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  • 1. We are only spending ONE LESSON ON OUR BRAINSTORM! Our family overview Having an OVERALL understanding of sociologists view of the family is imperative to get a good grade. It shouldn’t matter what you are asked as long as you know your sociologists arguments and you can write a good essay!
  • 2. Lesson objectives • ALL of us will be able to identify the sociological theories studied so far • MOST of us will describe the theorists linked to each of these schools of thought • SOME of us will be able to explain the criticisms of at least two AIM- to complete our revision brainstorm for next weeks MOCK EXAM
  • 3. Period 1 today- you should have some key theorists in front of you. An A3 sheet of paper, scissors and a glue • You have 15 minutes to cut these up and arrange these around your family • Collate all of the theorists that go together under each theory but do NOT stick anything down
  • 4. Functionalist • • • • What type of theory and why? Which two main theorists? What did they argue? What are the criticisms? MURDOCKS DEFINITION IS ALSO VERY ETHNOCENTRIC (based on American families)- suggests other cultures family types are inferior
  • 5. Who is Laslett? • Survey of parish records shows families in the pre- industrial revolution times were Nuclear and NOT EXTENDED
  • 6. Willmot and Young (1973) carried out a study in Bethnal Green in 1960s • Showed extended families only started to go into decline because the welfare states housing was geared to Nuclear families • Compulsory education meant there was less need for mutual support from the family • They said this encouraged emergence of the ‘Symmetrial Family’ – they agreed with Parsons that the Nuclear family would be the most dominant by the 1990s
  • 7. Willmott and Young… • Argued modern marriage is categorised by joint conjugal roles- sharing household tasks • ANN OAKLEY-FEMINIST-DISAGREES! • She argues there study was unreliable- only asked one question • Elston surveyed 400 couples who were both Doctors- 80% of the women took time off when their child was poorly
  • 8. Functionalist- nuclear family good or bad? • • • • WHY? Why do they disagree with other family types? What theory are they most linked to? NEW RIGHT!
  • 9. The NEW RIGHT • • • • • Linked to which Government? Which time period? What was their main argument? Who is the main theorist here? What is Dependency culture?
  • 10. Charles Murray • Sexual permissiveness is the main cause of moral decay in the UK • Decriminalising homosexuality and abortion
  • 11. Although this view has been criticised! • Tax and welfare policies have generally favoured heterosexual couples • Payment of child benefit to the Mother and lack of free nursery care has reinforced Mums should stay at home • ALLAN (1985) ARGUES THESE POLICIES HAVE DISCOURGAED COHABITATION
  • 12. Very contemporary example!- married couples tax break • The plan is to make up to £1,000 of a person's income tax personal allowance transferable between adults who are married or in a civil partnership Couples who will qualify for this tax break are those in marriages or civil partnerships, which according to the government should be more than 4 million couples
  • 13. Marxism • • • • Nuclear family good or bad? What does it benefit? What is Capitalism? Socialises children into what? Capitalist IDEOLOGYchildren learn obedience and rules. Inequality is natural. Conformist adult workers.
  • 14. Who are the key theorists? • Engels- families economic role is to maintain wealth and money is kept in the family through inheritance- nuclear families are the only type who can protect this • Nuclear family supports capitalism by women being an unpaid labour force • Also believe nuclear family act as a ‘safety valve’
  • 15. Zaretsky • when men go home they are ‘king of the castle’ • Nuclear family socialises children into capitalist ideology- false class consciousness • Unit of consumption- encouraged by ideological institutions like the mass media to buy ‘false needs’ e.g. designer clothes (MARCUSE)
  • 16. Berger and Kellner • Roles in the family are an ‘on going construction’- means as children grow older their position in the family changes anyway
  • 17. Marxist feminist • What do they argue? • Benston (1972)- argue nuclear family provides the basic commodity required by capitalismrearing future work force and keeping husbands healthy through domestic labour
  • 18. Ansley (1976) • Women are like sponges- what did they mean by this? • Men may attempt to make up for lack of power at work by exerting power in the home • Dobash and Dobash- women may suffer domestic violence if they challenge mans authority
  • 19. Liberal feminists • ‘March of progress’ • Boys and girls learn through gender socialisation • Women benefitted from social policy- Equality Act, changes in divorce laws, rape in marriage now being a crime • Wilkinson- GENDERQUAKE- womens main priority is now their jobs rather than motherhood
  • 20. A liberal feminist still wouldn’t be happy about this…. BUT… regard to the family they recognise men are more likely to take a more EGALITARIAN ROLE NOW Although the mass media may have a way to go to improve their representation of women
  • 21. Remember you need evidence! • Number of house-husbands triples in 15 years as number of women who are family's main breadwinner soars • Read more:
  • 22. Radical feminists • Millett- modern societies characterised by Patriarchy • This is due to gender role socialisation • CRITICISED BY HAKIM (1995) • 1) for being dated • 2) for not considering females may choose to be mothers and housewives
  • 23. Post modernist • Number of social changes undermine traditional nuclear family • Social policy • Plastic sexuality- ‘being in love for now’ GIDDENS • Some women choose to be childless • Range of contraceptives • Same sex marriages • Welfare state
  • 24. Evidence we can use throughout our family essays • Majority of people in Britain still marry and surveys suggest most people still see at as a desirable goal • Chester (1985) argues people are simply delaying marriage until later • About 30% of births are with cohabiting couples rather than married couples (ONS) • Fletcher (1988) argues births conceal traditional nuclear families just without the marriage
  • 25. Chandler (1993) • Argues if trend continues 40% of marriages will end in divorce • MATRIMONIAL AND FAMILY PROCEEDINGS ACT (1984)- couples can start petitioning after one year • 1990s 75% of these petitions were started by women • Hart (1976)- women increasingly unhappy due to dual burden
  • 26. This is our knowledge! • We can answer ANY ESSAY QUESTION as long as we structure it correctly • Include the correct understanding and knowledge- AO1 • The apply/ analyse/ assess/ evaluate for AO2