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G544

G544
Section B –
Approaches,
Perspectives, Methods,
Issues and Debates

Name _______________________________________...
G544
Section B
This section will be assessed by structured essay questions. It is
synoptic, so you will expected to draw o...
G544
Study
Lotus and Palmer
(eye witness
testimony)

Method used

Baron-Cohen
(autism)
Savage-Rumbaugh
(kanzi)
Samuel and ...
G544
Griffiths
(gambling)

The following grids on the next few pages will help you with questions
in Section B. You might ...
G544

Cognitive Approach
Main assumptions a)Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline
the cognitive approach (4)...
G544
d) Compare (and contrast!) the cognitive approach with any one other
approach in psychology. (8)
Similarity: -

Diffe...
G544
Physiological Approach
Main assumptions a)Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline
the physiological appro...
G544
d) Compare (and contrast!) the physiological approach with any one
other approach in psychology. (8)
Similarity: -

D...
G544

Social Approach
Main assumptions a)Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline
the social approach (4)

Exam...
G544
c) Compare (and contrast!) the social approach with any one other
approach in psychology. (8)
Similarity: -

Differen...
G544

Developmental Approach
Main assumptions a)Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline
the developmental appr...
G544
d) Compare (and contrast!) the developmental approach with any one
other approach in psychology. (8)
Similarity: -

D...
G544

Individual Differences Approach
Main assumptions a)Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline
the individua...
G544
d) Compare (and contrast!) the individual differences approach with
any one other approach in psychology. (8)
Similar...
G544

Behaviourist Perspective
Main assumptions a)Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline
the behaviourist per...
G544
d) Compare (and contrast!) the behaviourist perspective with any one
other approach in psychology. (8)
Similarity: -
...
G544

Psychodynamic Perspective
Main assumptions a)Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline
the psychodynamic p...
G544
d) Compare (and contrast!) the psychodynamic perspective with any
one other approach in psychology. (8)
Similarity: -...
G544
Exam technique…..Some Help!
Model answers for questions in Section B

Question a)The first question is always a 4 mar...
G544
Describe two pieces of research that use the physiological approach
to psychology [8]

Dement and Kleitman's (1957) s...
G544
Question C) The 12 marker! You need to know 2 strengths and 2
weaknesses for each approach to gain top band marks (10...
G544

however we will think about if we want those rewards or punishments
before we partake in a behaviour. It is not alwa...
G544
•
•

Sample (generalisability)
How the approach explains behaviour

Compare the cognitive approach with the behaviour...
G544

Bandura‟s study it can be clearly seen that the children are imitating
aggression.
How many marks would this get? __...
G544
Debates in Psychology
Below is a very brief summary of the debates you could be examined on in
Section B of this exam...
G544
Nature-Nurture
Nature is the view that all our behaviour is determined by our biology, our
genes.
Nurture is the oppo...
G544

The usefulness of Psychological Research
This refers to the practical applications of psychology in everyday life.
I...
G544
Plans for 8 Mark Debates/Issues Questions
Discuss how the developmental approach may provide evidence for the
nature/...
G544
Discuss the usefulness of psychological research that collect qualitative
data
Introduction: - Define key terms

Argu...
G544
Discuss how the social approach provides a situational explanation of
behaviour
Introduction: - Define key terms

Arg...
G544
Discuss whether it is possible to conduct psychological research that is
completely ethical
Introduction: - Define ke...
G544
Discuss how ethnocentrism may be in a problem in psychology
Introduction: - Define key terms

Arguments for ethnocent...
G544
Discuss the extent to which psychology can be considered a science.
Introduction: - Define key terms

Arguments for p...
G544
Discuss the usefulness of conducting research which is considered
reductionist.
Introduction: - Define key terms

Ben...
G544
To what extent could the physiological approach to psychology be
considered deterministic.
Introduction: - Define key...
G544
Specimen Exam Questions
Section B – Answer one question from this section (You have a choice of
two)
8)

