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  • APA Common Feedback Corrections Sixth edition. 1.10 Plagiarism “Each time you paraphrase another author (i.e., summarize a passage or rearrange the order of a sentence and change some of the words), you need to credit the source in the text” (p. 15). 1.10 Self-Plagiarism “They [authors] do not present their own previously published work as new scholarship” (p. 16). When to Cite “Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. They may provide key background information, support or dispute your thesis, or offer critical definitions and data. Citation of an article implies that you have personally read the cited work. In addition crediting the ideas of others that you used to build your thesis, provide documentation for all facts and figures that are not common knowledge” (p. 169). 6.03 Direct Quotation of Sources “When quoting, always provide the author, year, and specific page citation or paragraph number for the nonpaginated material in the text and include a complete reference on the reference list” (p. 170). 6.22 Abbreviation for page or pages “Acceptable abbreviation…”(p. 180). (p.) or pages (pp.) 3.03 Levels of Heading “…APA consists of five possible formatting arrangements, according to the number of levels of subordination” (p. 62). L1: Centered, Boldfaced, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading. L2: Flush left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading. L3: Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. L4: Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period L5: Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. 3.04 Seriation “…itemized conclusions or steps in a procedure, are identified by an Arabic numeral followed by a period buy not enclosed or followed by parentheses.” (p. 63). 3.04 Seriation “Separate sentences in a series are also identified by an Arabic number followed by a period; the first word is capitalized, and the sentence ends with a period or correct punctuation” (p. 63). 3.04 Bullet Lists “The use of “numbered lists” may connote an unwanted or unwarranted ordinal position (e.g., chronology, importance, priority) among the items. If you wish to achieve the same effect without the implication of ordinality, items in the serious should be identified by bullets. Symbols such as small squares, circles, and so forth, may be used in creating a bulleted list” (p. 65). 3.04 Series in a Paragraph “Within a paragraph or sentence, identify elements in a series by lowercase letters in parenthesis” (p. 64). Example: On the firefighting crew there is, (a) one captain, (b) one engineer, and (c) two firefighters, that work together on the scene.
  • APA Common Feedback Corrections Sixth edition. 3.08 Economy of Expression “Say only what needs to be said…you can tighten long papers by eliminating redundancy, wordiness, jargon, evasiveness, overuse of passive voice, circumlocution and clumsy prose. Weed out overly detailed descriptions of apparatus, participants, or procedures…elaborations of the obvious and irrelevant observations or asides” (p. 67). Wordiness. “Wordiness can also impede the ready grasp of ideas. Unconstrained wordiness lapses into embellishment and flowery writing, which are clearly inappropriate for scientific style” (p. 67). Redundancy. Writers often use redundant language in an effort to be emphatic. Use no more words than are necessary to convey your meaning” (p. 67). 3.09 Precision and Clarity “Make certain that every word means exactly what you intend it to mean. In informal style, for example, feel broadly substitutes for think or believe, but in scientific style such latitude is not acceptable” (p. 68). Colloquial expressions. “Avoid colloquial expressions (e.g., write up for report), which diffuse meaning. Approximations of quantity (e.g., quite a large part, practically all, or very few) are interpreted differently by different readers or in different contexts. Approximations weaken statements, especially those describing empirical observations” (p. 68). Jargon. Jargon is the continuous use of a technical vocabulary, even in places where that vocabulary is not relevant. Jargon is also the substitution of a euphemistic phrase for a familiar term (e.g., monetarily felt scarcity for poverty), and you should scrupulous avoid using such jargon. Federal bureaucratic jargon has had the greatest publicity, but scientific jargon also grates on the reader, encumbers the communication of the information, and wastes space” (p. 68). Pronouns. “Pronouns confuse readers unless the referent for each pronoun is obvious; readers should not have to search previous text to determine the meaning of the term” (p. 68). Attribution. “Inappropriately or illogically attributing action in an effort to be objective can be misleading. Examples of undesirable attribution include the use of the third person, anthropomorphism, and use of the editorial we” (p. 69). Third person. “To avoid ambiguity, use a personal pronoun rather than the third person” (p. 69). Anthropomorphism. “Do not attribute human characterisitics to animals or to inanimate sources” (p. 69). Editorial we. “For clarity, restrict your use of we to refer only to yourself and your coauthors (use I if you are the sole author of the paper)” (p. 69).
