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  • Unit  22  -­‐  Lesson  2  -­‐Five  Unethical  Studies Robbers  Cave  Experiments Thanks  to  sites  that  publish  interes1ng  lists   everybody  seems  to  know  about  the  Stanford   Prison  experiment.  By  now  anyone  you  ask  will   tell  you  that  this  was  a  horrible  study  where   university  students  were  placed  in  one  of  two  conflic1ng  groups  in  order  to   replicate  the  condi1ons  inside  a  prison.  The  experiment  was  so  bad  that  it  had  to   be  stopped  weeks  before  it  was  supposed  to  end.  What  few  people  know  is  that   the  same  experiment  was  done  with  twelve  year  old  kids  that  didn’t  even  know   they  were  in  an  experiment,  and  it  was  done  THREE  TIMES!  A  group  of  scien1sts   led  by  Carolyn  Wood  Sherif  gathered  several  11  and  12  year  old  boys  and  took   them  on  a  summer  camping  trip,  without  telling  anyone  that  this  was  actually  an   experiment.  The  scien1sts  had  them  divided  into  two  groups,  making  sure  to   break  apart  any  friendships  that  the  boys  had  established  previously.  Once  on  the   campgrounds  the  scien1sts  encouraged  the  boys  to  call  each  other  names  and   pull  pranks  on  the  other  group.  But  don't  worry  they  also  had  planned  some   group-­‐building  ac1vi1es  at  the  end  of  the  whole  experiment,  such  as  cuPng  the   water  supply  and  let  the  kids  figure  out  how  to  avoid  thirst.  In  both  of  the  first   and  second  experiments  the  boys  rebelled  against  the  experimenters,  probably   realising  they  were  mad  scien1sts.  Of  course  these  two  experiments  were  not   published  originally;  Sherif  only  publicised  the   results  from  the  third  test  where  the  boys   apparently  resolved  their  conflicts  at  the  end  of   camp.  This  prompted  the  scien1sts  to  declare  this  a   successful  experiment  in  conflict  resolu1on;   although  the  study  did  not  monitor  the  boys  over   long  periods  of  1mes  to  see  if  a  summer  spent  in  a   camp  where  they  were  constantly  insulted  did  any   las1ng  psychological  damage. Read more at http://www.weirdworm.com/5-unethical-experiments-done-in-the-nameof-science/#9SauO2pPZqcjYvHc.99
  • Unit  22  -­‐  Lesson  2  -­‐Five  Unethical  Studies Monster  Study The  last  study  might  have  leS  you   with  a  sliver  of  hope  that  maybe   scien1sts  didn’t  run  such  bad   experiments  aSer  all.  If  that  is  the   case,  please  consider  the  case  of  the   monster  study.  This  is  an  experiment   that  tells  you  right  from  the  1tle  it’s   going  to  be  painful  to  read.  The  only   purpose  of  the  experiment  was  to   destroy  the  self-­‐confidence  of  11   children  in  hopes  that  psychologists   could  discover  why  stuTering  happens.  Even  if  the  experiment  was  successful,   nothing  would  have  been  gained  aside  from  abstract  knowledge;  no  one  is   interested  in  making  more  people  stuTer.  Yet  for  some  reason  that  is  exactly   what  Iowa  speech  professor  Wendell  Johnson  set  out  to  do.  He  picked  out   orphans,  because  no  parent  should  willingly  submit  their  kid  to  this  kind  of   experiment,  and  over  the  course  of  six  months  constantly  beliTled  everything   they  did.  He  would  point  out  every   1ny  imperfec1on  in  pronuncia1on   and  every  small  mistake  in  spelling,   all  so  that  he  could  prove  a  theory   that  claimed  stuTering  was  a   learned  behavior.  None  of  the   children  became  stuTerers,  but   several  of  them  remained  trauma1zed  for  life.  Depression  and  loss  of  self-­‐esteem   were  the  most  common  problems  among  the  11  children  that  par1cipated  in  the   study.  But  at  least  the  university  sent  them  all  an  apology  leTer,  years  later  aSer   they  got  sued  for  allowing  this  study. Read  more  at  h8p://www.weirdworm.com/5-­‐unethical-­‐experiments-­‐done-­‐in-­‐the-­‐name-­‐of-­‐science/ #9SauO2pPZqcjYvHc.99
