Romantic relationships theory
Make a few notes ready to discuss as a whole class in 5
minutes.
Why do we form romantic rel...
Romantic relationships theory
Relationships have three distinct phases:
They begin
They sometimes end They are maintained
...
Romantic relationships theory
Wednesday 11th September 2013
L.O. To describe how relationships start and the processes
inv...
Romantic relationships theory
Make a few notes ready to discuss as a whole class in 5
minutes.
How do romantic relationshi...
Romantic relationships theory-CONTACT.
• Regular contact and proximity are important factors in two
people beginning a rel...
Quick Check
‘Regular contact and physical proximity are important factors in
the beginning of a relationship’. Discuss.
Yo...
Romantic relationships theory-Physical appearance.
• Once two people become aware of each other’s existence,
physical appe...
Rate each of the 14 pictures on a Likert scale of 1-10. Where 10 is
stunningly attractive and 1 is really ugly.
Do not dis...
Barack Obama Kate Middleton
Prince William Kobe Bryant
Blake Shelton Jennifer Aniston
Ellen Degeneres
The matching hypothesis- Walster et al (1966).
• The matching hypothesis suggests that people
of similar attractiveness le...
Couples results:
Score Score Match?
Barack Obama Michelle Obama
Prince William Kate Middleton
Kobe Bryant Vanessa Laine
Bl...
TASK:
Read ‘The Matching Hypothesis’ section and Murstein (1972) on
page 103 of the Collins Psychology A2 for AQA A textbo...
Homework task:
Either carry out the same test using the same 14 pictures on 10-20
participants and write up the experiment...
Matching Hypothesis
• Ideally we all want a perfect partner. But as
this is not possible we compromise. We are
likely to b...
Research study : Matching Hypothesis
The Computer Dance Study (Walster, 1966)
752 students bought welcome week tickets for...
Computer Dance Study
• Those who were physically attractive were liked the most. Men
asked out a partner if they found her...
Evaluating the matching theory.
• Hatfield and Sprecher (2009)- Complex matching- Physical
attractiveness is not the only ...
• Gender differences- Takeuchi (2006) has found a difference
exists in the degree to which physical attractiveness is
valu...
• The role of the third party- Most of us in our society make our
own dating and mating choices, however they can often be...
Another theory to look at in the formation of relationships is the
‘Reward/need satisfaction model’ (Byrne and Clore 1970)...
Evaluating the reward/need satisfaction model.
Giving and receiving- Hays (1985) found that it was the totality of
both gi...
SELF ASSESSMENT
• Can I describe three factors that contribute to the start of a
relationship?
• Can I explain why/how rel...
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    1. 1. Romantic relationships theory Make a few notes ready to discuss as a whole class in 5 minutes. Why do we form romantic relationships? Relationships provide rewards (approval, sex, status, love, money, respect, agreement with our opinions, smiling, etc) that satisfy our social needs (for self-esteem, affiliation, dependency, influence etc)
    2. 2. Romantic relationships theory Relationships have three distinct phases: They begin They sometimes end They are maintained FORMATION MAINTENANCEBREAKDOWN
    3. 3. Romantic relationships theory Wednesday 11th September 2013 L.O. To describe how relationships start and the processes involved in attraction. Wednesday 11th September 2013 L.O. To describe how relationships start and the processes involved in attraction.
    4. 4. Romantic relationships theory Make a few notes ready to discuss as a whole class in 5 minutes. How do romantic relationships start?
    5. 5. Romantic relationships theory-CONTACT. • Regular contact and proximity are important factors in two people beginning a relationship. • Bossard (1932) found that more than half of 5,000 couples who applied to get married in Philadelphia lived within a few minutes walk of each other. • Festinger et al (1950) compared the friendships formed by students in halls of residence and found people were more likely to be friends with people on the same floor or corridor than those from the floor above or below. • Living or working near someone allows regular and easy contact. However in today’s society we don’t need to physically be near someone to keep in regular contact thanks to the use of Social Networking sites making physical proximity less of an important factor.
    6. 6. Quick Check ‘Regular contact and physical proximity are important factors in the beginning of a relationship’. Discuss. You have ten minutes to write a suitable answer. Answer checklist: What would make a good answer to the ‘Quick check’ above?
    7. 7. Romantic relationships theory-Physical appearance. • Once two people become aware of each other’s existence, physical appearance plays some role in attraction. • What makes someone physically attractive? • Architectural factors e.g. facial features, body shape and size. • Dynamic factors e.g. how someone dresses and talks, their facial expressions etc. • It tends to be a combination of both architectural and dynamic factors. • What does seem to be important in early attraction is that two people are of a similar level of attractiveness (Walster (1966) the matching hypothesis).
    8. 8. Rate each of the 14 pictures on a Likert scale of 1-10. Where 10 is stunningly attractive and 1 is really ugly. Do not discuss your answers. Just write the name of the person and their score.
