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  • TASK TIME: 10 MINS STARTER: IS COGNITION A CAUSE OF CRIME? KEY TERMINOLOGY WORDSEARCH REVIEW: THINKING ABOUT LITERACY… The key terms I do not know the definition for are… A______________:____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ M______________:____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ R______________: ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________
  • TYPO TALLY: TASK TIME: 5 MINS WEEK 2 LESSON TOPIC: Causes of Crime: Cognitive OBJECTIVES: Describe the cognitive explanation of turning to crime Describe studies that support the cognitive explanation Evaluate the cognitive explanation of turning to crime OUTCOMES: MY TARGET GRADE ___ ASSESSING YOUR PROGRESS Before you start the lesson do you know already know how to OUTLINE… CIRCLE ONE The rational choice explanation of how cognition causes a person to turn to crime? Y / N The morality explanation of how cognition causes a person to turn to crime? Y / N The attribution explanation of how cognition causes a person to turn to crime? Y / N The psychological research evidence of cognition causing a person to turn to crime? Y / N Evaluate the cognitive explanations of why a person turns to crime? Y / N STRETCH AND CHALLENGE Can you evaluate the cognitive explanations of why a person turns to crime using PWECC? Y / N Homework: Continue the ‘Turning to Crime’ extension workbook. This is evidence that you have prepared for the Turning to crime assessment Due in: 24 th of September Grade boundaries for the Turning to Crime Assessment Grade D: Achieve 48% Grade C: Achieve 55% Grade B:Achieve 62% Grade A: Achieve 70% Those achieving below 45% will be expected to retake the assessment at the end of next lesson in their own time Must (grade D): using the standard resource sheets… Construct revision resources that outline the explanation Construct revision resources that outline studies that support the explanation Construct revision resources that P-Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of this explanation Should (grade C/B): use the detailed resource sheets… Construct revision resources that describe the explanation Construct revision resources that describe studies that support the explanation Construct revision resources that PEC-Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of this explanation Could (grade A): use the detailed resource sheets… Construct revision resources that describe the explanation Construct revision resources that describe studies that support the explanation Construct revision resources that PWECC-Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of this explanation [stretch and challenge]
  • TASK TIME: 30 + 10 MINS TASK ONE: Creating revision resources that describe the explanation of turning to crime By the end of this task you should be able to: Must(Grade D): using the standard resource sheets… Construct revision resources that outline the explanation SHOULD (Grade C/B): using the detailed resource sheets… Construct revision resources that describe the explanation COULD (Grade A): using the detailed resource sheets… Construct revision resources that explain the explanation MY TARGET FOR THIS TASK: _______________ STANDARD RESOURCE SHEET The Cognitive explanation of the cause of crime Cognition is the mental processes that occur before, during and after behaviour; rationality, processing social events and morality can all be seen as cognitive processes that can be associated with criminal acts. Cognitive explanations of what causes criminal behaviour all follow a simple theme; the decision making process of criminals is in some way deviant from that of the normal person. 3 specific areas of cognition that have been identified are: Rationality Morality Processing social events 1. Rationality Rationality is the term used to describe making decisions on logical outcomes and evidence; it is suggested that criminals have distinctively different patterns of decision making and are faulty. Yochleson and Samenow suggest that criminals are not spontaneous when committing certain types of crime; criminals actually think beforehand. Criminal rationality/ irrationality is typified by certain characteristics: Fear and the need to control the situation through power Lack of empathy for the victims of their behaviour and a failure to understand obligation Criminals’ optimism about the consequences of their behaviour borders on fantasy and is ignorant of deterrents 2. Morality Morals are a set of norms and values, usually learnt from our parents about what is right and wrong. In legal terms, a person can only be responsible for a criminal act if they had the mensrea [they knew what they were doing]; at the heart of this is how a person determines right from wrong. In the UK the age of criminal responsibility is 10; children over 10 are deemed to clearly know the difference between right and wrong. Kohlberg is the main psychological researcher into the area of morality. His theory suggests that morality develops in stages. Through the use of hypothetical scenarios such as the ‘Heinz Dilemma’ it can be suggested that criminals have not reached an adequate stage of morality.
