater or lesser agree, by political figures who hold otherwise socialistic or conservative views. In other words, liberalism is not confined to the Liberal Democrat Party
  • 15. THE ENLIGHTENMENT • Was an intellectual movement in 18th-century Europe. The goal of the Enlightenment was to establish an authoritative ethics, aesthetics, and knowledge based on an "enlightened" rationality. • The movement's leaders viewed themselves as a courageous, elite body of intellectuals who were leading the world toward progress, out of a long period of irrationality, superstition, and tyranny which began during a historical period they called the Dark Ages. • This movement provided a framework for the American and French Revolutions, as well as the rise of capitalism and the birth of socialism