9)

a) Using...
G544
Section B – Answer one question from this section (You have a choice of
two)
8)

9)

a) Using your knowledge of psych...
G544
Section B – Answer one question from this section (You have a choice of
two)
8)

9)

a) Using your knowledge of psych...
G544
Section B – Answer one question from this section (You have a choice of
two)
EITHER
1. a) Briefly outline the develop...
G544
Section B – Answer one question from this section (You have a choice of
two)
EITHER
8a) Briefly outline the nature-nu...
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  1. 1. G544 G544 Section B – Approaches, Perspectives, Methods, Issues and Debates Name ________________________________________________ 1 Class ________________________________________________
  2. 2. G544 Section B This section will be assessed by structured essay questions. It is synoptic, so you will expected to draw on your knowledge of psychology from the whole of the course; the 15 core studies at AS or even studies from Health & Clinical Psychology and Forensic Psychology.  There are two questions in Section B (question 8 and question 9). Only do ONE of them.  The questions can focus on approaches or any methods or issues in psychology.  Spend approximately 45 minutes on this section.  Make sure you understand how to answer each question properly.  The key to good marks on this section is effective examples!! For every point you make, you must have an example that goes with it.  Revise all of your 15 core studies. At this point you must be able to use them to support points that you make.  This booklet should prepare you well for section B of this exam. But only hard work and good revision will gain you the top marks. 2
  3. 3. G544 Study Lotus and Palmer (eye witness testimony) Method used Baron-Cohen (autism) Savage-Rumbaugh (kanzi) Samuel and Bryant (conservation) Freud (Little Hans) Bandura et al (imitation of aggression) Dement and Kleitman (dreaming) Maguire (taxi drivers) Sperry (split brains) Haslam and Reicher BBC prison study Milgram (obedience) Piliaven et al (subway Samaritans) Rosenhan (sane in insane places) Thigpen and Cleckley Multiple personality 3
  4. 4. G544 Griffiths (gambling) The following grids on the next few pages will help you with questions in Section B. You might notice from looking at the past paper questions (at the back of this booklet) that each section in each grid tallies up to a question in Section B. If you learn what goes into these grids, then you will easily be able to answer the questions in Section B! 4
  5. 5. G544 Cognitive Approach Main assumptions a)Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline the cognitive approach (4) Examples of studies b) Describe two pieces of psychological research that use the cognitive approach. (8) c) Using examples of research that you have studied, discuss the strengths and limitations of explaining behaviour using the cognitive approach. (12) Strengths Weaknesses 5
  6. 6. G544 d) Compare (and contrast!) the cognitive approach with any one other approach in psychology. (8) Similarity: - Difference: - e) Discuss how the cognitive approach can help our understanding of everyday life. (Could be any issue or debate) (8) 6
  7. 7. G544 Physiological Approach Main assumptions a)Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline the physiological approach (4) Examples of studies b) Describe two pieces of psychological research that use the physiological approach. (8) c) Using examples of research that you have studied, discuss the strengths and limitations of explaining behaviour using the physiological approach. (12) Strengths Weaknesses 7
  8. 8. G544 d) Compare (and contrast!) the physiological approach with any one other approach in psychology. (8) Similarity: - Difference: - e) Discuss how the physiological approach can help our understanding of everyday life. (Could be any issue or debate) (8) 8
  9. 9. G544 Social Approach Main assumptions a)Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline the social approach (4) Examples of studies b) Describe two pieces of psychological research that use the social approach. (8) b) Using examples of research that you have studied, discuss the strengths and limitations of explaining behaviour using the social approach. (12) Strengths Weaknesses 9
  10. 10. G544 c) Compare (and contrast!) the social approach with any one other approach in psychology. (8) Similarity: - Difference: - d) Discuss how the social approach can help our understanding of everyday life. (Could be any issue or debate) (8) 10
  11. 11. G544 Developmental Approach Main assumptions a)Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline the developmental approach (4) Examples of studies b) Describe two pieces of psychological research that use the developmental approach. (8) c) Using examples of research that you have studied, discuss the strengths and limitations of explaining behaviour using the developmental approach. (12) Strengths Weaknesses 11
