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  • 1. SCLY1 FAMILIES & HOUSEHOLDS BOOKLET Name: Progress sheet 1
  • 2. Subject ______________________________ Name: ________________________________________ Form: ___________ PI: ____________ Date Target (e.g. for UCAS if different from PI): ___________ Piece of work (e.g. essay, homework, test in class) – include a brief description of what the work was about Mark or grade Colour code* * Use colours to indicate progress: Green = above target/an excellent piece of work Orange = on target/ good work Red = below target/room for improvement 2
  • 3. SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Candidates will be expected to: • acquire knowledge and a critical understanding of contemporary social processes and social changes • appreciate the significance of theoretical and conceptual issues in sociological debate • understand and evaluate sociological methodology and a range of research methods through active involvement in the research process • develop skills that enable individuals to focus on their personal identity, roles and responsibilities within society Unit 1 – SCLY1 Culture and Identity; Families and Households; Wealth, Poverty and Welfare 40% of AS, 20% of A Level Written paper, 1 hour 60 marks Candidates choose one topic from three and answer five questions. Content Outline Families and Households 1. The relationship of the family to the social structure and social change, with particular reference to the economy and to state policies. 2. Changing patterns of marriage, cohabitation, separation, divorce, child‑bearing and the life course, and the diversity of contemporary family and household structures. 3. The nature and extent of changes within the family, with reference to gender roles, domestic labour and power relationships. 4. The nature of childhood, and changes in the status of children in the family and society. 5. Demographic trends in the UK since 1900; reasons for changes in birth rates, death rates and family size. 3
  • 4. Topic/ subtopics I have got notes on Revised Topic 1: Gender Roles Theoretical perspectives (Functionalist, Feminist, New Right and others) The Domestic division of labour Decision Making The dark side of the family Topic 2: Childhood The Social Construction of Childhood Children and (paid) work The rights and responsibilities of children today Topic 3: Social Change (role of the family) Functionalism Marxism Feminism Foucault The New Right Postmodernism (Beck, Giddens) Topic 4: Demographic Changes Birth Rates Death Rates Migration Family Size Topic 5: Changing Patterns in the family Marriage Cohabitation Separation & Divorce Child Bearing Life Course Topic 6: Family Diversity Modernism (The New Right)see above Postmodernity (Beck, Giddens) see above The Rappoports (five types of diversity)& Chester For/ against family diversity Topic 7: Social Policy & the Family Abolishing the Family China’s one child policy Nazi Family Policy Theoretical views on policy The Policing of families (Donzelot 1977) 4
  • 5. FAMILY KEY TERMS Age: The biological basis for age groups, age describes the journey between birth and death in years. Ascribed Status: as: a social position fixed by birth, a position that cannot be changed by one’s own efforts Authority: The possession of power which is seen as legitimate by those whom it is wielded. Beanpole Family: Term used to describe the modern day family where people have fewer children, but are at the same time living longer, family trees are becoming longer and thinner - sometimes extending to four generations. Birth Rate: The ratio of total live births to total population in a specified community or area over a specified period of time. The birth rate is often expressed as the number of live births per 1,000 of the population per year. Cereal-packet family: Term associated with Edmund Leach to describe the romantic image of the traditional two-parent family featured on the back of corn flake packets in the 1960s. Child centeredness: A family in which much activity and emotional energy is focused on the children, rather than adult desires. Confluent Love: Active and causal love rather than ‘forever’ notions of romantic love. Cohabitation: A situation where a couple lives together as man and wife without being legally married. Commercialisation of Childhood: Where children are targeted as a key consumer group by big business. Companionate: Term used to describe the jointness of couples, not only in terms of the tasks they perform, but equally in their leisure activities too. Conjugal Roles: The roles played between husband and wife within a marriage with particular reference to the domestic division of labour. Elizabeth Bott argues that there are two types’ segregated and joint roles. Civil Partnership Act 2004: Gave same-sex couples rights and responsibilities identical to civil marriage. Civil partners are entitled to the same property rights as married opposite-sex couples, the same exemption as married couples on inheritance tax, social security and pension benefits, and also the ability to get parental responsibility for a partner's children. 'Dark-side' of the family: Term used to challenge the romantic view of the family by perspectives such as feminists and Radical Psychiatrists. They highlight the extent of conflict and violence in families. Death (Mortality) Rate: The number of deaths per thousand of the population per year. Dependency ratio: The ratio within the population of those under 15 and over 65 to those between those years, i.e. of working age. 5
  • 6. Divorce: The legal termination of a marriage. Divorce Rate: A statistical measure of the number of divorces, usually expressed as the number of divorces in any one year per 1000 married couples in the population. Divorce Reform Act, 1971: Introduced the concept of 'no-fault' divorce. There was a significant growth in divorce after this Act became effective in 1971. Divorce Reform Act, 1984: The amount of time before application for divorce can be made was reduced. Dual Burden: Is when a women has the responsibly of unpaid work and paid work Empty-shell marriage: Term given to marriage where love and romance have long-gone and couples stay together either because divorce is not an option (say for religious reasons) or they simply cannot make the effort to separate. Expressive Role: Term associated with Dunscombe and Marsden literally means the housewife providing the warmth, security and emotional nurturing support. Extended Family: Is one where the nuclear family has been added to, or extended, either vertically (i.e. with grandparents, parent and children) or horizontally (i.e. with two or more brothers/sisters living with their respective spouses and children). False Consciousness: Used by Marxists to mean ways of thinking which are the product not of real material conditions the thinker inhabits, but of the ideological forces of other groups. Family: Two or more generations of people tied together through blood, marriage or adoption. Anthony Giddens adds how adult members are assumed to have a responsibility for caring for children. Family diversity: A term used to describe the differing forms of family organisation typical of modern Britain 'Family paths': Term associated with Jon Bernardes to illustrate the highly varied and individual experiences people have within families according to age, gender, etc. Fertility rate: Is the average number of children women will have between the ages of 15 and 44. 'fit', Thesis: Another name for evolutionary theory suggesting that the family changed from extended to nuclear to provide a functional fit to the new industrial society that benefited from smaller more mobile families. Gender: Used by sociologists to describe the cultural and social attributes of men and women, which are manifested in appropriate masculinity and femininity. Gender Division of Labour: Husbands and wives have different roles/tasks. Household: A group of people not necessarily related who share accommodation (or meals, chores, bills etc), or one person living alone. 6