  • 3. Attribution We all justify and explain our behaviours using either internal or external attributions. An internal attribution is when a person accepts full responsibility for their own behaviour and sees the cause as being within themselves. An external attribution is when a person sees the cause of their behaviour as being an external factor, e.g. ‘I was provoked, it’s his fault I hit him’, ‘I had a bad childhood’, ‘I’ve got no money”. A criminal is considered rehabilitated when they can fully accept responsibility for their crime, in other words have an internal attribution, they accept their guilt. DETAILED RESOURCE SHEET The Cognitive explanation of the cause of crime Cognition is the term used to describe mental processes that occur before, during and after behaviour; mental processes are the cause of our behaviour. As crime is one specific type of behaviour cognitive processes are also the cause of crime. Rationality, processing social events and morality can all be seen as cognitive processes that can be associated with criminal acts. Cognitive explanations of what causes criminal behaviour all follow a simple theme; the decision making process of criminals is in some way deviant from that of the normal person. 3 specific areas of cognition that have been identified are: Rationality Morality Processing social events 1. Rationality Rational choice theory adopts a utilitarian belief that man is a reasoning actor who weighs means and ends, costs and benefits, and makes a rational choice. It is assumed, that crime is purposive behavior designed to meet the offender’s commonplace needs for such things as money, status, sex and excitement, and that meeting these needs involves the making of (sometimes quite rudimentary) decisions and choices, constrained as these are by limits, ability, and the availability of relevant information Rational choice is based on numerous assumptions, one of which is individualism; the offender sees themselves as an individual. The second is that individuals have to maximize their goals, and the third is that individuals are self-interested Offenders are thinking about themselves and how to advance their personal goals. Central points of the theory are described as follows: The human being is a rational actor. Rationality involves end/means calculations. People (freely) choose behavior, both conforming and deviant, based on their rational calculations. The central element of calculation involves a cost benefit analysis: Pleasure versus pain or hedonistic calculus. Choice, with all other conditions equal, will be directed towards the maximization of individual pleasure. Choice can be controlled through the perception and understanding of the potential pain or punishment that will follow an act judged to be in violation of the social good, the social contract. The state is responsible for maintaining order and preserving the common good through a system of laws. The swiftness, severity, and certainty of punishment are the key elements in understanding a law’s ability to control human behavior.
  • 2. Morality Morals are a set of norms and values, usually learnt from our parents about what is right and wrong. In legal terms, a person can only be responsible for a criminal act if they had the mensrea [they knew what they were doing]; at the heart of this is how a person determines right from wrong. In the UK the age of criminal responsibility is 10; children over 10 are deemed to clearly know the difference between right and wrong. Kohlberg is the main psychological researcher into the area of morality. His theory suggests that morality develops in stages. Through the use of hypothetical scenarios such as the ‘Heinz Dilemma’ it can be suggested that criminals have not reached an adequate stage of morality. Kohlberg's stages of moral development are based on the assumption that humans are inherently communicative, capable of reason, and possess a desire to understand others and the world around them. The stages of this model relate to the qualitative moral reasonings adopted by individuals, and so do not translate directly into praise or blame of any individual's actions or character. Kohlberg argues that his theory measures moral reasoning and not particular moral conclusions. Kohlberg's theory centers on the notion that justice is the essential characteristic of moral reasoning. Justice itself relies heavily upon the notion of sound reasoning based on principles. Kohlberg's theory understands values as a critical component of the right. Whatever the right is, for Kohlberg, it must be universally valid across societies (a position known as "moral universalism"): there can be no relativism. Moreover, morals are not natural features of the world; they are prescriptive. Nevertheless, moral judgments can be evaluated in logical terms of truth and falsity. According to Kohlberga person moraldevelopmentis driven by realizing the limitations of their current stage of thinking. The process is therefore considered to be constructive, as it is initiated by the conscious construction of the individual, and is not in any meaningful sense a component of the individual's innate dispositions. 