  12. 12. G544 d) Compare (and contrast!) the developmental approach with any one other approach in psychology. (8) Similarity: - Difference: - e) Discuss how the developmental approach can help our understanding of everyday life. (Could be any issue or debate) (8) 12
  13. 13. G544 Individual Differences Approach Main assumptions a)Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline the individual differences approach (4) Examples of studies b) Describe two pieces of psychological research that use the individual differences approach. (8) c) Using examples of research that you have studied, discuss the strengths and limitations of explaining behaviour using the individual differences approach. (12) Strengths Weaknesses 13
  14. 14. G544 d) Compare (and contrast!) the individual differences approach with any one other approach in psychology. (8) Similarity: - Difference: - e) Discuss how the individual differences approach can help our understanding of everyday life. (Could be any issue or debate) (8) 14
  15. 15. G544 Behaviourist Perspective Main assumptions a)Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline the behaviourist perspective (4) Examples of studies b) Describe two pieces of psychological research that use the behaviourist perspective. (8) c) Using examples of research that you have studied, discuss the strengths and limitations of explaining behaviour using the behaviourist perspective. (12) Strengths Weaknesses 15
  16. 16. G544 d) Compare (and contrast!) the behaviourist perspective with any one other approach in psychology. (8) Similarity: - Difference: - e) Discuss how the behaviourist perspective can help our understanding of everyday life. (Could be any issue or debate) (8) 16
  17. 17. G544 Psychodynamic Perspective Main assumptions a)Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline the psychodynamic perspective (4) Examples of studies b) Describe two pieces of psychological research that use the psychodynamic perspective. (8) c) Using examples of research that you have studied, discuss the strengths and limitations of explaining behaviour using the psychodynamic perspective. (12) Strengths Weaknesses 17
  18. 18. G544 d) Compare (and contrast!) the psychodynamic perspective with any one other approach in psychology. (8) Similarity: - Difference: - e) Discuss how the psychodynamic perspective can help our understanding of everyday life. (Could be any issue or debate) (8) 18
  19. 19. G544 Exam technique…..Some Help! Model answers for questions in Section B Question a)The first question is always a 4 mark question asking you to briefly outline something (an approach, a method, an issue or a debate). Write down everything you can think of it! Aim to write 3-4 sentences! Briefly outline the cognitive approach to psychology [4] Cognitive psychology studies our mental processes or cognitions. These mental processes that cognitive psychologists focus on include memory, perception, thinking and language. The main concern of cognitive psychology is how information received from our senses is processed by the brain and how this processing directs how we behave. Analogies are often made between how a computer works and how we process information. Based on this computer analogy, cognitive psychology is interested in how the brain inputs, stores and outputs information. How many marks would this be? _____________ Why? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Question B) Always 8 marks! Will ask you to describe 2 pieces of research in that approach. You must know at least 2 studies that go in each approach to do this! 2 separate paragraphs. Each description should be an overview of the study: aim, brief procedure including research method used, and IV/DV, and sample, brief findings and conclusions drawn. So you need to revisit your core studies and make sure you could write a paragraph on each explaining them. TO GAIN FULL MARKS IN THIS QUESTION YOU MUST WRITE ONE SENTENCE IN EACH PARAGRAPH EXPLAINING WHY IT IS CLASSED AS A ………….. APPROACH STUDY OR WHY IT IS CLASSED AS A CERTAIN RESEARCH METHOD ETC. Basically answer the question directly. 19
  20. 20. G544 Describe two pieces of research that use the physiological approach to psychology [8] Dement and Kleitman's (1957) study investigates what happens when we sleep. They carried out a clinical case study in a sleep lab on nine participants. They aimed to discover the connection between rapid eye movement (REM), dreaming, length and content of dream. REM was measured by EEG. They discovered that those woken up during a period of REM were more likely to recall a dream, than those woken in NREM. They also found a positive correlation between estimated length of dream and length of REM. They also found a relationship between the content of the reported dream and the pattern of eye movements. This study shows that dreaming can be studied in an objective and scientific way. Previous studies had tended to rely on dream diaries which can be unreliable. This is a physiological approach study as it looks at the biological processes during sleep such as REM and brain activity. Maguire et al’s(2000) study looks at structural