  • 7. Hierarchy: A central concept of stratification, signifying the ordering of social positions in a structure of superiority and inferiority. Most hierarchies can be depicted as a triangle, with fewer superior positions at the top of the hierarchy than subordinate positions at the bottom. Joint Conjugal Roles: Husband and wife share roles, tasks and/or leisure; Individualisation: Phrase coined by David Popenoe which suggests that we place an emphasis on self-fulfilment rather than collective goals. Infant Mortality Rate: The number of deaths in a population of infants under one years of age per thousand births. Lone parent families: Families consisting of a dependent child or children living with one parent, usually the mother (9/10). March of progress theory: Collective name for social theorists, usually of the functionalist perspective, who see the family evolving and adapting in a progressive way to fit the changing needs of wider society. Marriage: A legal contract between two people of opposing sexes offering rights and obligations under law. Marriage Rate: Is the number of marriages occurring among the population of a given area per year, per 1,000 total population. Net Migration: the difference between the numbers emigrating and those immigrating. Neo Conventional Family: According to Chester this family has partners who both work and may not be married. However, it is more symmetrical and happier. Patriarchy: A form of society in which males are the rulers and leaders and exercise power, both at the level of society as a whole and within individual households. Primary Socialisation: Instilling basic skills and values in young children. Reconstituted Family: Such as step-family. Secularisation: As the process in which religious thinking, practices and organisations lose their social significance. Segregated Gender Roles: Husband and wife have a clear-cut division of labour. Serial Monogamy: Having several marriage partners/long term relationships over the course of one’s life, one at a time. Social Construction: Created by society and/or by social attitudes. Stabilisation of the adult personality: According to Parsons the family plays a key role in supporting its members emotionally. 7
  • 8. Structurally isolated: The idea that the nuclear family is not obligated to or is independent of the extended family. Symmetrical Family: Term coined by Willmott and Young that indicates that roles are shared more or less evenly within the family, even though they may be gender segregated. Triple Shift: This is paid work, housework and the emotional role. Urbanisation: The growth of cities, or the movement of population off the land into towns. Space to add in your own: Key Term Definition 8
  • 9. TYPES OFFAMILY Fill out the description of each type of family and give your own example of each. 9
  • 10. GENDER ROLES The domestic division of labour What is the cost of domestic labour? The instrumental role An example of this: Parsons [1955] The expressive role An example of this: 1. What benefits do you think Parsons imagines with this view? 2. Can you think of any criticisms of this approach? 10
  • 11. Use the pictures below to describe several criticisms of Parsons theory. Picture Criticism of Parsons 11
  • 12. Elizabeth Bott [1957] Elizabeth Bott distinguishes between two types of conjugal roles (the roles carried out by men and women in the home) Describe each type of roles below. Role Description Example Segregated conjugal roles Joint conjugal roles  Which of these types of roles reflects the way you family’s jobs are divided up?  Explain why.  Which of these do you think reflects most households in the UK today? Why? Can you think of any families this might not apply to? 12
  • 13. The March of Progress Young and Willmott (1973) Complete the gap fill using your knowledge. What? Young and Willmott (1973) studied _________ and households. Where? They completed their research in London. What did they find? They found that the symmetrical family was more common among younger couples, those who are geographically and socially isolated, and the more affluent. For example the couples that had moved away from Bethnal Green and were living at a ___________ from their workmates and extended family were more likely to have a __________ relationship. What did they conclude? Young and Willmott saw the rise of the ________ family as the result of major social changes that have taken place during the past century; Changes in women’s _________ Geographical ___________ New technology Higher ___________ of living They see family ____ as gradually _________ for all of its members, becoming more _______ and democratic. They argue that there has been a long term trend away from ____________ conjugal roles and towards _______ conjugal roles and the ____________ family. 13
  • 14. Oakley: The rise of the housewife role Rather than seeing a march of progress towards symmetry since the 19th century Oakley describes how the housewife role has become the dominant role for married women. Although women had initially been part of the industrial labour force they were gradually excluded from the workplace and confined to the home with sole responsibility for housework and childcare. Men and women remain unequal within the family and women do most of the housework. The fact that men are seen as ‘helping’ women more does not prove symmetry. It shows that the responsibility of housework is still the woman’s. Even though more women work, the housewife role is still the women’s primary role Research findings:  15% of husbands had a high level of participation in housework  25% high level in childcare (but only in the more pleasurable aspects)  Men take on the more pleasurable household tasks Write a paragraph using Oakley’s research and findings to criticise Young and Wilmott’s march of progress ideas: __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 14
  • 15. The impact of paid work Today three quarters of married of cohabiting women in the UK are economically active. Sociologists are interested in whether this move will prompt more households to have an equal division of domestic labour. Gershuny What were his 3 findings: What did he find despite the fact men are doing more housework? Commercialisation of housework Lesbian couples & gender scripts What is a gender script? Compared with heterosexual wome lesbian women are more likely to: What are the 2 major economic developments that have reduced the burden on women? What dos this tell us about hoework and roles? What do critics argue about this? The dual burden Emotion work What is emotion work? What is a dual burden? How does this apply to the family Even when a woman works what is there little evidence of accoding to research 15
  • 16. Resources & decision making in households Pahl&Vogler (1993) They identified two main types of control over family income: Pooling. Where both partners have access to income & joint responsibility for expenditure. Allowance system. Where men give their wives an allowance. Pooling is on the increase according to Pahl and Vogler. Edgell (1980) Edgell studied professional couples and found that… Very important decisions were either taken by the husband or jointly but the husband had the final say. Important decisions (such as holidays) were taken jointly but rarely by the woman alone. Less important decisions were taken by the wife. Decision making in households Conclusions Complete the sentences… Hardill (1997) Study of 30 dual career professional couples. The important decisions were either taken by the man alone or jointly. The mans career took priority when deciding whether to move house for a new job. •Feminists argue that inequalities in decision making are not just because… •In patriarchal society the cultural definition of men as decision makers… •This is instilled into men and women through… •Until this is challenged decision making will … 16
  • 17. Kempson (1994) Barrett & McIntosh (1991) Women in low income families often denied their own needs to make ends meet. Men gain far more from women’s domestic support than they give in financial support. Financial support often comes with strings attached. Men make the decisions on spending. Resources in households Graham (1984) Over half the women living on benefits after splitting up with their husband said they were better off. They found benefits a more reliable source of income. Conclusion Fill in the sentences •In many households a women has no entitlement … •Even in households with apparently adequate incomes… 17
