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  • 1. TYPO TALLY: TASK TIME: 10 MINS STARTER: MILGRAM’SSTUDY ON OBEDIENCE OF AN AUTHORITY FIGURE WORDSEARCH REVIEW: THINKING ABOUT LITERACY… The key terms I do not know the definition for are… A________ S_______:________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ C___________: ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
  • 2. TYPO TALLY: TASK TIME: 5 MINS WEEK 3 Social Psychology: Milgram’s ‘OBEDIENCE OF AN AUTHORITY FIGURE’ study Objectives: Describe the aim/ hypothesis, sample, procedure and results of the study. P-Evaluate the key strengths and weaknesses of the study. OUTCOMES: TARGET GRADE ___ ASSESSING YOUR PROGRESS Before you start the lesson do you know already know how to OUTLINE…? CIRCLE ONE WHAT WAS THE AIM OF THE STUDY? Y / N WHAT WAS THE SAMPLEUSED IN THE STUDY Y / N HOW THE DATAWASCOLLECTED IN THE STUDY? Y / N WHAT WERE THE KEY FINDINGS IN THE STUDY? Y / N STRETCH AND CHALLENGE WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES OF HOW THE DATA WAS COLLECTED? Y / N WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES OF THE SAMPLE? Y / N WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES OF DATA COLLECTED? Y / N Homework: Revise for the Milgram study Assessmenton Friday Grade D: Achieve 50% Grade C: Achieve 57% Grade B:Achieve 64% Grade A: Achieve 72% Those achieving below 48% will be expected to retake the assessmentafter school. Must (GRADE D students): using the ‘basic’ information sheet… Create revision resources that outline the aim/hypothesis, sample, procedure and results of the study. Attempt to answer the section A questions; with extra guidance from the teacher how to structure your answer. Should (GRADE C students): using the ‘standard’ information sheet… Create revision resources that describe the aim/hypothesis, sample, procedure and results of the study. P-Evaluate the key strengths and weaknesses of the study Attempt to answer section A questions; with no extra guidance from the teacher on how to structure your answer. Could (GRADE A/B students): using the ‘stretch and challenge’information sheet… Create revision resources that explain the aim/hypothesis, sample, procedure and results of the study. PE-Evaluate the key strengths and weaknesses of the study Attempt to answer section B questions; with no extra guidance from the teacher. STRETCH AND CHALLENGE: Work with a student who is using a less advanced resource sheet and tutor them as they create their revision resources Attempt the questions using ONLY the revision resources you created, and NONE of the information sheets.
  • 3. TASK TIME: 60 + 20 MINS TASK ONE: Constructing revision resources on the topics of experiments By the end of this task you should be able to: TARGET TASK _______ MUST (Grade D): Create revision resources that outline the aim/hypothesis, sample, procedure and results of the study. SHOULD (Grade C): Create revision resources that describe the aim/hypothesis, sample, procedure and results of the study. P-Evaluate the key strengths and weaknesses of the study COULD (Grade A/B): Create revision resources that explain the aim/hypothesis, sample, procedure and results of the study. PE-Evaluate the key strengths and weaknesses of the study STANDARD INFORMATION SHEET What was the background to the study? During World War 2 the German population seemingly agreed to its state systematically eradicating certain types of people. Millions of Jews, gypsies and other types of ethnic minorities were exterminated even though they had committed no crimes. Many German people were involved in this genocide directly as guards, soldiers and administrators, but every German citizen at some level was implicated as only the worst atrocities were hidden from them. These raised a question whether the German people were inherently obedient and accepting of amoral acts (the disposition hypothesis) or are all cultures susceptible to the influence of authority figures (situational attribution)? Psychologists after World War 2 identified that people who have been given extreme commands by a legitimate authority figure adopt an agentic state; the individual becomes an instrument of the authority and therefore devoid of blame. What was the Aim of the Study? The aim of the experiment was to investigate what level of obedience would be shown when participants were told by an authority figure to administer electric shocks to another person. Describe the sample used in the study and evaluate its effect on the study. The sample was 40 males who had volunteered to be part of a memory and learning study advertised in a newspaper. The participants were all male, from the New Haven area in the USA, aged between 20 and 50, and had various employment statuses. All participants were paid $4.50 to participate. A strength of the sample used is it can be argued to be representative of American men from 1960’s USA. This is because the sample was all male, had a large age range and a range of employment statuses. In this study 40 men were used which suggests that a lot of different types of men would have participated. This is good because the sample would consist of many men who were outgoing, shy, had high and low IQ and therefore the results would be representative of American men and could be generalised to other American men who were not in the sample. A weakness of the sample used is it can be as unrepresentative of the population of all adults in other countries. This is because the large sample was only selected from one country; USA and they were all male.