differences in the brains of London Cab drivers. She carried out a natural experiment using 16 right handed male taxi drivers and a control sample of 16 right handed males. There brains were analysed using Voxel Based Morphometry of MRI scans. She found that the taxi drivers hadincreased volume of grey matter in both right and left hippocampi in taxi driver brains. Correlational analysis found that the volume of the right posteria hippocampus increased as the length of time as a taxi driver increased. Taxi drivers had greater volume in the posterior hippocampus, but nontaxi drivers had greater volume in the anterior hippocampus indicating a redistribution of the grey matter in the hippocampus. This shows that the brain has a certain level of plasticity and can change in response to demands made upon it, in this case the need to develop very high navigational skills. This is a physiological approach study because it studies the brain and the different regions within it such as the hippocampus, which is biological. How many marks would this be? ______________ Why? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 20
  21. 21. G544 Question C) The 12 marker! You need to know 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses for each approach to gain top band marks (10-12). Remember your structure from year 12! It‟s the same. Structure is very important! 4 paragraphs (2 strengths/1 weaknesses). In each paragraph you must do three things: 1. Identify the strength/weakness. 2. Explain why it is a strength or a weakness. 3. Give a very specific example (that‟s relevant) and helps further your explanation of why it‟s a strength or weakness. This example must be a study from the approach specified. Discuss the strengths and limitations of the behaviourist perspective to explain behaviour. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer [12] The behaviourist perspective often uses highly controlled lab experiments. These experiments are reliable and scientific. Using lab experiments also means that observable behaviour can be measured. This is a strength because it means a cause and effect can often be established as confounding variables are usually controlled for. For example, in the Bandura study aggression could easily be observed in the different controlled categories (e.g. aggressive, non-aggressive), this meant that Bandura could say with good reliability that watching an aggressive model causes aggressive behaviour. The perspective has very useful practical applications. This is a strength because it can be used for a variety of different therapies in everyday life. For example through Pavlov‟s dogs we can see that behaviour may be learnt through classical conditioning (association). We can therefore use this information to relearn behaviour such as providing therapies for people with phobias so they learn a new response to the stimuli and not get resolve their fears. One weakness of the approach is that it‟s based on animal research. This is a weakness because humans are much more complex than animals, which means the generalisability from theories in this perspective may be limited. We attach emotion and reason to our behaviours and therefore we do not always act in the same way in every situation. For example, studies using rats (Skinner) show that they learn through reinforcement (rewards and punishments). Humans may learn this way to some extent, 21
  22. 22. G544 however we will think about if we want those rewards or punishments before we partake in a behaviour. It is not always a conditioned reflex like it might be in animals. Another weakness of the behaviourist perspective is that it is reductionist. This means is reduces complex behaviour down to its simplest form e.g. learning behaviour, which is a very simple way of looking at human behaviour. This is a weakness because it fails to take into account any other factors that could affect behaviour such as biology. It reality it is an interaction between many factors that affect the way we behave. For example, Bandura states that the children in his experiments learnt aggression through social learning. However, it could be possible that some of these children may have had a biological predisposition to act more aggressively. What mark would this get? ___________ Explain why _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Question D)Another 8 marker and one of the trickiest.Asks you to compare 2 approaches for 8 marks. It should specify which 2 to compare. You need two separate paragraphs. You need at least one similarity and one difference between them (if you only do one though, you must do it brilliantly). Each similarity and difference needs to be backed up with examples from studies. Remember what the exam board calls them – “impressive examples.” Examples must be detailed and completely relevant – do not write “e.g. in the Bandura study.” Not good enough! Be specific or you won‟t get anywhere near top band marks (7-8). May draw comparisons between: • the types of methods used • the types of data collected, • may refer to issues and debates such as reductionism, determinism, ethics, usefulness (practical applications), nature and nurture etc. 22