  • 18. Domestic violence research 1. You will have a lesson to create an informative leaflet with information on relating to domestic violence. 2.You will need to complete research in order to do this, using ICT. 2. Some of the things you may think about researching are: * Number of victims. * Effects of domestic violence. * What is provided to help sufferers of domestic violence? 18
  • 19. Domestic violence research Source Findings Conclusions Dobash&Dbash Official statistics Radical Feminism Wilkinson: domestic violence, inequality and stress 19
  • 20. CHILDHOOD Childhood as a social construct What sort of experiences do we expect children in the UK to have? Use the pictures to help you. Childhood in the UK: Social construct: Differences in childhood Cultural Historical 20
  • 21. Has the position of children improved? Conflictview 21
  • 22. Either using examples from your own childhood or a child you know fill in the following boxes… Write any examples you can think of where children are restricted from going in a particular space/area… E.g. Children being told they are not allowed to play in a particular area. Write and examples you can think of where children’s time is controlled by an adult… E.g. Having a specific bed time. Write any examples you can think of where children are told what to do with their bodies… E.g. Not picking their nose. Write any examples you can think of where children’s resources are controlled by an adult… E.g. Pocket money. 22
  • 23. The future of childhood The dissapearence of childhood A seperate childhood culture The globalisation of western childhood 23
  • 24. Read the articles below and decide whether they are linked to either the; disappearance of childhood, a separate childhood culture or the globalisation of western childhood. Living dolls: inside the world of child beauty pageants They parade in miniature ballgowns, wear false eyelashes and can be as young as five… We venture into the world of mini beauty pageants to meet the young princesses and their pushy parents “New research reveals children still prefer playing outdoors to electronic consoles and tablets” “it’s their time to play… it’s their time to learn… Stop child labour!” 24
  • 25. Criticisms that Postman has overstated the case Infant mortality rate decreasing Childhood across cultures Childhood in pre-industrial times Aries Stanton-Rogers’ images of children: Wicked or innocent Nick Lee – the blurring of childhood and adulthood Examine the reasons for changes in the position of children in society or the family (24 marks) Prevention of cruelty act (1889), Childhood in industrial times Children’s Act (1989) Validity of Aries’ content analysis Boden et al. research The raising of the school leaving age Differences in childhood between UK, Inuit, Malaysian cultures Postman – The disappearance of childhood 25
  • 26. PERSPECTIVES Functionalism See how much of the gap fill activity you can complete from your previous knowledge of Functionalism but in relation to education. Functionalist theories of society are based on the assumption that society operates on the basis of ____________ (agreement) and that there is a tendency towards _______________ (balance) between the various parts of society so that they work together harmoniously. Functionalists tend to assume that if a social _____________exists then it must have a function or purpose. The family is therefore often examined in terms of the functions it performs for the ______________ of society and the individual. Murdock’s analysis of the universal functions of the family is a good example of this approach, with its emphasis on the essential functions of the family. Functionalists often see society as similar to a machine or an ___________, with many different parts contributing to the smooth running of the _____________. Functionalist theories therefore stress the __________ between the ______________ and other social institutions. For example, the family prepares _____________ to become adult workers and take on ___________ in the economy to support themselves and their. In this way the family system and the ______________system are linked. economic benefit consensus organism children equilibrium family interrelationship dependents roles institution whole 26
  • 27. The Nature and Role of the Family: Functionalism Overall Functionalists see institutions in society to be essential in maintaining social cohesion and social order, and the family is one of those institutions. Murdock (1949) Murdock carried out a study of 250 societies of different cultures and discovered that some form of nuclear family exists in every society. Murdock came to the conclusion that the family provides the following four functions: Name of Function The Function Murdock’s Conclusion: Parsons (1950’s) Parsons, another functionalist sociologist, claimed that the family provides two vital functions, these are: Name of Function The Function 27
  • 28. Criticisms of Functionalist Theory Functionalists are criticised for ignoring the negative aspects the family can bring such as child abuse, neglect and violence. Marxist Feminists would argue that women end up staying at home being a housewife and not getting paid for this. Some parents fail to bring up their children to make them socially acceptable and they may be bad role models for the young. Task: In the bow below draw a sketch of the view functionalists hold of the family. 28
  • 29. Marxism 1) Draw an image which you think best sums up capitalism: Marxists identify three functions that they see the family fulfilling for capitalism: Inheritance of property Ideological functions A unit of consumption 2) According to Engels, monogamy became essential because of the inheritance of private property. Do you think that this is the only reason for monogamy? Explain your view: 3) In what ways can it be argued that the family socialise children into the idea that hierarchy and inequality are inevitable. 29
  • 30. 4) Do you agree that the rise of the monogamous nuclear family has turned women into ‘a mere instrument for the production of children’? Explain your answer: 5) There are several criticisms of the Marxist perspective, complete the table below explaining why Feminists and Functionalists criticise Marxism: Feminists criticise Marxism because... Functionalists criticise Marxism because... 6) Which of the following statements about the family would Marxists likely believe to be true and which would they believe to be false? 30
  • 31. True False It fulfils the needs of its individual members It provides consumers to buy goods It is important in socialising children It allows women to have equal roles to men It provides a ‘haven’ from the harsh world of capitalism Marxism Vs Functionalism Perspectives on the family Which of the following statements about the family are likely to be put forward by (a) a functionalist (b) a Marxists (c) both? 1. It fulfils the needs of its individual members Answer…… 2. It is important in socialising children Answer……. 3. Its structure is determined by economic factors Answer…….. 4. It provides consumers to buy goods Answer……… 5. It provides a ‘safety valve’ away from work Answer……… 6. It fulfils its functions for society Answer………. 7. It is universal and necessary everywhere Answer………. 8. It has an important reproductive role Answer……… 9. It keeps women under patriarchal control Answer……… 10. It performs its functions for capitalism Answer……… 31
  • 32. Feminism Feminism is a broad term covering several different types. Each of these approaches the family in a different way and offers different solutions to the problem of gender inequality. 1) According to liberal feminists such as Jenny Somerville (2000) women’s oppression is being gradually overcome, what evidence is there of this? 2) Marxist feminists argue that the main cause of women’s oppression is capitalism. They believe that women’s oppression performs several functions for capitalism. Explain in detail what each of these functions involves: 32
