Starter: Multi-store modelStarter: Multi-store model
How does the multi-store model suggest information is
transferred int...
Simple Maintenance RehearsalSimple Maintenance Rehearsal
 Repetition of information.Repetition of information.
 Present ...
At the end of this lesson you will:At the end of this lesson you will:
 Understand the levels of processingUnderstand the...
Levels of ProcessingLevels of Processing
The problems with the evidence for theThe problems with the evidence for the
STM/...
Class experiment:Class experiment:
Do I have yourDo I have your
permission?permission?
Follow the instructionsFollow the instructions
 Do not shout out at any stage in thisDo not shout out at any stage in thi...
 You will be shown a series of slides.You will be shown a series of slides.
On each there will be a target wordOn each th...
CUPCUP
Does this word fit into the sentence.Does this word fit into the sentence.
The child held the ______ so that the juiceThe ...
boatboat
Does this word rhymeDoes this word rhyme
with float?with float?
doordoor
Does this word fit in theDoes this word fit in the
following sentence?following sentence?
I wanted a ___________I wanted a...
largelarge
Does this word rhymeDoes this word rhyme
with green?with green?
PIGPIG
Is this in upper caseIs this in upper case
letters?letters?
coldcold
Does this word go in thisDoes this word go in this
sentence?sentence?
It was very ____ outsideIt was very ____ outside
and...
HAPPYHAPPY
Is this word in lowerIs this word in lower
case?case?
hairhair
Does this rhyme withDoes this rhyme with
brown?brown?
DIRTYDIRTY
Does this word fit in thisDoes this word fit in this
sentence?sentence?
My hands are ______ andMy hands are ______ and
ne...
cookcook
Is this word in lowerIs this word in lower
case?case?
badbad
Does this word rhymeDoes this word rhyme
with red?with red?
MANMAN
Does this word fit in the sentenceDoes this word fit in the sentence..
The _____ walked across the streetThe _____ walked ...
Now write down as many of theNow write down as many of the
target wordstarget words as you canas you can
rememberremember
The words were…The words were…
 CupCup
 BoatBoat
 DoorDoor
 LargeLarge
 PigPig
 ColdCold
 happyhappy
 HairHair
 D...
Craik and Lockhart (1972)Craik and Lockhart (1972)
 They suggested that it is theThey suggested that it is the
wayway you...
Levels of Processing Model of MemoryLevels of Processing Model of Memory
Unlike the Multistore Model,Unlike the Multistore...
Levels of Processing Model of MemoryLevels of Processing Model of Memory
Semantic (deep)
Phonetic (middle)
Structural (sha...
Levels of Processing Model of MemoryLevels of Processing Model of Memory
Semantic (deep)
Phonetic (middle)
Structural (sha...
Levels of Processing Model of MemoryLevels of Processing Model of Memory
Semantic (deep)
Phonetic (middle)
Structural (sha...
Levels of Processing Model of MemoryLevels of Processing Model of Memory
Semantic (deep)
Phonetic (middle)
Structural (sha...
Levels of Processing Model of MemoryLevels of Processing Model of Memory
Semantic (deep)
Phonetic (middle)
Structural (sha...
Levels of ProcessingLevels of Processing
 The more deeply an item is processed,The more deeply an item is processed,
the ...
Levels of Processing Model of MemoryLevels of Processing Model of Memory
Semantic (deep)
Phonetic (middle)
Structural (sha...
Elaborative RehearsalElaborative Rehearsal
 A more meaningful analysis of information.A more meaningful analysis of infor...
Lets give it a go!Lets give it a go!
 You have 1 minute to work through theYou have 1 minute to work through the
levels o...
??
 If I wanted to check if the information hadIf I wanted to check if the information had
entered your LTM, how could I ...
 Structural Processing:Structural Processing: a shallow level –a shallow level –
we look at visual features of words, suc...
PhoneticPhonetic
Processing:Processing: At aAt a
middle level – wemiddle level – we
think about thethink about the
sound ...
Experimental evidenceExperimental evidence
(Craik & Lockhart, 1975)(Craik & Lockhart, 1975)
 Is this word in upper or low...
Surprise recognition memory testSurprise recognition memory test
Proportion correctly recognisedProportion correctly recog...
Craik and Tulving (1975)Craik and Tulving (1975)
 This experiment (the original one) is roughlyThis experiment (the origi...
 My answer is on the next slide…My answer is on the next slide…
My Answer:My Answer:
 AimAim: To investigate how deep and shallow processing affects memory: To investigate how deep and ...
LoP summaryLoP summary
 Levels of processing theory was proposedLevels of processing theory was proposed
because of the p...