  23. 23. G544 • • Sample (generalisability) How the approach explains behaviour Compare the cognitive approach with the behaviourist perspective. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer [8] One similarity between cognitive and behaviourism is the use of highly controlled experiments in these approaches. Both approaches are scientific and reliable as they are based on controlled experiments. For example in the cognitive approach, Loftus and Palmer controlled the video clips, what they saw and for how long and more importantly the verb used with each person. So they could accurately say it was the verb that changed the memory of the incident. In Bandura‟s study, children were put in either aggressive or non aggressive groups and gender was also controlled. So he was able to say that children imitated aggression and from which gender more accurately. Another similarity is that they are both reductionist. Neither look at any other factor that might cause the behaviour. For example behaviourism says that we only learn our behaviour such as in Bandura‟s experiment. He doesn‟t look at any other reason (such as biological) why some children might behave aggressively and others not. The cognitive approach is reductionist as it only looks at certain thought processes that cause behaviours. For example, in BaronCohen‟s study, he only looks at the fact theory of mind lacked in autistic adults, he failed to take into account other approaches such as physiological (nature) or individual differences which looks at nature and nurture. One difference between the two approaches is the generalisability of them. Cognitive theories are based on human participants. For example, reconstructive memory is based on experiments with human psychology students. Whereas, big behaviourist theories are based on animal research. For example, classical and operant conditioning theories are initially based on dog and rat research. Therefore we can‟t generalise these theories to humans quite so readily as humans are much more complex than animals. The other big difference between the two approaches is the fact that cognitive is based on inner thought processes that you can‟t see. Loftus and palmer based their ideas of memory on processes that happen in the brain which are unobservable. Whereas, the behaviourst perspective focuses on observable behaviour. For example, in 23
  24. 24. G544 Bandura‟s study it can be clearly seen that the children are imitating aggression. How many marks would this get? _______________ Explain why _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Question e: Is another 8 marker and will bring in some issue or debate that you have studied. This could be anything and is the unpredictable question on the paper. Last year the question was: Discuss the usefulness of conducting research which is considered reductionist (8 marks). Make sure you know both sides of the debate. Stuff you absolutely must know for Section B:  Assumptions of all the approaches/perspectives.  At least two pieces of research that goes in each approach.  2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of all the approaches/perspectives.  How to structure answers to each of the above questions.  You have issues that you can use as comparison points.  Know both sides of debates. 24
  25. 25. G544 Debates in Psychology Below is a very brief summary of the debates you could be examined on in Section B of this examination. There are seven debates, so you will probably be working in pairs. Your task is to research you debate and prepare a PowerPoint presentation and detailed notes for you classmates. You will need to clearly explain each side of the debate, outlining arguments for and against, and give examples of studies, to illustrate your points. Determinism and Free Will Determinism is the concept that all human behaviour results from either internal or external causes that are not under our conscious control or free will. Under this philosophy our behaviour is the result of a chain of consequences. This is a very simplistic view and sees people as almost the victims of biology e.g. „I‟m fat because it‟s in my genes, have an under active thyroid etc‟ Free Will suggests that we all have a choice and can control and choose our own behaviour. In reality, although we do have free will it is constrained by our circumstances and other people. For example, when you go shopping your choices are constrained by how much money you have. Reductionism and Holism Reductionism is an approach that reduces a complex phenomenon such as human behaviour to the simplest explanation possible. Often this means looking for a biological basis for behaviour. The advantage of a reductionist approach is that it can give a greater understanding of something by revealing evidence for a cause of behaviour. The disadvantage is that humans and their environments are so complex that the reductionist explanation falls short of giving the whole explanation of the behaviour. Holism is often referred to as Gestalt psychology. It argues that behaviour cannot be understood in terms of the components that make them up. This is commonly described as „the whole being greater than the sum of its parts.‟ 25