  • 33. Women reproduce the labour force Women absorb anger Women are a ‘reserve army’ of cheap labour 3) Give examples of how a radical feminist might argue that society is patriarchal. 4) How does each type of feminism claim that women’s oppression can be overcome? Type of feminism How can oppression be removed? Liberal feminism Marxist feminism Radical feminism 33
  • 34. 6) Why does Jenny Somerville (2000) argue that separatism is unlikely to work? 7) How do black feminists view the family? 34
  • 35. The New Right The New Right is a political movement established in the 1980’s. It is a theory which seeks to directly influence government policies (laws). The New Right focused its policies around MORALITY and a return to more traditional norms and values. They believed that the decline in moral values was leading to a breakdown in social cohesion (society was falling apart!) The New Right clashes most with Feminism: They have very different ideas about the rise of the single parent family in society. Feminists view the single parent family as a symbol of female empowerment but the New Right view single parents as everything that is wrong with society. The New Right attack on lone mothers The New Right argues that (never married) lone mothers who are reliant upon the government for financial aid bear a strong responsibility for helping to undermine the values of society. In particular, they argue that children are harmed because there is no father to provide financial support and to help socialise the child into the normal values of society. Furthermore, the reliance upon state aid means that the traditional responsibilities of the male have been taken away. This had led to a generation of young men in inner cities and large-scale social housing developments who have no responsibilities and who are therefore more likely to turn to anti-social behaviour. With no family to support and the availability of social security payments, they see no need to work. Similarly, the mothers have no incentive to work as they too receive government support and very often receive priority for housing. Some writers have suggested that this has helped form an underclass of people who simply do not want to work, and who bring up their children to think in the same way. Lone parents: a moral debate Since the 1990s there has been very considerable debate over the effects of lone-parent families on society. There are two quite distinct approaches to the lone-parent family • One approach is associated with the academic and political movement of the New Right. These writers are very critical of the growth of one type of lone-parent family – where the mother has never married – and argue that it has been directly responsible for a range of social problems. Never married mothers are seen as a good example of people who have chosen to make themselves unemployable by their own actions. • On the other hand, feminist writers have leapt to the defence of lone mothers. Feminists defend the lone-parent family by pointing out that: The huge majority of lone mothers (92 per cent) claim not to have become pregnant deliberately and it is an unforgiving society which punishes them and their children by refusing to give them state benefits. Also, for many young women, the lone-parent family was more likely to provide safety and security than the two-parent household, given rates of violence and abuse by partners 35
  • 36. Definition: New Right – A political and academic approach to understanding society which stresses that the government (which is paid for by hard-working tax payers) should not have to support people who have through their own decisions either chosen not to work or made themselves unemployable Definition: Feminist approach to sociology – a perspective which argues that much traditional sociology is the study of society from a man’s point of view and by looking at it from a woman’s viewpoint a whole range of findings of traditional sociology are brought into question, and a set of new questions also emerge Question – Write an answer in full sentences The New Right perspective emphasises the idea that lone-parent families are a burden upon society. Should the government look after them by taxing other people? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Complete the following short exam style questions: 1. Define Feminism (2 marks) 2. Define New Right (2 marks) 3. Suggest 2 reasons why the New Right condemn single parent families. (4 marks) 36
  • 37. Postmodernism Postmodernists argue that society has entered a new historical period. In traditional society or what is called modernity there was a clear order and pattern to social life. For example, the identity a person had was determined by their social class and gender. However, in a postmodern society individuals have become much freer to choose the lifestyle that meets their needs. Faced with many choices families have become more diverse but relationships have become more unstable. Beck Ulrich Beck (1992) argues that a new type of family has replaced the traditional nuclear family. Beck calls this new type the ‘negotiated family’. Negotiated families do not conform to the traditional family norm, but decide what is best for themselves by negotiation. They enter the relationship on an equal basis and are free to leave if their needs are not meet. For example, people were expected to marry. Once married, men were expected to play the role of breadwinner, whilst women took responsibility for the housework and childcare. Extract from Webb et al „AS Level Sociology‟ (2008) p76 Thinking Point 1 Identify three ways in which ‘negotiated families’ differ from ‘traditional nuclear families’. 37
  • 38. Modernity (1800 -1950) Postmodernity (post-1960) Traditional families Negotiated families 1. Marriage for life 2. Separate gender roles within the family a. b. Stacey Judith Stacey argues that economic, technological and social changes have enabled 3. Heterosexual relationships c. women to free themselves from the traditional nuclear family. Many of the women she interviewed in Silicon Valley, California had rejected the traditional housewife-mother role. They had worked, returned to education as adults, improved their job prospects, divorced and remarried. These women had often created new types of family that better suited their needs. Extract from Webb et al „AS Level Sociology‟ (2008) p77 38
  • 39. Thinking Point 2 Identify threechanges that have enabled women to “free themselves from the narrow limits of the traditional nuclear family”. a. b. c. Hareven Tamara Hareven (1978) uses the concept of the life course to argue that family diversity is the result of the freedom of choice individuals haveabout how to change their living arrangements over the span of their lives.As Hareven argues; “there is flexibility and variation in people‟s family lives – in the choices and decisions they make, and in the timing and sequence of the events and turning points in their lives.” Extract from Webb et al „AS Level Sociology‟ (2008) p74 39
  • 40. Thinking Point 3 Identify three „branching points‟ where during the course of your lifetime you have to make a decision about the type of family life that best suits your needs. a. b. c. Giddens Giddens argues that in recent decades the family and marriage have been transformed by greater choice and a more equal relationship between man and women. Thinking point 4 Identify three reasons why this transformation has occurred. a. b. c. 40
  • 41. DEMOGRAPHY This topic can be divided into three clear sections: 1. Birth rate 2. Death rate 3. Migration Study Figure 2.3 on page 48 of the book and answer the following questions: 1. When did the number of births per year in the UK first start to fall? 1. Identify the 3 periods during which the number of births showed steep rises. Can you suggest any reasons for a rise during these periods? 4. When did the UK experience the periods with low numbers of births? Can you suggest any reasons for this? 5. Suggest four reasons for the overall fall in the number of births in the UK shown in the graph. 6. What has happened to the number of deaths in the UK in the period shown in the graph? 6. Comparing births and deaths, when did the UK experience the periods of greatest population rise? 7. Why do you think the number of deaths is projected to rise by 2041? 8. Summarise in two sentences what has happened to births and deaths in the UK from 1901 to 2001. 41