Question 1Question 1
 Psychologists were investigating the levels ofPsychologists were investigating the levels of
proces...
Check your understandingCheck your understanding
 Answer the questions at the bottom ofAnswer the questions at the bottom...
Real Life ApplicationsReal Life Applications
This explanation of memory is useful in everyday lifeThis explanation of memo...
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  1. 1. Starter: Multi-store modelStarter: Multi-store model How does the multi-store model suggest information is transferred into Long term memory? 5 minutes
  2. 2. Simple Maintenance RehearsalSimple Maintenance Rehearsal  Repetition of information.Repetition of information.  Present in Atkinson and Shiffrin’s (1968)Present in Atkinson and Shiffrin’s (1968) MSM.MSM.  Keeps the information in the STM.Keeps the information in the STM.  Enough repetition gets the information intoEnough repetition gets the information into the LTMthe LTM
  3. 3. At the end of this lesson you will:At the end of this lesson you will:  Understand the levels of processingUnderstand the levels of processing explanation for memoryexplanation for memory  Be able to describe a study that supportsBe able to describe a study that supports the levels of processing explanationthe levels of processing explanation  Know how to evaluate the explanation andKnow how to evaluate the explanation and studystudy
  4. 4. Levels of ProcessingLevels of Processing The problems with the evidence for theThe problems with the evidence for the STM/LTM distinction led two researchers toSTM/LTM distinction led two researchers to suggest that a different way to studysuggest that a different way to study memory was from the point of view ofmemory was from the point of view of processing rather than structure.processing rather than structure. Craik & Lockhart (1972)Craik & Lockhart (1972)
  5. 5. Class experiment:Class experiment: Do I have yourDo I have your permission?permission?
  6. 6. Follow the instructionsFollow the instructions  Do not shout out at any stage in thisDo not shout out at any stage in this experiment.experiment.  That means you must beThat means you must be silent.silent.
  7. 7.  You will be shown a series of slides.You will be shown a series of slides. On each there will be a target wordOn each there will be a target word  Following the word there will be anFollowing the word there will be an question – do not answer out loud.question – do not answer out loud.
  8. 8. CUPCUP
  9. 9. Does this word fit into the sentence.Does this word fit into the sentence. The child held the ______ so that the juiceThe child held the ______ so that the juice would not spill.would not spill.
  10. 10. boatboat
  11. 11. Does this word rhymeDoes this word rhyme with float?with float?
  12. 12. doordoor
  13. 13. Does this word fit in theDoes this word fit in the following sentence?following sentence? I wanted a ___________I wanted a ___________ to eat for a snack.to eat for a snack.
  14. 14. largelarge
  15. 15. Does this word rhymeDoes this word rhyme with green?with green?
  16. 16. PIGPIG
  17. 17. Is this in upper caseIs this in upper case letters?letters?
  18. 18. coldcold
  19. 19. Does this word go in thisDoes this word go in this sentence?sentence? It was very ____ outsideIt was very ____ outside and I needed a coat toand I needed a coat to keep me warm.keep me warm.
  20. 20. HAPPYHAPPY
  21. 21. Is this word in lowerIs this word in lower case?case?
  22. 22. hairhair
  23. 23. Does this rhyme withDoes this rhyme with brown?brown?
  24. 24. DIRTYDIRTY
  25. 25. Does this word fit in thisDoes this word fit in this sentence?sentence? My hands are ______ andMy hands are ______ and need washing.need washing.
  26. 26. cookcook
  27. 27. Is this word in lowerIs this word in lower case?case?
  28. 28. badbad
  29. 29. Does this word rhymeDoes this word rhyme with red?with red?
  30. 30. MANMAN
  31. 31. Does this word fit in the sentenceDoes this word fit in the sentence.. The _____ walked across the streetThe _____ walked across the street
  32. 32. Now write down as many of theNow write down as many of the target wordstarget words as you canas you can rememberremember
  33. 33. The words were…The words were…  CupCup  BoatBoat  DoorDoor  LargeLarge  PigPig  ColdCold  happyhappy  HairHair  DirtyDirty  CookCook  BadBad  ManMan
  34. 34. Craik and Lockhart (1972)Craik and Lockhart (1972)  They suggested that it is theThey suggested that it is the wayway you think about informationyou think about information (or process it) that is the(or process it) that is the important if you want to recall itimportant if you want to recall it later.later.  We can think about information,We can think about information, such as words, at differentsuch as words, at different levels.levels.
