Key Words Test 2013
Target Grade Score Grade Distance from target grade
Sub-topics Which questions? Score on this sub-topic
Aims, hypotheses and variables 3, 4 & 6
Validity and Reliability 10, 15, 17, 20, 23, 27
Sampling 1, 2, 11, 12 & 13
Research design 16, 18, 19, 26
Experiments 7, 14, 15, 21
Observations 8, 22, 23
Self-report techniques 5, 10, 25
Comments and target
1. A researcher put an advert in a newspaper asking for participants for her research. Participants were
asked to e-mail her if they wanted to take part. What type of sample is this?
a. Random Sample
b. Volunteer Sample
c. Opportunity Sample
2. A researcher is conducting research into how stress affects reaction times. Her sample consists of 13
men and 2 women, and because there are significantly more men this means her sample isn’t
_____________________________ of the target population which consist of a more even number of
men and women.
3. A group of sixth form students want to investigate whether putting signs up in the common room
asking people to work in silence reduces the level of noise. For one week they measure the noise level
in the common room without a sign up, and for a second week they out up signs and then measure
the noise level again. The __________________________________ in their research is whether or not
there is a sign up and the __________________________________ is the level of noise in the common
4. An ____________ is a general statement about what a piece of research is investigating.
5. A researcher is investigating opinions on the government and decides to use an interview to collect
data. He expects that older participants will have more negative opinions on the government than
younger participants. He decides to get another researcher who is unaware of the hypothesis to
conduct to the interviews. He has done this to reduce _________________________________.
6. Before conducting a piece of research the researcher will write a _________________________,
stating what the researcher is expecting the results to be. This will either be a
_____________________________________________ or a
7. An experimenter is conducting a study into how stress affects a person’s eye witness testimony. They
set up a situation where a man robs a bank. Customers at the bank are then asked to choose the man
who robbed the bank from a line-up of 6 photographs. Participants are then asked to rate their stress
levels during the incident on a scale of 1-10. This is an example of what type of research method?
a. A correlation
b. A field experiment
c. An observation
8. When the main researcher is conducting an observation there is a possibility of ___________________
_________________ occurring due to the researcher wanting to finding support for their hypothesis.
9. As a research method the observation is high in ____________________/____________________
_________________ since we are directly observing how people observe in their natural environment.
10. The extent to which two interviewers produce the same results from an interview is known as
11. Which sampling method gives every member of the target population an equal chance of being
12. A university lecturer wants to conduct a study into how sleep affects memory. He selects participants
by asking his psychology class to participate in his research. This is known as an
13. If a researcher has a very small sample of people for their research it will be difficult to
____________________________________ result to the whole target population.
14. A researcher wants to see how having experienced an earthquake affects the probability of developing
stress-related illnesses (e.g. heart disease). She compares a group of people who have experienced an
earthquake, and a control group who have not experienced an earthquake. This an example of what
15. A field experiment is high in ________________________/_______________________
_______________. This is because it is conducted in a natural environment. However, because it is
conducted in a natural environment there are a lot of
__________________________________________ which are difficult for the researcher to control.
This will lower the ______________________________________ of the research.
16. A researcher is conducting an experiment into music and memory. She has 60 participants complete a
memory task in silence and again listening to music. To eliminate _____________________________
the researcher decides to use a technique known as _________________________________. 30 of
her participants completed the task with music then in silence, while the other 30 complete the task in
silence then listening to music.
17. A researcher was conducting a piece of research into intelligence and reading speed. To measure
intelligence the researcher created an IQ test. However when he began analysing the result he
discovered that some questions on the IQ test were actually measuring memory instead of
intelligence. This means the research will be low in _________________________________________.
18. A researcher is investigating how music affects problem solving skills. Participants are given a rubix
cube to complete and the time taken to complete it is measured. In condition one the participants are
in a room where the radio is being played, and in condition two the participants complete the task in
silence. The researcher finds the participants are significantly quicker when working in silence.
However, a second researcher points out that there may have been ___________________________.
Specifically the researcher points out that there may have been ____________________________
since participants completed exactly the same task in condition one and two meaning they may just
been better in condition two since they have done the task before.
19. When conducting an experiment a ________________________ or a _________________________
design are preferable because they eliminate any ________________________________. This is
because participants in each condition are similar in some way.
20. A researcher gives his participants a questionnaire to measure the personality trait extroversion. He
decides to ask them to complete the questionnaire today and again once a week for the next 3 weeks.
The researcher has decided to do this to test the ……………
a. Internal validity
b. Internal reliability
c. External reliability
21. A researcher has decided to use a ________________________________ as the research method for
her experiment. When asked by a colleague why she wasn’t using a ____________________________
the researcher replied “because I can control all extraneous variables using my method, and therefore
my research will be higher in internal validity than the method you have suggested”
22. A group of students wanted to conduct an observation to see whether boys and girls behave
differently at lunch time. However, before they began the observation one student asked what
behaviour she was meant to be looking for. The psychology student in the group suddenly
remembered her psychology lesson on observations and said “we need to decide on a set of
__________________________________________ so we are all looking for the same thing.”.
23. By comparing the results of an observation recorded from 2 or more observers we are checking the
_________________________________________ of the observation.
24. If an observer is tallying behaviours in not a completely honest way the results will be affected by
_______________________________. This may be because the researcher wants to find support for
25. A researcher wants to find out about views on minority groups in the workplace. He thinks that men
and women might have different views, with women feeling more positive about minority groups. He
gives out a questionnaire to employees at a local company; however he finds there is absolutely no
difference. Just as he is about to throw out the questionnaires a colleague stops him and says
“perhaps you should try using a different research method and you might find a difference, the results
of your questionnaire might have been affected by __________________________________.”
26. A researcher wants to use an ______________________________________ design for his experiment.
However, another researcher asks him how he is going to control participant variables when using this
design. The researcher tells his colleague that by randomly allocating participants to the different
conditions the variation amongst participants is more likely to split across the conditions.
27. A researcher is conducting an experiment into how music affects memory. He gives his participants a
list of words to learn while there is music playing in the background. After the experiment the
researcher overhears a conversation between two participants. One participants says she found it
really hard to learn the words with the music playing the background, the other replies the she
guessed they weren’t meant to be able to remember the words with music playing so didn’t even
bother to try. This is an example of ______________________________________________.