  • Unit  22  -­‐  Lesson  2  -­‐Five  Unethical  Studies Li8le  Albert Of  course  the  previous   example  is  not  the  only   case  of  scien1sts  being   completely  insensi1ve   towards  children.  John  B.  Watson  wanted  to  prove  that  you  could  condi1on  a   child  into  becoming  irra1onally  afraid.  Why  exactly  this  needed  to  be  proved  is   not  really  clear,  but  apparently  it  was  vital  to  the  advancement  of  science.  In   order  to  accomplish  the  task  of  scaring  a  child,  Watson  took  an  eleven  month  old   baby  and  showed  him  a  rat,  a  rabbit  and  several  fuzzy  things.  Whenever  liTle   Albert  tried  to  play  with  the  objects  he  was  shown  a  loud  noise  would  be  played   in  the  background.  This  was  repeated  over  and  over  again  un1l  Albert  became   scared  of  anything  that  was  white  and  fuzzy  including  blankets  and  beards.  In  case   you  were  wondering  Albert  remained  terrified  of  old  Santa  Claus-­‐looking  men  for   the  whole  dura1on  of  the  experiment.  Once  the  baby  was  terrified  of  the  world   around  him,  Watson  returned  him  to  the  parents.  He  didn’t  try  to  erase  the   results  of  the  condi1oning  or  monitor  the   child  as  he  grew  up.  No  one  knows  what   happened  to  liTle  Albert  with  several   theories  arguing  that  he  ended  up   commiPng  suicide.  While  this  is  probably   an  exaggera1on,  one  thing  is  for  sure:  that   child  didn’t  enjoy  any  Christmases  for  the   rest  of  his  life. Read  more  at  h8p://www.weirdworm.com/5-­‐unethical-­‐experiments-­‐done-­‐in-­‐the-­‐name-­‐of-­‐science/ #9SauO2pPZqcjYvHc.99
  • Unit  22  -­‐  Lesson  2  -­‐Five  Unethical  Studies MK-­‐Ultra Moving  away  from  scien1sts  who  hated   children  we  have  the  CIA  and  their  famous   experiments  with  drugs  during  the  50’s   and  60’s.  This  period  was  marked  by  a   heightened  paranoia  of  Soviet  spies   infiltra1ng  the  American  society.  So  in   order  to  protect  the  Unites  States  the  CIA   decided  to  test  LSD  on  a  bunch  of  unsuspec1ng  ci1zens.  If  the  above  sentence   doesn’t  seem  to  make  sense  to  you,  congratula1ons!  You’re  more  logical  than  the   CIA  .  The  first  stop  on  their  tes1ng  agenda  was  injec1ng  several  of  their  own   agents,  with  acid,  mescaline  and  LSD  in  order  to  see  if  they  would  reveal  secret   informa1on.  Think  about  it  like  torturing  your  own  men  to  see  if  they  would  crack   under  pressure.  Once  they  collected  the  data  on  this  stage  of  the  experiment  the   CIA  moved  on  to  tes1ng  drugs  on  the  general   popula1on.  They  did  this  by  sePng  up  nightclubs   and  paying  women  to  slip  drugs  into  men’s   drinks.  They  even  went  as  far  as  using  brothels  as   a  tes1ng  ground  for  various  drugs  since  they   knew  that  the  male  customers  would  be  too   embarrassed  to  report  what  happened.   Unfortunately  most  of  the  documents  on  these   experiments  were  destroyed  in  the  70’s  so  there   is  no  hard  evidence  on  which  the  CIA  could  be   prosecuted. Read  more  at  h8p://www.weirdworm.com/5-­‐unethical-­‐experiments-­‐done-­‐in-­‐the-­‐name-­‐of-­‐ science/#rciqAwlE9SCWpt7Q.99
  • Unit  22  -­‐  Lesson  2  -­‐Five  Unethical  Studies Oklahoma  City  Sonic  Boom  Test Con1nuing  with  experiments  performed  by   the  U.S.  government  without  the  public’s   knowledge  we  have  the  Oklahoma  Sonic   Boom  test.  The  idea  behind  this   experiment  was  to  test  how  much  noise  a   ci1es'  popula1on  would  accept  before  they   started  having  serious  psychological   trouble.  This  wasn’t  the  first  test  of  its  kind   with  the  government  flying  planes  over   populated  areas  on  purpose,  several  1mes  in  the  past.  However,  this  was  the  first   1me  that  the  government  conducted  a  long  term  experiment,  measuring  the   sociological  as  well  as  the  economic  impact.  The   experimenters  even  went  as  far  as  sePng  up   fake  complaint  hotlines  where  the  city’s   popula1on  could  leave  detailed  descrip1ons  of   how  much  they  hated  the  planes  flying  over   their  houses.  Of  course  nothing  would  be  done   about  it  and  the  experiment  went  on  for  six   very  loud  months. Read  more  at  h8p://www.weirdworm.com/5-­‐unethical-­‐ experiments-­‐done-­‐in-­‐the-­‐name-­‐of-­‐science/ #rciqAwlE9SCWpt7Q.99