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Resourcd File

  1. 1. 1 Last lesson, we looked at the Social Exchange theory and Comparison Levels. Now it is your turn, to do the teaching. You will need to: - describe/explain the theory, - quote studies to support or challenge the theory - and provide an evaluation. The investment model of relationships (Rusbult 1983) The Equity theory (Walster et al 1978)
  2. 2. The breakdown of romantic relationships:
  3. 3. Make a list of reasons why a relationship ends: • Lovers thwarted by parental prohibition • Geographical separation • Death • Lack of sex • Little reward lots of cost • Unhappy
  4. 4. Relationship Breakdown Rollie and Duck (2006)- developed a model of the termination of close or intimate relationships.
  5. 5. Rollie & Duck (2006) B I D S G R
  6. 6. Rollie & Duck (2006) Breakdown I D S G R
  7. 7. Rollie & Duck (2006) Breakdown Threshold: I can’t stand this anymore I D S G R
  8. 8. Rollie & Duck (2006) Breakdown Threshold: I can’t stand this anymore Intra-psychic processes D S G R
  9. 9. Rollie & Duck (2006) Breakdown Threshold: I can’t stand this anymore Intra-psychic processes Threshold: I’d be justified in withdrawing D S G R
  10. 10. Rollie & Duck (2006) Breakdown Threshold: I can’t stand this anymore Intra-psychic processes Threshold: I’d be justified in withdrawing Dyadic processes S G R
  11. 11. Rollie & Duck (2006) Breakdown Threshold: I can’t stand this anymore Intra-psychic processes Threshold: I’d be justified in withdrawing Dyadic processes Threshold: I mean it S G R
  12. 12. Rollie & Duck (2006) Breakdown Threshold: I can’t stand this anymore Intra-psychic processes Threshold: I’d be justified in withdrawing Dyadic processes Threshold: I mean it Social processes G R
  13. 13. Rollie & Duck (2006) Breakdown Threshold: I can’t stand this anymore Intra-psychic processes Threshold: I’d be justified in withdrawing Dyadic processes Threshold: I mean it Social processes Threshold: It’s now inevitable G R
  14. 14. Rollie & Duck (2006) Breakdown Threshold: I can’t stand this anymore Intra-psychic processes Threshold: I’d be justified in withdrawing Dyadic processes Threshold: I mean it Social processes Threshold: It’s now inevitable Grave-dressing processes R
  15. 15. Rollie & Duck (2006) Breakdown Threshold: I can’t stand this anymore Intra-psychic processes Threshold: I’d be justified in withdrawing Dyadic processes Threshold: I mean it Social processes Threshold: It’s now inevitable Grave-dressing processes Threshold: Time to get a new life R
  16. 16. Rollie & Duck (2006) Breakdown Threshold: I can’t stand this anymore Intra-psychic processes Threshold: I’d be justified in withdrawing Dyadic processes Threshold: I mean it Social processes Threshold: It’s now inevitable Grave-dressing processes Threshold: Time to get a new life Resurrection processes
  17. 17. Rollie & Duck (2006) Breakdown Threshold: I can’t stand this anymore Intra-psychic processes Threshold: I’d be justified in withdrawing Dyadic processes Threshold: I mean it Social processes Threshold: It’s now inevitable Grave-dressing processes Threshold: Time to get a new life Resurrection processes Reframing of past relational life: What I learned and how things will be different
  18. 18. To reinforce.... Come up with a mnemonic – preferably related to relationship breakdown or the names B I D S G R E.g. Big Intelligent ducks swim grumpily right-legged E.g. The battle in Denmark saw great repercussions.
  19. 19. Using page 108 of the Collins Psychology textbook, write an explanation for each of 6 stages of the Rollie and Duck 2006 model. Using the model and your explanations, watch the following film clip and apply the stages to the couples’ break-up. What stages do they go through and write the part of the film clip that demonstrates the stage.
  20. 20. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EJq3_FVR894
  21. 21. Now apply.. • What stage do you think Ross and Rachel are at, at the start of the video? • If they came to you for couples counselling, what support would you give them?
  22. 22. Implications for intervention • Rollie & Duck’s model stresses the importance of communication in relationship breakdown. • If we were helping someone to avoid breaking up, listening to how they talk about the relationship and how they talk to their partner can give a clue as to what stage they are at and helps us to see what interventions would help.
  23. 23. For example ... • If they were in the intrapsychic stage, what could we do to help them? • What about during the social processes stage?
  24. 24. Tashiro & Frazier (2003) found that students they surveyed felt they had benefited from breaking up with their partners with personal growth and clearer ideas about future partners. Which part of the model does this support? Women report more post-relationship growth than men do. The reason is not yet clear. Can you think of any possible explanations?