  • 42. Group work task: Demography In groups you are going to prepare a presentation on one of the following: Births Deaths Migration Your presentation must include the following: A graph with an explanation of the information presented. Detailed descriptions of the reasons for that particular trend. Enough information for each of the students in the class (including yourselves) to complete the following tasks. Please use the textbooks to help you and make sure the presentation is aesthetically pleasing. 42
  • 43. Births: effects of China’s one child policy Read the following account of demographic changes in China: Patterns of fertility in China have been significantly affected in the last thirty years by several factors. In 1979 China introduced a strict family planning policy that allows most couples to have only one child. Without this policy the Chinese government says that the country’s population would have continued to grow at an alarming rate. However, one of the results of this policy is the gradual emergence of a gender imbalance. In China as a whole, there are 120 males born for every 100 females. In some provinces, the number of males rises to160. The typical average ratio worldwide is about 105 boys for every 100 girls. There are now 18 million more men than there are women of marriageable age and the numbers are still growing. The main reason for this imbalance lies in Chinese cultural traditions.When a woman married, she lived with, and worked for, her husband’s family. Therefore, male children were more valued, as they carried on the family line, earned money for the family and looked after their parents in old age. This is still particularly true for rural areas – baby girls are not a good investment! At first there were incidents of baby girls being abandoned, or sometimes even killed. Today many female foetuses are aborted. Modern ultrasound techniques can identify the sex of a foetus and this can then influence a decision about abortion. Although there are now laws to prevent doctors telling parents the sex of their unborn child, such sex-determined abortions are still occurring. The Chinese version of ‘Blind Date’ now attracts thousands of applicants from young men, who are willing to sing, dance and ridicule themselves for the chance of a date with a young woman. The status of older women as potential brides has improved and homosexuality has become more common. More worrying are the increase of kidnapping of women, sex trafficking from other Asian countries, and sexual crime by gangs of young men. In response, the government has introduced a propaganda campaign stressing the importance of girls. Now discuss each of the following questions: Explain how a range of different social, cultural and political influences have brought about this situation in China. Look back to the section on fertility (page 49) and identify which factors identified there are relevant in this case also. What policies do you think the Chinese government could use to ease the growing problem of gender imbalance? 43
  • 44. The ageing population Answer the following questions: 1.What are the earliest ages a person can claim a state pension at the moment? 2.What changes are going to take place and when? 3.What factor will determine the age at which you can claim your state pension? 4.What options will you have when you reach state pension age? The cost of bringing up children Study the extract below and complete the task that follows: In November 2006, the Liverpool Victoria Building Society estimated that the cost of raising a child from birth to the age of 21 now stands at £180000, and this cost has risen at a faster rate than property prices. They estimate that the first year of their child’s life will set parents back nearly £8000, but the teenage years work out the cheapest, with those aged 12-18 costing their parents less than £7000. The most expensive, however, are University years, costing almost double this figure, following the introduction of tuition fees. The average UK household will pay £16000 on their child’s food, £12000 on clothing, £11000 on holidays, £9000 on hobbies and toys and £5000 on pocket money. Explain what implications these facts might have for: a) family relationships b) patterns of childbirth c) the dependency ratio 44
  • 45. FAMILY PATTERNS We are now going to look at the following areas of the family and what patterns have emerged in the following: Divorce Partnerships Parents & children Ethnic differences The extended family The Rising Divorce Rate One of the most startling changes in the family in Britain in the last century has been the general and dramatic increase in the number of marriages ending in divorce, with similar trends found in many Western industrialized countries. The number of divorce rates rose from 27,000 in 1961 to around 167,000 by 2005; during the 1960s the number doubled, and then doubled again in the 1970s. Britain has one of the highest divorce rates (number of divorces per 1,000 married people per year) in the European Union. About 40% of new marriages today are likely to end in divorce, and, if present rates continue, more than one in four children will experience a parental divorce by the time they are 16. Try and mindmap as many reasons for the rising divorce rate as possible: Divorce Statistics 45
  • 46. Divorce statistics are presented in 3 main ways: The total number of divorce petitions per year (the number of people applying for a divorce but not necessarily actually getting divorced) The total number of decrees absolute granted per year (the number of divorces actually granted) The divorce rate (the number of divorces each year per thousand married people in the population) Divorce statistics must be treated with considerable caution, and assessed against changing legal, financial and social circumstances, if misleading conclusions about the declining importance of marriage and the family are to be avoided. The increase may simply reflect easier and cheaper divorce procedures enabling the legal termination of already unhappy ‘empty shell’ marriages (where marital relationship has broken down but no divorce has taken place) rather than a real increase in marriage breakdowns. It could be that people who in previous years could only separate are now divorcing as legal and financial obstacles are removed. Divorce statistics only show the legal termination of marriages. They do not show: The number of people who are separated but not divorced The number of people who live in ‘empty shell’ marriages – many couples may want to split up but are deterred from doing so by their roles as parents How many ‘unstable’ or ‘unhappy’ marriages existed before divorce was made easier by changes in the law and changing social attitudes towards divorce These points could mean either that divorce figures underestimate the extent of family and marriage breakdowns or that rising divorce rates only reflect legal changes and do not represent a real increase in marital instability. There are 2 broad reasons for the increase in the divorce rate: changes in society which have made divorce easier and cheaper to get; and changes in society which have made divorce a more practical and socially acceptable way of terminating a broken marriage. Policy or Law Description of what it did 46
  • 47. The Matrimonial Causes Act of 1857 The Matrimonial Causes Act of 1923 The Legal Aid and Advice Act of 1949 The Divorce Law Reform Act of 1969 The Matrimonial and Family Proceedings Act of 1984 The Family Law Act of 1996 Changes in the law as a reason for the rising divorce rate Find out about the following divorce laws which have occurred in the past century: Look over these Laws and suggest why they could account for the rising divorce rates Changes in society as a reason for the rising divorce rate 47