3. Attribution Attribution is a concept in psychology addressing the processes by which individuals explain the causes of behavior and events; attribution theory is an umbrella term for various models that attempt to explain those processes. There are 2 main reasons for attributions: Explanatory attribution People make explanatory attributions to understand the world around them and to seek reasons for a particular event. For example, if Jacob’s car tire is punctured he may attribute that to a hole in the road; by making attributions to the poor condition of the highway, he can make sense of the event without any discomfiture that it may in reality have been the result of his bad driving. Interpersonal attribution Sometimes, when your action or motives for the action are questioned, you need to explain the reasons for your action. Interpersonal attributions happen when the causes of the events involve two or more individuals. It is often likely that a person will always want to present themself in the most positive light in interpersonal attributions. While people strive to find reasons for behaviors, they fall into many traps of biases and errors. One example is fundamental attribution error. The fundamental attribution error describes the tendency to over-value dispositional or personality-based explanations for behavior while under-valuing situational explanations. The fundamental attribution error is most visible when people explain and assume the behavior of others. For example, when a student fails to turn in a homework assignment, a teacher is too ready to assume that the student was too lazy to finish the homework, without sufficiently taking into account the situation that the student was in. Another error in attribution often associated with criminal behaviour is self-serving bias. Self-serving bias is attributing dispositional and internal factors for success and external, uncontrollable factors for failure. For example, if a person gets promoted, it is because of his/her ability and competence whereas if he/she does not get promoted, it is because his/her manager does not like him/her (external, uncontrollable factor). Originally, researchers assumed that self-serving bias is strongly related to the fact that people want to protect their self- esteem. However, the alternative information processing explanation suggests that when the outcomes of behaviour match people’s expectations, they make attributions to internal factors; when the outcome does not match these expectations, they make external attributions. Attributions and the cognitive biases/errors that accompany them suggest that criminal behaviour is caused by external attribution or internal attribution.
  • TASK ONE: Outcome Review Circle one of the outcomes that best describes your PROGRESS in this activity (CIRCLE ONE) MUST SHOULD COULD NONE EVIDENCE OF PROGRESS: Using the revision resources you created, can you…? OUTLINE THE LINK BETWEENCOGNITION AND CRIME? YES / NO / SOME ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ OUTLINE THE RATIONALITY EXPLANATION? YES / NO / SOME ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ OUTLINE THE MORALITY EXPLANATION? YES / NO / SOME ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ OUTLINE THE ATTRIBUTIONS EXPLANATION? YES / NO / SOME ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ASSESSING PROGRESS: did you show OBVIOUS progress in this activity? YES, I COMPLETED MY TARGET TASK AND LEARNED SOMETHING NEW I MADE SOME PROGRESS AS I LEARNED SOMETHING NEW BUT DID NOT COMPLETE MY TARGET TASK I DID NOT MAKE ANY PROGRESS AS I HAVE NO EVIDENCE OF NEW UNDERSTANDING
  • TASK TIME: 30 + 10 MINS TASK TWO: Creating revision resources that describe the psychological evidence of turning to crime By the end of this task you should be able to: Must(Grade D): using the standard resource sheets… Construct revision resources that outline the research evidence SHOULD (Grade C/B): using the detailed resource sheets… Construct revision resources that describe the research evidence COULD (Grade A): using the detailed resource sheets… Construct revision resources that explain the research evidence MY TARGET FOR THIS TASK: _______________ STANDARD RESOURCE SHEET Research evidence for the irrational decision making: Mandracchia (2007) The study aimed to define characteristics of criminal thinking processes through psychometric testing of thinking styles. 435 American male prisoners were used in the study and came from a mixed background. The study used factor analysis to measure associated variables with criminal types and found that three main types of thinking characteristics were predominantly identified. These were: The need to control a situation Immature thoughts such as self-pity and over-generalisation Egocentricity (only focusing on their own needs and wants) The conclusion of the study suggests that criminals rationalise in a qualitatively different way to non-criminals; their irrationality is based on immediate gratification and subjective, unorganised thought patterns; it was suggested these could be changed. Research evidence for morality: Kohlberg (1963) Aim:To find evidence in support of a progression through stages of moral development Procedure: 58 working and middle class boys from Chicago aged 7, 10, 13, 16 were given a two hour interview with 10 dilemmas (like the Heinz) to solve. Some of these boys were followed up at 3 yearly intervals and the study was repeated in 1969 in the UK, Mexico, Taiwan, USA and Yucatan. Results: As the age of children increased the higher their level of moral understanding. Young children had morality based on doing what was right because of fear of punishment or reward. Older children had a morality based on doing what the majority believe; laws should be obeyed for the common good. Conclusions: People may commit crime because they have a less developed morality. Thornton & Reid (1982) with criminal samples suggests that criminals committing crime for financial gain show more immature reasoning than those committing violent crimes.