  25. 25. Evaluation of Rollie and Duck’s model: Research support- Most models focus on the distress caused by relationship breakdowns, however Rollie and Duck’s model look at relationship breakdowns in a more positive light. They see it as a way to grow psychologically and a way to learn and channel this new experience which helps them achieve a more satisfying future relationship (the resurrection stage). Sex differences- Women report more post-relationship growth than men.
  26. 26. The impact of relationship dissolution-Akert 1998 • Those who didn’t initiate the break-up tended to be miserable, lonely, depressed, unhappy and angry. • Those who initiated the break-up found the end of the relationship the least upsetting. They felt guilty and unhappy, but had fewer negative symptoms. Did someone pay to have this research done?
  27. 27. Sample bias • Can you guess what section of the population the vast majority of these research studies took their samples from? • Can you spot a bias in the type of relationship studied?
  28. 28. Second Explanation for Relationship Breakdown You will find out the name in a minute
  29. 29. What approach is being used here? • This explanation of relationship breakdown states: – It is not a modern thing – A long term relationship is the context which allows for successful reproduction and child- rearing Yes ... This is: THE EVOLUTIONARY EXPLANATION!!
  30. 30. Examples from round the world • In the hunter-gatherer culture in Botswana, the average tribe member experiences lots of romantic relationships before settling down with a long term partner. • In a tribe in Paraguay, a typical adult has had 12 marriages before the age of 40
  31. 31. HOW COULD YOU APPLY EVOLUTIONARY THEORY TO RELATIONSHIP BREAKDOWN? WHAT ARE THE EVOLUTIONARY BENEFITS? A question for you to discuss
  32. 32. Quick revision • List as many positives and negatives relating to the evolutionary approach as you can! – Reductionist & determinist – Difficult to disprove – Based on research with non-human animals – Ultimate – not proximate – causes. Leads to more valid ways of treating behaviour by looking at their adaptive significance.
  33. 33. 2 basic assumptions • Sex differences between what males and females look for in a mate • These are determined by the levels of investment in the child-rearing process.
  34. 34. Costs related to emotional investment • Women prefer mates with resources. • Willingness to share resources can be gauged by the man’s level of emotional commitment. • Because these resources and commitment are more important to women, they have higher costs from losing the emotional investment of their partner.
  35. 35. Increasing commitment • If breakdown is threatened, men exploit the fact that women value emotional commitment. • They may try to maintain sexual access by increasing their emotional investment.
  36. 36. Infidelity • Males have an evolved desire for sexual variety (Buss & Schmitt 1993) – why? • Infidelity serves this desire. • Or it can be used as a tactic to end the relationship quickly – and have a replacement all lined up! • Therefore males are more likely to engage in infidelity.
  37. 37. Reputation – Perilloux & Buss 2008 • If you end a relationship and hurt your partner, it damages your reputation. • This could damage your chances of getting another partner. • Therefore, you act sympathetically to your partner during the breakup
  38. 38. Perilloux & Buss 2008 • Key research study- p. 110 • Beep when you spot an issue!
  39. 39. Evaluation • Perilloux & Buss – shopping strategy – can you explain it? • Ultimate cause = ancestors’ behaviour • Proximate cause = contemporary behaviour A proximate cause is an event which is closest to, or immediately responsible for causing, some observed result. This exists in contrast to a higher-level ultimate cause (or distal cause) which is usually thought of as the "real" reason something occurred.
  40. 40. Ross and Mona • Which theory of the breakdown of romantic relationships does this video best represent?
  41. 41. Go to page 111 and complete the ‘Check your understanding’ questions on your own. We will share as a group, check understanding and help each other to further understanding.
  42. 42. Look at the mark scheme for a 24 marker and answer the questions.. POINT (rudimentary) Make your point. There are gender differences concerning breakdown of relationships EVIDENCE (Basic) Support it with psychological research. Brehm and Kassin found that women are more likely to stress unhappiness and incompatibility as reasons for dissolution, whereas men are particularly upset by ‘sexual withholding’ EXPLAIN (Reasonable) Explain what the research shows or suggests. Women have more desire to stay friends after a relationship has broken up, whereas men want to ‘cut their losses’ LINK (Sound) Link it back to your point or criticise the original point. This implies that Rollie and Duck’s model does not apply to everyone and is therefore limited
  43. 43. Look at the mark scheme for a 24 marker and answer the questions.. Create two PEEL’s of your own. Create one PEEL for Reward/Need Theory and one for Filter Model of relationship formation. Be prepared to share yours later! Have you finished? Try creating a PEEL for an Evaluation A02 point…

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