  35. 35. Levels of Processing Model of MemoryLevels of Processing Model of Memory Unlike the Multistore Model,Unlike the Multistore Model, this is more to do with thethis is more to do with the processprocess of how the memoryof how the memory works than theworks than the partsparts involved.involved. We say it is a “functionalWe say it is a “functional model” rather than amodel” rather than a “structural model”.“structural model”. It says that the strength ofIt says that the strength of the memory trace isthe memory trace is determined by how we put itdetermined by how we put it into our memory (how weinto our memory (how we “process it”)“process it”) Semantic (deep) Phonetic (middle) Structural (shallow) Depthofprocessing This is mainly to do with remembering words: What they look like (“structure”) What they sound like (“phonetic”) And what they mean (“semantic”)
  36. 36. Levels of Processing Model of MemoryLevels of Processing Model of Memory Semantic (deep) Phonetic (middle) Structural (shallow) Depthofprocessing i.e. the deeper the processing, the stronger the memory trace But how do we “process” memories more deeply?
  37. 37. Levels of Processing Model of MemoryLevels of Processing Model of Memory Semantic (deep) Phonetic (middle) Structural (shallow) Depthofprocessing The theory is that anythingThe theory is that anything coming into the memory goescoming into the memory goes through all the stages – butthrough all the stages – but where it stops depends on howwhere it stops depends on how much effort we give it …much effort we give it … …… we notice the wordwe notice the word …… we take note of what itwe take note of what it sounds likesounds like …… we understand itwe understand it
  38. 38. Levels of Processing Model of MemoryLevels of Processing Model of Memory Semantic (deep) Phonetic (middle) Structural (shallow) Depthofprocessing This has recentlyThis has recently been backed upbeen backed up by brain scansby brain scans Brain scans showing different levels of activity
  39. 39. Levels of Processing Model of MemoryLevels of Processing Model of Memory Semantic (deep) Phonetic (middle) Structural (shallow) Depthofprocessing Craik & Lockhart (1972) asked Yes/No questions about a series of words.Craik & Lockhart (1972) asked Yes/No questions about a series of words. Some questions were about what the word looked like (structural – shallow processing),Some questions were about what the word looked like (structural – shallow processing), - others about how the word sounded (phonetic processing)- others about how the word sounded (phonetic processing) - and the others about the meaning of the word (semantic – deep processing)- and the others about the meaning of the word (semantic – deep processing)
  40. 40. Levels of Processing Model of MemoryLevels of Processing Model of Memory Semantic (deep) Phonetic (middle) Structural (shallow) Depthofprocessing Results:Results: Few remembered More remembered Most remembered
  41. 41. Levels of ProcessingLevels of Processing  The more deeply an item is processed,The more deeply an item is processed, the more long-lasting the memory tracethe more long-lasting the memory trace will be.will be.  Information processed in superficialInformation processed in superficial sensory terms – rapid decaysensory terms – rapid decay  Information processed phonologically –Information processed phonologically – intermediate decayintermediate decay  Information processed semanticallyInformation processed semantically (‘deeply’) – long-lasting.(‘deeply’) – long-lasting.
  42. 42. Levels of Processing Model of MemoryLevels of Processing Model of Memory Semantic (deep) Phonetic (middle) Structural (shallow) Depthofprocessing Results:Results: So, how can we apply this to learning school work?
  43. 43. Elaborative RehearsalElaborative Rehearsal  A more meaningful analysis of information.A more meaningful analysis of information.  Not present in the original MSMNot present in the original MSM  Leads to better recall, as information enters theLeads to better recall, as information enters the LTM more easily.LTM more easily.  For example, giving words a meaning or linkingFor example, giving words a meaning or linking them with previous knowledge.them with previous knowledge.
  44. 44. Lets give it a go!Lets give it a go!  You have 1 minute to work through theYou have 1 minute to work through the levels of processing section on page 10levels of processing section on page 10 of the text book.of the text book.  Then close your bookletThen close your booklet 1 minute
  45. 45. ??  If I wanted to check if the information hadIf I wanted to check if the information had entered your LTM, how could I check?entered your LTM, how could I check?
  46. 46.  Structural Processing:Structural Processing: a shallow level –a shallow level – we look at visual features of words, suchwe look at visual features of words, such as whether they are written in upper-caseas whether they are written in upper-case or lower-case letters.or lower-case letters.