  • 4. US men are not representative of adults from every country in the world as most of the men would have been white and from a Christian background. Not all adults from other countries would be from a white Christian family and may have been taught not to follow instructions from certain people; the results cannot be generalised to every adult. How was the data collected? The study was a snap shot study and a controlled observation. Participants were taken individually into the university and introduced to the experimenter and another participant. The participant was not a real participant but in fact a confederate. It was arranged through the deception of a random choice that the true participant would be the teacher and the fake participant would be the learner. The participant was told that the study was going to be looking at the effect of punishment on learning and shown how the experiment would work; The ‘teacher participant’ would ask the ‘confederate learner’ a set of questions on word pairs (e.g. dog goes with?). If the ‘confederate learner’ got a question wrong they would receive an electric shock that would be administered by the ‘participant teacher’. The shocks started at 45 volts on the generator and ended at 450 volts, increasing by 15 volts each mistake that was made. To make it clear to the ‘participant teacher’ what effect the shocks would have, the generator had labels on it to show how severe they were (e.g. XXX under 450 volts). In fact the electric shocks were not given and the ‘confederate learner’ did not receive a shock but pretended to get them. At 300 volts the learner banged on the wall and pleaded to stop. At 315 volts the learner stopped answering the questions. If a participant refused to shock the learner the experimenter would verbally prod them to continue, but would not physically force them to. The 4 standard prods started with ‘Please continue’ and finished with ‘You have no choice, you must go on’. If the participant still refused the experiment was stopped. To record the findings the study recorded what voltage the participant went to and only considered a participant obedient if they were willing to give an electric shock to the maximum 450 volts. The study was also filmed and statements by participants were written down. Describe two measurements used in this study. The first quantitative measurement was the electric shock voltage participants were willing to give. This is quantitative as it is number data not descriptions. The study recorded that all participants went to the 300 volt level. The second quantitative measurement was the % of participants who were completely obedient. This is again quantitative as the measurement is numbers rather than a description of the behaviours. The study recorded that 65% of participants were completely obedient. What were the findings of the study? All 40 of the participants obeyed up to 300 volts at which point 5 refused to continue. Overall, 65% of the participants gave shocks up to 450 volts (obeyed) and 35% stopped sometime before 450 volts; When participants finished many of the obedient participants heaved sighs of relief or shook their heads in apparent regret. During the study many participants showed signs of nervousness and tension. E.G sweated and bit their lip 14 participants had nervous laughing fits. Full-blown uncontrollable seizures were observed for three participants. In the post-experimental interview, participants were asked: ‘How painful to the learner were the last few shocks you administered to him?’ ranging from 1 (‘not at all painful’) to 14 (‘extremely painful’), the mean was approximately 13 which showed the participants believed it was real.
