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• 1. Exam skills
• 2. Two Mark Questions  Two mark questions are usually for identifying a key term, explaining a key term or for giving an example. For two marks you simply need to clearly outline the term in the context of the information outlined in the source material. What that means is that you have to state the answer in relation to the scenario provided in the exam. You MUST be as CLEAR as possible! CLEAR!! DO NOT WAFFLE!
• 3.      Let‟s take this as an example What is an „independent measures design‟? Answer 1- this is when participants do only one experiment. ---0 marks Answer 2- this is when different participants do different experiments- 1m Answer 3- This is when different participants are used for each experimental condition, so they do not repeat any condition. -2m
• 4. Practise these           Suggest an appropriate question using a rating scale, which could be used in this study 2m Identify the dependent variable (DV) in this study. Explain what is meant by a positive correlation. [2] Suggest a question that participants could be asked in this study, using a rating scale. [2] What is quantitative data? (2) Explain what is meant by a negative correlation. (2) Explain what is meant by the descriptive statistic called the mean. (2) Explain what is meant by inter-rater reliability in observational research. (2) Identify one open question and one closed question from this investigation. (2)
• 5. Four mark questions  These questions are usually begin with “outline”, “suggest”, “explain” or “describe”. There can be a range but just remember you must be as clear as possible, keep your answer focused to the question and always state in context
• 6. Outline 2 findings from the data in this table. (4)    for this you can use the Mean, Median and Mode as well as the Range (highest value take away the lowest) you can also state the highest and lowest result. IT MUST BE NUMERICAL not your own interpretation What conclusions can you draw from the findings (4m) Here you must read the results and identify what they tell us. Do they support the researchers‟ hypothesis or not? How do we know this? What does this mean
• 7. Identify one strength and one weakness of quantitative data [4]  For this you must clearly outline your strength and weakness in the context of the investigation. It is best that you state the strength first and then explain why this is a strength.  Answer 1- most quantitative data is usually objective because it is not affected by the researcher. However it does not have detail. –  That would achieve 2 marks at maximum!
• 8.  Answer 2- quantitative data is objective, this is because the researcher cannot misinterpret the results in order to support his or her hypothesis. This is an advantage because the results become more valid and less bias. A disadvantage is that quantitative data lacks detail, researchers will not capture any spontaneous findings from the participants and thus cannot generate new research. 4m
• 9. Evaluate the use of random sampling in this study 4m  With evaluate questions you are required to give one strength and one weakness. It is best of you state the strength then explain why it is a strength and then relate back to the scenario.  Answer 1- random sampling is quick and convenient as you just use the participants available.- 0 marks
• 10.  Answer 2- Random sampling is representative, this is because each member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected as a result you are more likely to gain a representative sample. However random sampling is time consuming. This is because the researcher would require all the names of the possible population and select randomly. This takes more time and effort.- 4m
• 11. Hypothesis  Alternate hypothesis- used for correlations, when the question is asking for alternate hypothesis you must use the word CORRELATION in your hypothesis  Experimental hypothesis- you must operationalize the IV and DV in the hypothesis eg “the iv will lead to an increase in DV”
• 12. Suggest an appropriate hypothesis for this experiment  A researcher has conducted a correlational study to investigate the relationship between how important a person thinks appearance is, and how much they spend on clothes each month. The first variable was „self rating of the importance of appearance‟ measured on a ten point scale (where 1 = not important and 10 = extremely important). The second variable was „amount of money spent on clothes each month, measured by asking people to estimate to the nearest £5 how much they spent in a typical month.
• 13.  Incorrect response: Those who think looks are important spend more  Correct: There will be a correlation between score on a ten point rating scale and how much is spent to the nearest £5
• 14. Evaluate the validity of using open question in this study.  Here you need to give one reason why it is valid and why is not. State the reason for being valid and then elaborate.
• 15.  open question is valid as the participants do not have to select their answer from a list of pre-determined answers. Instead they can give their own honest opinion which may increase the validity of the findings. However open questions are open to interpreter bias as the researcher can subjectively analyse the results in a manner which supports his hypothesis. This reduces the validity of the findings
• 16. Practise questions      Explain the difference between an independent measures and a repeated measures design. (4) Suggest one open and one closed question that could be used to investigate subject choice. (4) Discuss the validity of the closed question you have suggested to investigate subject choice. (4) Explain the difference between time sampling and event sampling in observational research. [4] Explain what is meant by an „open question‟ and a „closed question‟. [4]   When would the descriptive statistic called the median be more appropriate, and why
• 17. Six mark questions    These are more evaluative questions so it will usually be outline the strengths and weaknesses of a concept or of the way the dependent variable was measured. Outline one strength and one weakness of the way that the dependent variable (DV) has been measured in this study. For these questions you first state the strength then explain it and then link it back to the scenario.
• 18.  POINT; One strength is that the dependent variable has been measured by number of words recalled, this produces quantitative data.  EXPLAIN A strength of this is that data can be easily analysed, compared and is objective as the experimenter cannot subjectively analyse the results in a bias manner,  LINK as a result the findings of this study are more valid.
• 19.  POINT; One weakness of the way the dependent variable has been measured is that it produces only quantitative data.  EXPLAIN A weakness of this is that the results lack detail, the researcher does not know what caused these results nor does her get an insight into what participants genuinely think.  LINK as a result the findings of this study are may lack validity.
• 20. Practise questions        Outline one strength and one weakness with the using self reports 6m. Outline one strength and one weakness of independent measures design Outline one strength and one weakness of using a repeated measures design for this investigation. Outline one strength and one weakness of using observational research in this study (6m) Outline one strength and one weakness of using qualitative data in this study (6m) Outline one strength and one weakness of using controlled observations 6m Outline one strength and one weakness of using time sampling
• 21. 10 mark questions  These will be “describe and evaluate a suitable procedure for this study” the plan for this will change depending on whether the study is an experiment, self report, observation or correlation.
• 22. Experiments Experiments how to “describe”  Have a clear idea of how to describe the dependent variable  Designindependent, matched, repeated.  Extraneous variables- how to control them  Procedure –what is going to happen
• 23.  Experiments how to evaluate;  DREAMS (demand characteristics, reliability, ecological validity, artificial, method, sample)  Validity- Demand characteristics, ecological validity, artificial however extraneous variables controlled so can establish cause and effect.  Reliability- standardised procedures, standardised instructions so can be repeated so is reliable
• 24. Self report ; describe  Decide if questionnaire or interview  Decide on questions open or closed- give examples.  If you have a rating scale be specific eg 1-very aggressive 10-not aggressive at all  Decide on samplerandom, opportunity, volunteer
• 25. Evaluate;  Validity- interpreter bias, social desirability bias, however can get a large sample so can generalise. Concurrent validity ie compare your findings with previous research see if it‟s the same.  Reliability- test- re test or have two researchers look at same questionnaire and compare their conclusions (inter rater) or split half technique.
• 26. Observations Describe;  Structured/participant/nonparticipant/co vert/overt etc.  Time or event sampling  Behaviour categories  Behaviour checklist/coding system  Where, when and how?
• 27. Evaluate  Validity- ecological validity is high however extraneous variables are not controlled, less demand characteristics, however there may be observer biases.  Reliability- inter rater reliability- how this can be improved through training, pilot study and same checklists.