  • Research evidence for attribution: Gudjohnsson (2002) Aim: To examine the relationship between the type of offence and the attributions offenders make about their criminal acts. Procedure: 80 criminals who were serving sentences in Northern Ireland. 20 had committed violent offences, 40 sex offences and 20 crimes against property. The criminals were asked to fill out a 42-iten ‘Blame Attribution Inventory’ (GABI). The psychometric test gives 3 measurements; Guilt, mental health and External attribution Results: Those who had committed sexual offences showed the most remorse about their behaviour; followed by those who had committed violent acts against the person. These offenders were most likely to make statements of internal attribution. Property offenders on the other hand were only slightly more likely to make statements of internal attributions compared to external attributions. Very little difference was found in the mental element scores for all offenders. With regards to external attribution, the highest scores were found for violent offenders and the lowest for sex offenders. This suggests that criminals make internal and external attributions to their crimes. Conclusions: This suggests that some crimes are more internally attributed, whilst others are external and internal Gudjohnsson&Bownes compared these findings to an earlier study carried out in England and found a high level of consistency for the way criminals attribute blame for their crimes. TASK TWO: Outcome Review Circle one of the outcomes that best describes your PROGRESS in this activity (CIRCLE ONE) MUST SHOULD COULD NONE EVIDENCE OF PROGRESS: Using the revision resources you created, can you…? BRIEFLY OUTLINE THE MANDRACCHIA STUDY? YES / NO / SOME ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ BRIEFLY OUTLINE THE KOHLBERG THEORY? YES / NO / SOME ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ OUTLINE THE GUDJOHNSSON STUDY? YES / NO / SOME ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ OUTLINE WHY THESE STUDIES SHOW COGNITION IS A FACTOR IN TURNING TO CRIME? YES / NO / SOME ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________
  • TASK TIME: 30 + 10 MINS TASK THREE: Creating revision resources that evaluate the explanation of turning to crime By the end of this task you should be able to: Must(Grade D): using the standard resource sheets… Construct revision resources that P-Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of this explanation SHOULD (Grade C/B): using the detailed resource sheets… Construct revision resources that PEC-Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of this explanation COULD (Grade A): using the detailed resource sheets… Construct revision resources that PWECC-Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of this explanation [stretch and challenge] MY TARGET FOR THIS TASK: _______________ Evaluating the cognitive explanation of turning to crime Deterministic or free will: The cognitive approach to crime is more deterministic than free will. Even though it suggests that criminals make decisions it suggests those decisions are determined through faulty processing. This is not something that the criminal has direct control of when making a decision. Ethnocentricism: As with the majority of psychological theory this explanation of the turning to crime can be seen as ethnocentric. All of thecognitive explanations are based upon research from western society; it cannot be assumed that in other cultures cognitive processes are the same. On the other hand you can argue because it is focused on western societies the explanations are more valid for westernised people who turn to crime. Reductionist or holistic: The cognitive approach can be argued to be reductionist and holistic. Firstly, it ignores biology and the psychodynamic explanations of behaviour when explaining crime. On the other hand it does consider the behaviourist approach and the social approach in its theories. Whilst it focuses on how a criminal thinks about crime it does acknowledge these processes are based in social context and that thinking processes are developed through learning. Scientific research: The research that supports the cognitive approach can be of debatable scientific rigour. o Methods: Studies from the approach often rely upon face to face interviews or questionnaires. These are often subject to participants being inaccurate or lying. On the other hand, the questionnaires that are used are often psychometric tests. These tests are developed to identify possible deception by the participants and are more standardised than an open interview. Participants o Data: Studies often use psychometric tests. These tests usually result in a numerical value putting the participant on a scale. This is scientific in theory as it means the results can be easily comparable and are not descriptions. On the other hand, a psychometric test is based on a person subjective rating of something. It may not be universally accepted by psychologists that a person’s score would represent their value on the scale. Furthermore, Interviews also gather qualitative data. This is usually unscientific as a description of a person’s opinions is not necessarily based on facts; they may be fiction. o Bias: Finally, there is a social desirability in participant responses. Participants may lie to hide crimes they have committed, or exaggerate to increase their social standing within the social groups they are members of. On psychometric tests, a participant may not select their true response due to social desirability. Furthermore, the investigator may bias the study by encouraging certain responses that they would want to prove the cognitive explanation for crime.