  • 5. What can be concluded from the Milgram study? Milgram put forward nine possible features of the experiment which may explain why such high levels of obedience occurred even when such extreme tension was created by the procedure. These include: The fact that the experiment took place at the prestigious Yale University lent the study and procedure credibility and respect. The participant believed that the experiment was for a worthy purpose - to advance knowledge and understanding of learning processes. The participant felt himself to be obligated to take part in the procedures as planned. Being paid increased the sense of obligation. Milgram’s conclusion is an important factor influencing behaviour is the situation a person is in. He believes that we often make dispositional attributions about behaviour, which are incorrect. What were the key strengths and weaknesses of the research method used in the Milgram study? The method used by Milgram is a little ambiguous; Milgram states the study is a laboratory experiment however it is difficult to identify what was the IV. Even if we consider the experiment to be a controlled observation the strength of MIlgrams study is the same as calling it a laboratory experiment; the study is highly controlled. This is a strength as the study will be able to see the effect of a legitimate authority figure on whether a person will obey a direct order, without other things that could influence a person getting in the way. In the Milgram study, every participant was introduced to the experiment in the same way and the confederate learner would follow a standardised script every time. The weakness of the method used byMilgram’s study is the lab conditions are artificial. This is a weakness as the participant may be distracted by being in a weird environment. and therefore fail to act in a way they would do in a real situation. In this study participants were taken into a university room with an electric shock generator that was attached to a person in an adjoining room, whom they could not see. When a person is directed to punish another person they would usually see the person as they are punishing them. The method could be seen as being low in ecological validity. Does the study break any ethical rules? The Milgram study can be seen as highly unethical. Firstly, participants in the study were not given informed consent; they were told that the study was about memory and punishment, not obedience to authority. Secondly, the participants were deceived; participants were lead to believe the learner was getting real electric shocks, when in fact they were not. Thirdly, the participants were subject to mental harm that was beyond their everyday life; participants would not have the stress and guilt of issuing potentially lethal electric shocks to a person. Finally, the Milgram study filmed participants’ reactions to the experiment; this means the study may not be completely confidential. On the other hand, the study can be argued to give participants the right to withdraw; participants were allowed to stop if they wished, so long as they had heard the four verbal prods. It can also be said that the experiment was not completely breaking the ethical issue of harm as Milgram offered his participants the opportunity to discuss with a psychologist the effects of the study and how they felt about what they had done.
  • 6. TASK ONE: Outcome Review Circle one of the outcomes that shows your PROGRESS in this activity (CIRCLE ONE) MUST SHOULD COULD NONE EVIDENCE OF PROGRESS: Using the revision resources you created, can you…? 1. OUTLINE THE AIM OF THE STUDY? Y / N _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. OUTLINE THE SAMPLE OF THE STUDY? Y / N _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. OUTLINE HOW THE DATA WAS COLLECTED? Y / N _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 4. OUTLINE THE KEY FINDINGS? Y / N _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ ASSESSING PROGRESS: did you show OBVIOUS progress in this activity? YES, I COMPLETED MY TARGET TASK AND LEARNED SOMETHING NEW I MADE SOME PROGRESS AS I LEARNED SOMETHING NEW BUT DID NOT COMPLETE MY TARGET TASK I DID NOT MAKE ANY PROGRESS AS I HAVE NO EVIDENCE OF NEW UNDERSTANDING
  • 7. TASK TIME: 40 + 10 MINS TASK TWO: Complete exam questions based on the core study By the end of this task you should be able to: TARGET TASK _______ MUST (Grade D): Attempt to answer the section A questions; with extra guidance from the teacher how to structure your answer. SHOULD (Grade C): Attempt to answer section A questions; with no extra guidance from the teacher on how to structure your answer. COULD (Grade A/B): Attempt to answer section B questions; with no extra guidance from the teacher. PRACTICE QUESTIONS: MILGRAM SECTION A 1. What the Examiner expects to see...