  • 48. Find out about the following changes in society which have occurred in the past century: Change in society The changing role of women Explain how it can cause rising divorce rates Rising expectations of marriage Functionalist writers such as Parsons and Fletcher argue that the divorce rate has risen because couples (especially women) expect and demand more in their relationships today than their parents or grandparents might have settled for. Love, companionship, understanding, sexual compatibility and personal fulfilment are more likely to be the main ingredients of a successful marriage today. The growing privatisation and isolation of the nuclear family from extended kin and the community have also meant that couples are more likely to spend more time together. The higher expectations mean couples are more likely to end a relationship which earlier generations might have tolerated. This functionalist approach suggests that higher divorce rates therefore reflect better quality marriages. This view of the higher expectations of marriage is reflected in the fairly high rate of remarriage among divorced people. In other words, families split up to re-form happier families. Growing secularization Changing social attitudes 48
  • 49. The greater availability of, and more effective, contraception The growth of the privatised nuclear family The greater availability of and more effective contraception has made it safer to have sex outside of the marital relationship, and with more than one person during marriage. This weakens traditional constraints on ‘fidelity’ to a marriage partner, and potentially exposes relationships to greater instability. The reduced functions of the family Increasing life expectancy Variations in divorce rates between social groups While divorce affects all groups in the population, there are some groups where divorce rates are higher than the average. Teenage marriages are twice as likely to end in divorce than those of couples overall, and there is a high incidence of divorce in the first five to seven years of marriage and after about ten to fourteen years (when the children are older or have left the home). The working class, particularly semi-skilled and unskilled, has a higher rate of divorce than the middle class. Childless couples and partners from different social class or religious backgrounds also face a higher risk of divorce, as do couples whose work separates them for long periods. The rising divorce rate therefore does not affect all groups of married people equally, and some face higher risks of divorce than others. 49
  • 50. Getting you thinking... 1. Suggest reasons why the following groups might be more ‘at risk’ of divorce than other groups in the population: Teenage marriages Childless couples Couples from different social class or religious backgrounds 2. Suggest reasons why women are more likely to apply for divorce than men Partnerships 50
  • 51. Some important changes over recent years to marriage:  Rate of marriage: Fewer people are marrying- marriage rates are at their lowest since the 1920’s.  Re-marriage: There are now more re-marriages. In 2005 4 out of 10 marriages were remarriages.  Age of marriage: People are marrying later the average age of first marriage has risen by 7 years since 1971.  Religion & marriage: Couples are less likely to marry in church. Below are several different reasons for the changes in marriage patterns, in the box write whether you think they relate to; marriage rates, re-marriage, age of marriage or religion and marriage. Changing attitudes to Secularisation: as the Declining stigma: there has marriage: churches influence declines been a decline in the stigma There is less pressure to because people are less attached to alternatives to marry and more freedom for religious in means people feel marriage cohabitation, staying individuals to choose the type less pressured to marry. single and having children of person they want to marry. outside of marriage is now much more acceptable Changes in the position of Fear of divorce: with the rising Secularisation: women: divorce rate some people may The decline of religion in Women now have much be worried about getting society. better career prospects. divorced so don’t get married. Cohabitation 51
  • 52. Cohabitation definition: What are the two patterns that have emerged in relation to cohabitation? 1. 2. Complete the following descriptions. Each is a reason for the increase in cohabitation. 1. The young… 2. Secularisation… 3. Decline in stigma of sex outside marriage… 4. Increased career opportunities for… Same-sex relationships & one-person households 52
  • 53. What does the following headline from the BBC suggest about same sex relationships and how they might be changing: Answer the following about same sex relationships: What percentage of the adult population today have same sex relationships? What evidence is there that there has been increased acceptance of same sex relationships? What is a ‘quasi marriage’ and who was this term developed by? What does Alan & Crow argue about the effect of legal frameworks? What does Cheal note about same sex relationships? One person households 53
  • 54. There has been a big rise in the number of people living alone. In 2006 almost three in ten households (6.8 million people) contained only one person- nearly three times the figure in 1961. List three reasons why you think this might be the case: 1. 2. 3. “Living apart together” This term was brought about by the research done by Duncan & Phillips and they found that about one in ten adults are “living apart together”. Describe what Duncan & Phillips mean by this term and what the public attitudes towards this is: Parents & Children 54
  • 55. We are now going to look at the three most significant changes in relation to parents and children. While we are discussing these, fill out the table below with explanations and reasons for why these changes have occurred. Change What changes have occurred? Reasons for the changes? Childbearing: Lone-parent families: Stepfamillies Ethnic differences in family patterns 55
  • 56. Immigration in Britain over the last sixty years has lead to greater ethnic diversity. Greater ethnic diversity has contributed to changing family patterns in the UK. Working in pairs, one of you will study and take notes on black families and diversity and the other will take notes on Asian families and diversity. You have five minutes to take notes and then five minutes each to relay the information back to your partner, no notes allowed! Please use the spaces below to complete your notes on each type of family. Black famillies (person 1) Asian famillies (person 2) The extended family today: does it exist? 56
  • 57. The key feature of a discussion is that at least two different points of view are represented. In a good discussion, each side makes its points clearly, and offers evidence to support its views. Here is an example: Cats are brilliant. They are intelligent pets and very loving to their owners. Everyone should have a cat. No they shouldn’t. Cats aren’t clever or loyal. They’re just selfish. They don’t love their owners; they just hang around to get fed. Dogs are better. . Dogs? They’re awful. They smell and they slobber everywhere. They’re way more stupid than cats. Cats can look after themselves That just proves my point. A cat doesn’t care if you’re around or not. It’s just freeloading off you. A dog shows loyalty because it depends on you. Now use this technique to discuss (evaluate) the existence of the extended family today. Match the counterarguments in the textbook to the most relevant criticism of the study to form a reasoned discussion: According to Functionalists such as Parsons the extended family has been replaced by the Nuclear family in modern society. For example Nickie Charles (2005)… However while the extended family may have declined it has not completely disappeared… Similarly… Overall… 57