  • APA Common Feedback Corrections Sixth edition. 3.10 Linguistic Devices “Devices that attract attention to words, sounds, or other embellishments instead of to ideas are inappropriate for scientific writing. Avoid heavy alliteration, rhyming, poetic expressions, and clichés” (p. 70). 3.11 Reducing Bias in Language “Constructions that might imply bias against persons on the basis of gender, sexual orientation, racial or ethnic group, disability, or age are unacceptable” (p. 71). 3.12 Gender “Avoid ambiguity in sex identity or gender role by choosing nouns, pronouns, and adjectives that specifically describe you participants. Sexist bias can occur when pronouns are used carelessly, as when the masculine pronoun he is used to refer to both sexes or when the masculine or feminine pronoun is used exclusively to define roles by sex (e.g., “the nurse…she). The use of man as a generic noun or as an ending for an occupational title (e.g., policeman instead of police officer) can be ambiguous and may imply incorrectly that all persons in the group are male” (p. 73). 3.15 Disabilities “Avoid language that objectifies a person by her or his condition (e.g., autistic, neurotic), that uses pictorial metaphors (e.g., wheelchair bound or confined to a wheelchair), that uses excessive and negative labels (e.g., AIDS victim, brain damaged), or that can be regarded as a slur (e.g., cripple, invalid). Use people-first language…(e.g., person with paraplegia, youth with autism)” (P. 76). 3.18 Verbs “Use the active rather than the passive voice, and select tense or mood carefully…The passive voice is acceptable in expository writing and when you want to focus on the object or recipient of the action rather than on the actor” (p. 77). 3.19 Agreement of Subject and Verb “A verb must agree in number (i.e., singular or plural) with its subject, regardless of intervening phrases that begin with such words as together with, including, plus, and as well as” (p. 78). 3.20 Pronouns “Each pronoun should refer clearly to its antecedent and should agree with the antecedent in number and gender” (p. 79). 3.21 Misplaced modifiers “Because of their placement in a sentence, misplaced modifiers ambiguously or illogically modify a word. You can eliminate misplaced modifiers by placing an adjective or an adverb as close as possible to the word it modifies” (p. 81). 4.07 Quotation Marks (Scare Quotes) “Use double quotation marks to introduce a word or phrase used as an ironic comment, as slang, or as an invented or coined expression. Use quotation marks the first time the word or phrase is used; thereafter, do not use quotation marks” (p. 91). 4.08 Double or Single Quotation Marks “Use double quotation marks to enclose quotations in text. Use single quotation marks within double quotation marks to set off material that in the original sources was enclosed in double quotation marks” (p. 92).
  • APA Common Feedback Corrections Sixth edition. 4.08 In Block Quotations (any quotations of 40 or more words). “Do not use quotation marks to enclose block quotations. Do use double quotation marks to enclose any quoted material within a block quotation (p. 92). “Start such a block quotation on a new line and indent the block about a half inch from the left margin (in the same position as a new paragraph.) If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each an additional half inch. Double-space the entire quotation. At the end of a block quotation, cite the quoted source and the page or paragraph number in parentheses after the final punctuation mark” (p. 171). Quotations: Direct quotations are to be used very sparingly. The chief drawback is that the text becomes choppy and difficult to read. Using the author's own words in a direct quote is usually justified for only the following reasons: credibility, an argument gains credibility by quoting a known authority; power, an argument gains power by the skillful weaving-in of knowledge into the text; eloquence, an argument gains eloquence by using a direct quote that illuminates the concept. 4.09 Parentheses Use parentheses  “to set off structurally independent elements” (p. 93).  “to introduce an abbreviation” (p. 93). Do not use parentheses  “To enclose material within other parentheses…[Use brackets to avoid nested parentheses]…”(p. 94)  “back to back” (p. 94). 4.21 Use of Italics “In general, use italics infrequently” (p. 104). Use italics for  “introduction of a new, technical, or key term or label (after a term has been used once, do not italicize it)” (p. 105).  “a letter, word, or phrase cited as a linguistic example” (p. 105).  “words that could be misread” (p. 105). 4.22 Abbreviations “To maximize clarity, use abbreviations sparingly. Although abbreviations are sometimes useful for long, technical terms in scientific writing, communication is usually garbled rather than clarified if, for example, an abbreviation is unfamiliar to the reader” (p. 106). 4.23 Explanations of Abbreviations “…a term to be abbreviated must, on its first appearance, be written out completely and followed immediately by its abbreviation I parentheses. Thereafter, use the abbreviation in text without further explanation (do not switch between the abbreviated and written-out forms of a term)” (p. 107).
  • APA Common Feedback Corrections Sixth edition. 4.26 Latin Abbreviations “Use the following standard Latin abbreviations only in parenthetical material; in non-parenthetical material, use the English translation of the Latin terms; in both cases, include the correct punctuation that accompanies the term:”  cf. - compare  e.g., - for example  , etc. - , and so forth  i.e., - that is,  viz., - namely,  vs. - versus, against 4.31 Numbers Expressed in Numerals Use numerals to express a. “numbers 10 and above” (p. 111). b. “numbers in the abstract of a paper or in a graphical display within a paper” (p. 111). c. “numbers that immediately precede a unit of measure” (p. 111). d. “numbers that represent statistical or mathematical functions, fractional or decimal quantities, percentages, ratios and percentiles and quartiles” (p. 111). 4.32 Numbers Expressed in Words Use words to express a. “any number that begins a sentence, title, or text heading. (Whenever possible, reword the sentence to avoid beginning with a number)” (p. 112). b. “common fractions” (p. 112). 5.07-5.19 Tables Formatting See APA Style Guide (pp. 128-150) 6.25 Order of References in the Reference List Alphabetizing names. “Arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author followed by initials of the author’s given name…” (p. 181). Order of several works by the same first author. “When ordering several works by the same first author, give the author’s name in the first and all subsequent references, and use the following rules to arrange entries:  One-author entries by the same author are arranged by year of publication, earliest first.  One-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname (even if the multiple-author work was published earlier).  References with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author or, if the second author is the same, the surname of the third author, and so on.  References with the same authors in the same order are arranged by the year of publication, the earliest first.  References by the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order) with the same publication date are arranged alphabetically by title (excluding A or The).