Marxism and
Neo- Marxism
Theory and Methods Unit 4
Classical Marxism
Classical Marxism was founded by….
Base and Superstructure
Copy and explain this diagram (Browne pg 343)...
Capitalism - What are 3 key features of capitalism?
Class consciousness: Explain how capitalism brings its own destruction...
Two ways that Classical Marxism differs to Functionalism
The main way that Neo Marxism is different to Classical Marxism
H...
Why are Gramsci’s writings considered to be humanistic? (Webb pg 229)
Two ways that the ruling class maintains its dominan...
This diagram shows the Marxist base superstructure model where
the base is the economic system which determines what the
s...
The Repressive state apparatus (RSA)
Comparisons
Colour the boxes – one colour for Humanistic Marxism and another for Stru...
Evaluation of Neo- Marxism:
Summarise Neo Marxism in 5 sentences.
Or Write a tweet on neo Marxism.
WeaknessesStrengths
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  1. 1. Marxism and Neo- Marxism Theory and Methods Unit 4
  2. 2. Classical Marxism Classical Marxism was founded by…. Base and Superstructure Copy and explain this diagram (Browne pg 343) Evolution of social Classes Marx describes successive class societies and the evolution of private ownership in order to explain how work and wealth are linked. This demonstrates how the economy is the base level of society. Ancient society Feudal society Capitalist society Communist society?? Addaquote Key Word: Means of production Key Word: Relations of Production Key Word: Surplus value / product
  3. 3. Capitalism - What are 3 key features of capitalism? Class consciousness: Explain how capitalism brings its own destruction and explain the term Class consciousness. Ideology: How does the ruling class prevent this destruction? Use the key terms mental production, false consciousness and dominant ideology. Alienation:What is it and for what two reasons is it a result of capitalism? Evaluation: Strengths Addaquote
  4. 4. Two ways that Classical Marxism differs to Functionalism The main way that Neo Marxism is different to Classical Marxism Humanistic or Critical Marxism Weaknesses Conflict of Interests Instability and Change Antonio Gramsci (22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian writer, politician, political theorist, philosopher, sociologist, and linguist. He was a founding member and onetime leader of the Communist Party of Italy and was imprisoned by Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime. Gramsci was one of the most important Marxist thinkers in the 20th century. He is a notable figure within modern European thought and his writings analyze culture and political leadership. He is known for his theory of cultural hegemony, which describes how states use cultural institutions to maintain power in a capitalist societies. Taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Gramsci Addaquote
  5. 5. Why are Gramsci’s writings considered to be humanistic? (Webb pg 229) Two ways that the ruling class maintains its dominance over society Why is the hegemony of the ruling class never complete?? What is the counter-hegemonic bloc? What is an organic intellectual and how can they undermine capitalism? Key Word: Hegemony (hedge emony!) 1 2 Key Word: Relative autonomy Picture of an organic intellectual
  6. 6. This diagram shows the Marxist base superstructure model where the base is the economic system which determines what the superstructure (institutions and ideology) are like. Althusser disagreed with this and suggested three levels where each level has relative autonomy and some independence of each other: 1 2 3 Structural Marxism Craib likened this model to a 3 storey house – Use this picture to explain this. (Webb pg 231) The state doesn’t just have an economic function but must also function/ work politically and ideologically. How the state works is called thestate apparatus. Explain these Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher. He was born in Algeria and studied in Paris. Althusser was a longtime member—although sometimes a strong critic—of the French Communist Party. His arguments and thesis were set against the threats that hesaw attacking the theoretical foundations of Marxism. These included both the influence of empiricism on Marxist theory, and humanist and reformist socialist orientations which manifested as divisions in the European communist parties, as well as the problem of the "cult of personality" and of ideology.Althusser is commonly referred to as a structural Marxist, although his relationship to other schools of French structuralism is not a simple affiliation and he was critical of many aspects of structuralism. Althusser's life was marked by periods of intense mental illness. During one of his bouts, he killed his wife by strangling her.
  7. 7. The Repressive state apparatus (RSA) Comparisons Colour the boxes – one colour for Humanistic Marxism and another for Structuralist / Scientific Marxism Humanistic Marxism Structuralist / Scientific Marxism Althusser Gramsci Based on Marx’s earlier writings Based on Marx’s later writings Sees Marxism as a political critique of capitalism and calls to overthrow it Sees Marxism as a science discovering the laws of how capitalism works Deterministic Voluntaristic Socialism will come when the contradictions in capitalism brings about its own collapse Socialism will come when people become conscious of the need to overthrow capitalism Encourages political action Discourages political action Closer to an interpretivist approach and action theories Closer to a structural and positivist approach Top down view of society Bottom up view of society People actions shape history Structures and Institutions shape history Ideological state apparatus (ISA) Is this picture (RSA or ISA) and why?
  8. 8. Evaluation of Neo- Marxism: Summarise Neo Marxism in 5 sentences. Or Write a tweet on neo Marxism. WeaknessesStrengths

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