  26. 26. G544 Nature-Nurture Nature is the view that all our behaviour is determined by our biology, our genes. Nurture is the opposite view that all behaviour is learnt and influenced by external factors such as the environment etc. The truth is that behaviour is the result of a complex interaction between both. Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism refers to the possibility of bias in research towards one ethnic group. Historically, white middle class males from North America and Europe have dominated psychology. This has lead psychology to be somewhat ethnocentric (human tendency to use our own ethnic or cultural norms to define what is „natural‟ and „correct‟ for everyone. Psychology as a Science As Psychology is a relatively new scientific discipline compared to say Biology, Physics and Chemistry, it sometimes finds itself not being taken serious and not having such a high status. Psychology is often classified as a Social Science and this too can be seen as having lower status than Physical Science. In order to be considered scientific a subject needs the following features: Objectivity Falsifiability Replicability The question is does Psychology have these features and do traditional scienceseven have them? Individual and Situational Explanations Individual explanation are centred on the person e.g. personality. Situational explanations are centred on the environment and the situation e.g. Haslam&Reicher looked at the situational effects of a prison environment. 26
  27. 27. G544 The usefulness of Psychological Research This refers to the practical applications of psychology in everyday life. In order to decide whether or not psychological research is useful, you need to gather together examples of really useful psychological research. 27
  28. 28. G544 Plans for 8 Mark Debates/Issues Questions Discuss how the developmental approach may provide evidence for the nature/nurture debate. Introduction: - Define key terms Arguments for Nature (Include studies) Arguments for Nurture (Include studies) Conclusions: - 28
  29. 29. G544 Discuss the usefulness of psychological research that collect qualitative data Introduction: - Define key terms Arguments for usefulness of qualitative data (Include studies) Arguments against usefulness of qualitative data (Include studies) (compare and contrast quantitative data) Conclusions: - 29
  30. 30. G544 Discuss how the social approach provides a situational explanation of behaviour Introduction: - Define key terms Arguments for situational explanations(Include studies) Arguments for individual explanations (Include studies) Conclusions: - 30
  31. 31. G544 Discuss whether it is possible to conduct psychological research that is completely ethical Introduction: - Define key terms Arguments for ethical research (Include studies) Arguments for unethical research (Include studies) Conclusions: - 31
  32. 32. G544 Discuss how ethnocentrism may be in a problem in psychology Introduction: - Define key terms Arguments for ethnocentrism being a problem (Include studies) Arguments about how to reduce the issue of ethnocentrism Conclusions: - 32
  33. 33. G544 Discuss the extent to which psychology can be considered a science. Introduction: - Define key terms Arguments for psychology being a science (Include studies/approaches) Arguments against psychology being a science (Include studies/approaches) Conclusions: - 33
  34. 34. G544 Discuss the usefulness of conducting research which is considered reductionist. Introduction: - Define key terms Benefits of reductionism (Include studies) Benefits of a holistic approach (Include studies) Conclusions: - 34
  35. 35. G544 To what extent could the physiological approach to psychology be considered deterministic. Introduction: - Define key terms Arguments for determinism (Include studies) Arguments for free will (Include studies) Conclusions: - 35
  36. 36. G544 Specimen Exam Questions Section B – Answer one question from this section (You have a choice of two) 8) 9) a) Using your knowledge of psychology, outline the design of a basic experiment. (4) b) Describe how the experimental method was used in any two pieces of psychological research that you have studied. (8) c) Using examples compare the use of experiments with any other method used in psychology. (12) d) Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using the experimental method. (8) e) Discuss how laboratory based research can be useful in our understanding of everyday life. (8) a) Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline the physiological approach. (4) b) Describe two pieces of psychological research that use the physiological approach. (8) c) Using examples of research that you have studied, discuss the strengths and limitations of explaining behaviour using the physiological approach. (12) d) Compare the physiological approach with any one other approach in psychology. (8) e) Discuss how the physiological approach can help our understanding of everyday life. (8) 36