  • 58. FAMILY DIVERSITY We are going to look at two opposing views on family diversity; Chester and the Rapoports. Chester: The neo-conventional family There has been increased family diversity, but not as significant as others make out. The extent and importance of family diversity is exaggerated Neo Conventional Family - A nuclear family but with a division of labour between the male and female Dual-earner family The nuclear family is still the family most people aspire to. Due to our life cycle, most people will still be part of a nuclear family at some point in their lives Age Family 0-10 Nikki is born and stays with both parents 11-13 Nikki’s parents divorce, she stays with mum 14-18 Mum re-marries who has a son of his own 18-21 Nikki shares a flat with students 22 -25 Nikki lives alone 25 -28 Nikki meets Pete and they live together 28 -48 They marry and have 3 kids 49 -78 Their children leave home 78 -88 Family Type Pete dies and Nikki lives in a retirement home 58
  • 59. As evidence of his view that little has changed Chester identifies a number of patterns. Fill them out below: 1. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 2. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 3. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 59
  • 60. The Rapoports: five types of family diversity Unlike Chester the Rapoports argue that diversity is of central importance in understanding family life today. They believe that we have moved away from the traditional nuclear family as the dominant family type, to a range of different types. Families in Britain have adapted to a pluralistic society- that is one in which cultures and lifestyles are more diverse. They identify five different types of family diversity in Britain today. Complete the diagram below to illustrate these five types. Organisational diversity: Social class diversity: Generational diversity: Cultural diversity: Life-stage diversity: 60
  • 61. For/ against diversity Fill in the gaps in the table below: Against Diversity In Favour of Diversity Different family types are equally valid. Postmodernism and Feminism Gender roles in the family are fixed based on biological differences between men and women. Diversity is good because it gives people more freedom of choice and lifestyle. 61
  • 62. SOCIAL POLICY What are social policies? Policies are laws that direct our behaviour. Social policy refers to the actions of the Government and its agencies in relation to the lives of the population. Many students answering exam questions on the family fail to mention the implementation and effect of social policies on the family…….. Don’t fall into this category of people!!! Although there is no Government department responsible for family policy, legislation and decisions in the areas of housing, taxation, employment, social security and judicial decisions all have an impact on family life. Social policies in other countries Nazi family policy- in the 1930’s the government decided that only the racially pure should be able to have children Women were kept out of the workforce and confined to ‘children, kitchen and church 375,000 disabled people were sterilised who were deemed unfit to breed China’s one-child policy- policy is supervised by workplace family planning committees, women must seek permission to try to get pregnant! Couples who comply get extra benefits- free child healthcare and higher tax allowance Those who do not comply pay a fine and women face pressure to be sterilised. 62
  • 63. Effects of China’s one-child policy Read the following account of demographic changes in China: Patterns of fertility in China have been significantly affected in the last thirty years by several factors. In 1979 China introduced a strict family planning policy that allows most couples to have only one child. Without this policy the Chinese government says that the country’s population would have continued to grow at an alarming rate. However, one of the results of this policy is the gradual emergence of a gender imbalance. In China as a whole, there are 120 males born for every 100 females. In some provinces, the number of males rises to160. The typical average ratio worldwide is about 105 boys for every 100 girls. There are now 18 million more men than there are women of marriageable age and the numbers are still growing. The main reason for this imbalance lies in Chinese cultural traditions. When a woman married, she lived with, and worked for, her husband’s family. Therefore, male children were more valued, as they carried on the family line, earned money for the family and looked after their parents in old age. This is still particularly true for rural areas – baby girls are not a good investment! At first there were incidents of baby girls being abandoned, or sometimes even killed. Today many female foetuses are aborted. Modern ultrasound techniques can identify the sex of a foetus and this can then influence a decision about abortion. Although there are now laws to prevent doctors telling parents the sex of their unborn child, such sex-determined abortions are still occurring. The Chinese version of ‘Blind Date’ now attracts thousands of applicants from young men, who are willing to sing, dance and ridicule themselves for the chance of a date with a young woman. The status of older women as potential brides has improved and homosexuality has become more common. More worrying are the increase of kidnapping of women, sex trafficking from other Asian countries, and sexual crime by gangs of young men. In response, the government has introduced a propaganda campaign stressing the importance of girls. 63
  • 64. Now discuss each of the following questions: 1.Explain how a range of different social, cultural and political influences have brought about this situation in China. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 2.Look back to the section on fertility and birth rates and identify which factors identified there are relevant in this case also. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 3.What policies do you think the Chinese government could use to ease the growing problem of gender imbalance? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ You are now going to use the table on the next page to complete some research on the social policies in the UK that affect the family. Only fill out the first column, you can fill out the other columns when you have completed all of the tasks on theories & social policies. 64
  • 65. 65
  • 66. Theories & Social policy We will now examine what the sociological theories believe about certain social policies. Once you have finished completed this section you can then continue to fill out your grid on the previous page. New Right Read the information below and answer the questions on the New Right. 1942: Beveridge lays welfare foundations The coalition British Government has unveiled plans for a welfare state offering care to all from the cradle to the grave. The Beveridge report proposes a far-reaching series of changes designed to provide a financial safety net to ensure a "freedom from want" after the war is over. Everyone of working age would be expected to pay a weekly national insurance contribution. In return benefits would be paid to the sick, widowed, retired, and unemployed and there would also be an allowance for families. The architect of the report, economist Sir William Beveridge, drew on advice from various government departments including the Home Office, Ministry of Labour and National Service, the Ministry of Pensions, the Ministry of Health and the Treasury. His report was based on research carried out between the two world wars, which looked at issues like poverty, as well as old age and birth rates. He found provision for old age represented one of the most pressing problems. But there were other failings too. Medical provision was not universally available to all and Britain's achievement, in his words, "fell seriously short" compared with other countries of the world. There were also serious discrepancies in the social security system which meant an unemployed person was paid a different rate of benefit to someone who was unable to work through sickness. At a time when the war was destroying landmarks of every kind, he said, it was a "revolutionary moment in the world's history, a time for revolutions, not for patching". But the attack on want was only part of the way to reconstruction. Other things which needed tackling, he said, included disease, ignorance, squalor and idleness. The way to improvement in social security lay in co-operation between the state and the individual. In return for offering financial security, the state should not "stifle individual incentive to provide for his or her family". The amount of benefit paid should be sufficient to live on but no more. His key recommendations include a basic unemployment benefit for a man and his wife to be paid at 40s a week and 24s for a single person. 66