  47. 47. PhoneticPhonetic Processing:Processing: At aAt a middle level – wemiddle level – we think about thethink about the sound of words.sound of words. Semantic Processing: At the deepest level – we think about the meaning of words
  48. 48. Experimental evidenceExperimental evidence (Craik & Lockhart, 1975)(Craik & Lockhart, 1975)  Is this word in upper or lower case letters?Is this word in upper or lower case letters? flyfly  Does the following word rhyme with mat?Does the following word rhyme with mat? HatHat  Does the following word fit into this sentence?Does the following word fit into this sentence? The man ate his …….The man ate his ……. mealmeal
  49. 49. Surprise recognition memory testSurprise recognition memory test Proportion correctly recognisedProportion correctly recognised.. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Case Rhyme Sentence Yes No
  50. 50. Craik and Tulving (1975)Craik and Tulving (1975)  This experiment (the original one) is roughlyThis experiment (the original one) is roughly what Craik and Tulving did.what Craik and Tulving did.  This is what Craik and Tulving used:This is what Craik and Tulving used:  Some participants.Some participants.  A list of 60 words, each followed by one of threeA list of 60 words, each followed by one of three types of questions.types of questions.  A long list of 180 words into which the originalA long list of 180 words into which the original words had been mixed.words had been mixed.  Key Study:Key Study: Write up their experiments -Write up their experiments - method and results bymethod and results by completing thecompleting the exercise on page 10 for the key study Craikexercise on page 10 for the key study Craik and Tulving (1975).and Tulving (1975). 10 minutes10 minutes
  51. 51.  My answer is on the next slide…My answer is on the next slide…
  52. 52. My Answer:My Answer:  AimAim: To investigate how deep and shallow processing affects memory: To investigate how deep and shallow processing affects memory recall.recall.  MethodMethod: Participants were presented with a list of 60 words about which: Participants were presented with a list of 60 words about which they had to answer one of three questions. Some questions required thethey had to answer one of three questions. Some questions required the participants to process the word in a deep way (e.g. semantic), some in aparticipants to process the word in a deep way (e.g. semantic), some in a medium way (e.g. phonemic) and others in a shallow way (e.g. structural).medium way (e.g. phonemic) and others in a shallow way (e.g. structural). For example:For example:  Structural processing: ‘Is the word in upper case letters?Structural processing: ‘Is the word in upper case letters? Phonemic processing: ‘Does the word rhyme with . . .?’Phonemic processing: ‘Does the word rhyme with . . .?’ Semantic processing: ‘Does the word go in this sentence . . . . ?Semantic processing: ‘Does the word go in this sentence . . . . ?  Participants were then given a long list of 180 words into which the originalParticipants were then given a long list of 180 words into which the original words had been mixed. They were asked to pick out the original words.words had been mixed. They were asked to pick out the original words.  ResultsResults: Participants recalled more words that were semantically processed: Participants recalled more words that were semantically processed compared to phonemically and visually processed words.compared to phonemically and visually processed words.
  53. 53. LoP summaryLoP summary  Levels of processing theory was proposedLevels of processing theory was proposed because of the problems associated withbecause of the problems associated with the structural approach to memory.the structural approach to memory.  Information that is only processedInformation that is only processed superficially is rapidly lost.superficially is rapidly lost.  Information processed deeply for meaningInformation processed deeply for meaning is retained.is retained.
  54. 54. Question 1Question 1  Psychologists were investigating the levels ofPsychologists were investigating the levels of processing model of memory.processing model of memory.  They presented participants with a list of words. AfterThey presented participants with a list of words. After each word, there was a question the participants hadeach word, there was a question the participants had to answer. There were three types of questions:to answer. There were three types of questions:  AA questions about the meaning of the wordsquestions about the meaning of the words  BB questions about the sound of the wordsquestions about the sound of the words  CC questions about the appearance of the wordsquestions about the appearance of the words  ForFor eacheach type of question,type of question, AA,, BB andand CC above, identifyabove, identify the level of processing that is involved in answeringthe level of processing that is involved in answering the questions.the questions. (3 marks)(3 marks)
  55. 55. Check your understandingCheck your understanding  Answer the questions at the bottom ofAnswer the questions at the bottom of page 15 of the photocopied chapter.page 15 of the photocopied chapter. 10 minutes
  56. 56. Real Life ApplicationsReal Life Applications This explanation of memory is useful in everyday lifeThis explanation of memory is useful in everyday life because it highlights the way in which elaboration, whichbecause it highlights the way in which elaboration, which requires deeper processing of information, can aid memory.requires deeper processing of information, can aid memory. Three examples of this are.Three examples of this are. •• ReworkingReworking – putting information in your own words or– putting information in your own words or talking about it with someone else.talking about it with someone else. •• Method of lociMethod of loci – when trying to remember a list of items,– when trying to remember a list of items, linking each with a familiar place or route.linking each with a familiar place or route. •• ImageryImagery – by creating an image of something you want to– by creating an image of something you want to remember, you elaborate on it and encode it visually (i.e. aremember, you elaborate on it and encode it visually (i.e. a mind map).mind map).

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