  • o Replication: The studies used as support have been replicated by other psychologists. This suggests that the cognitive approach to explaining crime does have a certain element of scientific method as the studies used as evidence are reliable as they can be replicated o Sampling: supporting studies include those that are unrepresentative and biased. The experimenters have not used truly random samples. Situational or Individual:The cognitive approach is generally seen as individual in nature but has aspects of situation explanations. The theories of criminal cognition suggest that criminals have different cognitive processes to non-criminals, but that these processes interact with the situations criminals find themselves in. Nature or Nurture: All three explanations are both nature and nurture. This is because they all suggest that criminal thinking processes are unique to the criminal in some respects but, they can be altered and adapted depending on how they have been nurtured. Kohlberg in particular suggests that the cognitive process of moral judgements is not simply nature as moral judgments are developed in stages and higher morality is learned as situations present themselves. TASK THREE: Outcome Review Circle one of the outcomes that best describes your PROGRESS in this activity (CIRCLE ONE) MUST SHOULD COULD NONE EVIDENCE OF PROGRESS: Using the revision resources you created, can you…? EVALUATE ONE ISSUE OF THE COGNITIVE EXPLANATION OF TURNING TO CRIME? YES / NO / SOME ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________
  • TASK TIME: 15 MINS TASK FOUR: Scaffolding a PWECC evaluation paragraph Question:Evaluate the Cognitive explanations of turning to crime [15] 3 PWECC PARAGRAPHS NEEDED POINT BEING EVALUATED: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ WHY THE POINT IS GOOD OR BAD: ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ EVIDENCE: _________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ COUNTER EVALUATION: _____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ CONCLUSION: ______________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Typo grade: __ TASK TIME: 5 MINS PLENARY: OUTCOME REVIEW ASSESSING YOUR PROGRESS By the end of the lesson can youOUTLINE… CIRCLE ONE The rational choice explanation of how cognition causes a person to turn to crime? Y / N The morality explanation of how cognition causes a person to turn to crime? Y / N The attribution explanation of how cognition causes a person to turn to crime? Y / N The psychological research evidence of cognition causing a person to turn to crime? Y / N Evaluate the cognitive explanations of why a person turns to crime? Y / N STRETCH AND CHALLENGE Can you evaluate the cognitive explanations of why a person turns to crime using PWECC? Y / N Circle the progress have you made: Excellent progress: I have learned new knowledge and/or skills that I did not know at the start of the lesson. Some progress: I have developed existing knowledge or skills; improving my chances of success in my exams. No progress: I have not developed my knowledge or skills that I already had. IMPROVING YOUR PROGRESS DO YOU NEED A HELP ON THIS TOPIC? TICK Yes, I need to arrange a tutorial with the teacher to progress further on this topic □ Yes, I need to arrange a meeting with another student to progress further on this topic □ I need to create EXTRA time in my revision schedule to revise this topic before the exam □