  37. 37. G544 Section B – Answer one question from this section (You have a choice of two) 8) 9) a) Using your knowledge of psychology, outline the social approach to psychology. (4) b) Describe two pieces of psychological research that use the social approach to psychology.(8) c) Discuss the strengths and limitations of using the social approach to explain behaviour. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer. (12) d) Compare the social approach with the physiological approach. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer. (8) e) Discuss how the social approach provides a situational explanation of behaviour. (8) a) Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline one ethical issue when conducting observational research. (4) b) Describe ethical issues raised by any two pieces of experimental research. (8) c) Using examples of research that you have studied, discuss the strengths and limitations of conducting psychological research which raises ethical issues. (12) d) Compare the experimental and observational methods. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer. (8) e) Discuss whether it is possible to conduct psychological research that is completely ethical. (8) 37
  38. 38. G544 Section B – Answer one question from this section (You have a choice of two) 8) 9) a) Using your knowledge of psychology, outline the cognitive approach to psychology. (4) b) Describe two pieces of psychological research that use the cognitive approach to psychology.(8) c) Discuss the strengths and limitations of using the cognitive approach to explain behaviour. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer. (12) d) Compare the cognitive approach with the behaviourist perspective. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer. (8) e) Discuss the features of the cognitive approach that support the view that psychology is a science. (8) a) Using your knowledge of psychology, briefly outline what is meant by ecological validity. (4) b) Describe examples of high ecological validity from any two pieces of psychological research. (8) c) Using examples of research that you have studied, discuss the strengths and limitations of conducting psychological research where ecological validity is low. (12) d) Compare the ecological validity of lab experiments with the ecological validity of field experiments. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer. (8) e) Discuss the usefulness of field experiments in psychology. (8) 38
  39. 39. G544 Section B – Answer one question from this section (You have a choice of two) EITHER 1. a) Briefly outline the developmental approach to psychology. [4] b) Describe two pieces of research that use the developmental approach to psychology. [8] c) Discuss the strengths and limitations of using the developmental approach to explain behaviour. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer. [12] d) Compare the developmental approach with the psychodynamic perspective. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer. [8] e) Discuss how the developmental approach may provide evidence for the nature/nurture debate. [8] 2. a) Briefly outline what is meant by qualitative and quantitative data. [4] b) Describe two pieces of experimental research that collect quantitative data. [8] c) Discuss the strengths and limitations of conducting experimental research which produces quantitative data. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer. [12] d) Compare the experimental method with the self-report method. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer. [8] e) Discuss the usefulness of psychological research that collects qualitativedata. [8] 39
  40. 40. G544 Section B – Answer one question from this section (You have a choice of two) EITHER 8a) Briefly outline the nature-nurture debate in psychology [4] b) Describe two pieces of research that support the nurture side of the nature-nurture debate in psychology [8] c) Discuss the strengths and limitations of the behaviourist perspective to explain behaviour. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer. [12] d) Compare the behaviourist perspective with the physiological approach. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer [8] e) Discuss the extent to which the behaviourist perspective supports the nurture side of the nature-nurture debate in psychology [8] OR 9a) Briefly outline the case study method in psychology. [4] b) Describe two pieces of psychological research that use the case study method [8] c) Discuss the strengths and limitations of conducting research using the case study method. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer. [12] d) Compare the case study method with the observational method. Use examples of psychological research to support your answer [8] e) Discuss the extent to which the case study method is holistic [8] 40

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