  • 8. 2. a) Describe how obedience was measured in the MIlgram study [2] b) Suggest one problem of measuring obedience in this way [2] What the Examiner expects to see... 3.Outline two features of the Milgram study of obedience which made it seem real to the participants. [4] What the Examiner expects to see... 4. Outline 2 conclusions made by Milgram [4] 5. Identify the four verbal prods used in the Milgram study? [4]
  • 9. SECTION B 4. Describe how the data was collected in the Milgram study [8] What the Mark scheme wants... Question Number Answer Max mark 16 (d) Describe how the data was collected 0 marks – No or irrelevant answer. 1-3 marks – Description of procedure is very basic and lacks detail and accuracy (eg two or three general statements are identified). Some understanding may be evident. Expression is generally poor with few, if any, psychological terms and few, if any, links to the chosen study. Grammatical structure is poor. There are few, if any, links to the chosen study. NB: A maximum of 3 marks can be gained if the answer is not clearly linked to the chosen study 4-6 marks – Description of the procedure is accurate though there will be some omissions. Fine details are occasionally present and understanding is evident. Expression and use of psychological terminology is reasonable and there are some clear, appropriate links to the chosen study. 7-8 marks – Description of procedure is accurate and detailed with few or no omissions. The detail is appropriate to the level and time allowed. Understanding, expression and use of psychological terminology are very good. There are many, clear and appropriate links to the chosen study. [8] 5. Outline the findings of the Milgram study on Obedience [8] What the examiner expects to see…
  • 10. 7. Evaluate the method used in the MIlgram study [6] What the examiner is looking for… Weakness: 0 marks - No or irrelevant answer. 1 mark – Peripherally relevant disadvantage is identified, not linked to chosen study and with little or no elaboration why it is a weakness. 2 marks – Appropriate disadvantage is chosen. Description of why it is a disadvantage is basic but lacks details from the study that link the weakness to the study. 3 marks – Appropriate disadvantage is chosen. Description of why it is a disadvantage is clear, and details from the study link the weakness to the study. Advantage: 0 marks - No or irrelevant answer. 1 mark – Peripherally relevant advantage is identified, not linked to chosen study and with little or no elaboration why it is an advantage. 2 marks – Appropriate advantage is chosen. Description of why it is an advantage is basic,but lacks details from the study that link the advantage to the study. 3 marks – Appropriate advantage is chosen. Description of why it is an advantage is clear, and details from the study link the advantage to the study. TASK TWO: Outcome Review Circle one of the outcomes that shows your PROGRESS in this activity (CIRCLE ONE) MUST SHOULD COULD NONE
  • 11. Typo grade: __ TASK TIME: 5 MINS PLENARY: OUTCOME REVIEW Overall, what outcome did you achieve throughout the lesson? MUST SHOULD COULD NONE ASSESSING YOUR PROGRESS By the end of the lesson could youOUTLINE…? CIRCLE ONE WHAT WAS THE AIM OF THE STUDY? Y / N WHAT WAS THE SAMPLE USED IN THE STUDY Y / N HOW THE DATAWASCOLLECTED IN THE STUDY? Y / N WHAT WERE THE KEY FINDINGS IN THE STUDY? Y / N STRETCH AND CHALLENGE WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES OF HOW THE DATA WAS COLLECTED? Y / N WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES OF THE SAMPLE? Y / N WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES OF DATA COLLECTED? Y / N So did you show excellent progress by the end of this lesson? YES, I COMPLETED MY TARGET TASKS AND LEARNED SOMETHING NEW I MADE SOME PROGRESS AS I LEARNED SOMETHING NEW BUT DID NOT COMPLETE ALL MY TARGET TASKS I DID NOT MAKE ANY PROGRESS AS I HAVE NO EVIDENCE OF NEW UNDERSTANDING IMPROVING YOUR PROGRESS DO YOU NEED A HELP ON THIS TOPIC? TICK Yes, I need to arrange a tutorial with the teacher to progress further on this topic □ Yes, I need to arrange a meeting with another student to progress further on this topic □ I need to create EXTRA time in my revision schedule to revise this topic □
  • 12. Name: __________________________ ASSESSMENT 3: Milgram Section A 1. 2. Outline 2 conclusions from the Milgram study [4] 3. [2] [2] 4. [2] [2] 5. a) Describe one finding from the Milgram study that suggests the ethical rule of protection from harm was not upheld in the study. [2] b) Describe one reason why the Milgram study did not uphold protection from harm [2] [Section A marks: 20] Section B 6. Describe the aims of the Milgram study [2] 7. Describe how the data was collected in the Milgram study [6] 8. Outline the Findings of the Milgram’s study [6] 9. Describe one strength and one weakness of the research method used [6] [Section B marks: 20] TOTAL MARKS: 40