    9. 9. Barack Obama Kate Middleton
    10. 10. Prince William Kobe Bryant
    11. 11. Blake Shelton Jennifer Aniston
    12. 12. Ellen Degeneres
    13. 13. The matching hypothesis- Walster et al (1966). • The matching hypothesis suggests that people of similar attractiveness levels tend to pair up. • So what do our results tell us? • Find the average score for each of the fourteen people you have just rated.
    14. 14. Couples results: Score Score Match? Barack Obama Michelle Obama Prince William Kate Middleton Kobe Bryant Vanessa Laine Blake Shelton Miranda Lambert Justin Theroux Jennifer Aniston Zooey Deschanel Jamie Linden Portia de Rossi Ellen Degeneres Evaluate and discuss the results. What do they suggest? Make a note of your findings.
    15. 15. TASK: Read ‘The Matching Hypothesis’ section and Murstein (1972) on page 103 of the Collins Psychology A2 for AQA A textbook. Make notes on the theory and use the theory to analyse/evaluate your results. Be ready to share with the class in 15 minutes.
    16. 16. Homework task: Either carry out the same test using the same 14 pictures on 10-20 participants and write up the experiment or carry out a similar test looking at famous couples/ex-couple attractiveness e.g. Brad Pitt- Jennifer Aniston- Angelina Jolie- Gwyneth Paltrow- Claire Forlani- Thandie Newton etc Plus the on going expectation that all your class notes need to be typed up and added to from other sources at the end of every lesson. Due in next lesson-Wednesday 18th September
    17. 17. Matching Hypothesis • Ideally we all want a perfect partner. But as this is not possible we compromise. We are likely to become matched to somebody who most matches what we want. • In the real world we chose somebody who is the best we feel we could get!!(in terms of attraction etc) for fear of rejection.
    18. 18. Research study : Matching Hypothesis The Computer Dance Study (Walster, 1966) 752 students bought welcome week tickets for a computer dance. When they bought the ticket they were told that information they gave about themselves would be fed into a computer and this would provide an, ‘ideal match’ date. In fact they were randomly assigned any partner. When students were giving their data (when they booked their ticket) an unseen observer marked them on attractiveness. After spending two hours with their dates students were asked how much they liked their partner.
    19. 19. Computer Dance Study • Those who were physically attractive were liked the most. Men asked out a partner if they found her attractive ,regardless of how attractive they were.  High ecological validity: naturalistic setting. Unexpected results: The study does not support the matching hypothesis. If we match each other then we should only ask somebody out whose level of attractiveness matches our own.
    20. 20. Evaluating the matching theory. • Hatfield and Sprecher (2009)- Complex matching- Physical attractiveness is not the only factor that is involved in two people getting together. Often what a person lacks in physical attractiveness they make up for with a great personality, status, wealth etc. • A typical example of complex matching is when an older, wealthy and successful man pairs up with a younger, attractive woman!
    21. 21. • Gender differences- Takeuchi (2006) has found a difference exists in the degree to which physical attractiveness is valued by the sexes. • Physical attractiveness of women is valued more heavily by men, but physical attractiveness of men is valued less by women!! • This gender difference implies that men can make up for being less attractive by having other desirable traits such as status, wealth and personality. WHY?
    22. 22. • The role of the third party- Most of us in our society make our own dating and mating choices, however they can often be influenced by friends, family or even internet dating sites. • Hatfield and Sprecher (2009) suggest it is likely that these third parties would consider compatibility rather than just physical appearance. • Xiaohe and Whyte (1990) researched ‘arranged marriages’ and found that parents used compatibility to judge the ideal candidate and made better long term pairings than if they had used physical attraction and hormones!
    23. 23. Another theory to look at in the formation of relationships is the ‘Reward/need satisfaction model’ (Byrne and Clore 1970). According to this theory relationships are rewarding and life alone is unpleasant and unrewarding. Operant conditioning Classical conditioning • Some people may reward us directly e.g. love, sex, gifts etc. • Argyle (1992) points out that individuals who are rewarding (because they are friendly, helpful and cheerful) tend to be liked the most. • Some people may reward us indirectly by their association with pleasant experiences. • May and Hamilton (1980)asked female students to rate the attractiveness of male photographs. While rating group 1 heard pleasant music, group 2 heard unpleasant and control group heard no music. Group 1 rated the photos more attractive- supporting the reward/need satisfaction model.
    24. 24. Evaluating the reward/need satisfaction model. Giving and receiving- Hays (1985) found that it was the totality of both giving and receiving not just the receiving that made the relationship satisfying. Limitations- Many social relationships mainly in Eastern collectivist cultures show little need for rewards/reinforcement. Hill (1972) showed that kinship bonds are very influential, resilient and are not dependent on reinforcement. Gender differences- Lott (1994) noted that in many cultures women are socialised into the role of care giver looking after the needs of their husband and child. However you could argue that looking after a husband and child provides it’s own rewards.
    25. 25. SELF ASSESSMENT • Can I describe three factors that contribute to the start of a relationship? • Can I explain why/how relationships start using two theories? • Can I explain why/how people become attracted to each other?

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