  • 67. There are also plans to extend social expenditure to pay a family allowance of 8s per child and to pay a working mother to take off up to 13 weeks after a new baby. A national health service would be provided offering free medical treatment and post-medical rehabilitation for all. The report estimates the cost of his social security scheme would amount to £697m in 1945, compared to £432m for the existing system. Of this increase £86m would be borne by the exchequer - the rest through individual contributions. In context: The Beveridge Report aimed to provide a universal social insurance scheme covering everything from unemployment to sickness and family allowances. It was greeted with great enthusiasm and sold over half a million copies - but the wartime coalition under Conservative Prime Minister Winston Churchill agreed to postpone planning for its implementation until after the war. During a Commons debate on the report in February 1943, Labour came out strongly in favour of all the recommendations made in the report. It was probably this which cost Churchill victory in the 1945 election and led to Clement Attlee leading the first majority Labour government. Under his leadership, the National Insurance Act was introduced in 1946, offering a state contributory pension for all, and the National Health Service founded in 1948, offering free medical care for all. 1.Who was Beveridge? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 2.What were the main parts of the welfare set up at the end of the Second World War and what ‘giant evils’ were these meant to combat? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 3.What is meant by the phrase ‘welfare from the cradle to the grave’? What principles underlie this phrase? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 67
  • 68. Functionalism Use pp.82 in the textbook to answer the questions below. 1.Identify two functions that the families perform for their members apart from healthcare __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 2.Suggest ways in which welfare policies may help families to carry out these two functions more effectively __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ New Labour Use page 83 to answer the question below. 1.Identify two other means tested benefits that are only available to families on a low income __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 68
  • 69. Feminism Use pages 83-84 to answer the questions below. 1.What do Feminists such as Land (1978) argue? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 2.What does Leonard argue? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 3.Find out about maternity and paternity leave provision. How do the two differ? What effects might it have on family life if they were the same? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ What does Eileen Drew mean by the concept of gender regimes? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Familistic gender regimes: __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Individualistic gender regimes: __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 69
  • 70. Marxism Read the section on the Marxist approach to family policies on pages 85 to 86 of the book and use that information to help you complete the following passage. The missing words are listed at the end. Strengths 1.Marxism offers a more ______________perspective on the family than consensus theories like functionalism. 2.It shows how ________________ may often favour the better off and serve __________________. 3.It shows how ______________ for ordinary workers are often too low to make a real difference 4.Marxists believe it is in the interests of capitalism to encourage nuclear families to ________________ workers and prevent________________ . Weaknesses 1.It tends to be ‘gender-blind’ in failing to recognise the importance of ___________ in social policy 2.It is very ______________ , in that it assumes all aspects of family life are determined by ______________ forces. 3.The approach focuses on one particular type of family and does not deal adequately with ______________ forms. Missing words: Policies Support Deterministic Alternative Capitalism Patriarchy Resistance Economic Critical Benefits 70
  • 71. Donzelot: the policing of families Like Marxists and Femiists Donzelot see’s policy as a form of state power over families. He uses Foucault’s concept of surveillance Draw a flow diagram below using an example of a social policy to illustrate Donzelot’s ideas. When you finished that complete the AO2 criticisms box of Donzelot’s ideas. AO2 (criticisms): 71
  • 72. PAST PAPER QUESTIONS The past paper questions have been separated out into different mark categories. You have also been given the date and year of the paper so that you can use the item to answer the question and also so that you can mark your own work as a stretch and challenge activity. Four mark questions Suggest two reasons why there has been an increase in cohabitation [Jun 10] Suggest two reasons why women might delay having children [Jan 10] Explain the difference between the expressive role and the instrumental role [Jan 12] Suggest two ways in which government policies and/or laws may shape the experiences of children today [Jun 11] Suggest two ways in which the position of children could be said to have improved over the last one hundred years [Jan 10] Suggest two reasons for the decline in the number of first marriages over the past 40 years or so [Jun 12] Suggest two reasons why people may migrate to the United Kingdom [Jan 11] Six mark questions Suggest three effects on society of an ageing population. [Jun 12] Identify three ways in which greater ethnic diversity has contributed to family diversity [Jan 11] Suggest three ways in which the differences between children and adults are becoming less clear in society today. [Jan 12] Identify three ways in which childhood may not be a positive experience for some children. [Jun 10] Identify three reasons why the birth rate has fallen since 1900. [Jun11] 72
  • 73. Twenty-four mark (essay) questions Examine the reasons for changes in the divorce rate since 1969. [Jun 11] Examine the reasons for changes in the patterns of marriage and cohabitation in the last 40 years or so. [Jan 11] Using material from Item 2B and elsewhere, assess the view that the growth of family diversity has led to the decline of the traditional nuclear family. [Jun 12] Using material from Item 2B and elsewhere, assess the view that, in today’s society, the family is losing its functions. [Jun 10] Examine the ways in which government policies and laws may affect the nature and extent of family diversity. [Jan 10] Using material from Item 2B and elsewhere, assess the Marxist view that the main role of the family is to serve the interests of capitalism. [Jan 10] Using material from Item 2B and elsewhere, assess the contribution of feminist sociologists to an understanding of family roles and relationships. [Jun 11] Examine different sociological views on changes in the experience of childhood in the past 50 years or so. [Jun 12] Using material from Item 2B and elsewhere, assess sociological views of the impact of government policies and laws on family life. [Jan 12] Using material from Item 2B and elsewhere, assess the view that the modern family has become more child-centred. [Jan 11] Examine the reasons for, and the effects of, changes in family size over the past 100 years or so. [Jan 12] Examine the reasons for, and the consequences of, the fall in the death rate since 1900. [Jun 10] 73
  • 74. Useful resources Please see below a list of useful websites to help you compliment the work we do in class. www.aqa.org.uk http://www.britsoc.co.uk http://www.podology.org.uk http://www.s-cool.co.uk http://sociology.org.uk http://www.sociologyonline.co.uk http://www.hoddereducation.co.uk/sociologyreviewextras http://www.tutor2u.net > sociology 74