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  • 1. AQA Psychology AS Level PSYA1 and PSYA2 Past Examination Questions Jan 2009-Jan 2013 Please keep safe in your Psychology folder and bring to all of your lessons. All the questions are from past papers; past papers, marks schemes and exam reports can be found on ilearn 1
  • 2. Contents Question numbers Page COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Multi-store Model 1-10 3 Working memory 11-16 4 EWT 17-22 5 Improving memory 23-30 6 DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Explanations of attachment 31-35 7 Types of attachment 36-41 7-8 Cultural variations 42-44 8 Disruption to attachment 45-49 9 Day Care 50-58 9-10 RESEARCH METHODS Methods and Techniques 59-72 11-12 Investigation Design 73-98 13-18 Data Analysis 99-113 18-23 BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY Body stress response 114-123 24-26 Immune system 124-129 26 Life changes 130-133 27 Work place stress 134-141 27-28 Personality 142-148 28-29 Stress management 149-152 29 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Conformity 153-162 30-31 Obedience 163-173 32-33 Independent behaviour 174-186 33-34 Social change 187-191 34 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Definitions of abnormality 192-196 35 Biological explanations 197 35 Psychological explanations 198-205 35-36 Biological treatments 206-207 36 Psychological therapies 208-216 37-38 12 Mark Essay Questions PSYA1 39 PSYA2 40 2
  • 3. PSYA1: COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY The Multi-Store Model of Memory 1. The following are all concepts relating to memory: A) Duration B) Capacity C) Encoding D) Retrieval. In the table below, write which one of the concepts listed above (A, B, C or D) matches each definition. Definition Concept The length of time the memory store holds information Transforming incoming information into a form that can be stored in memory (2 marks) 2. Research has suggested that the encoding and capacity of short-term memory are different from the encoding and capacity of long-term memory. Explain what is meant by encoding. (2 marks) 3. Outline the difference between the capacity of short-term memory and the capacity of long-term memory. (2 marks) 4. Outline the main features of the multi-store model of memory. (6 marks) 5. The multi-store model of memory has been criticised in many ways. The following example illustrates a possible criticism. Some students read through their revision notes lots of times before an examination, but still find it difficult to remember the information. However, the same students can remember the information in a celebrity magazine, even though they read it only once. Explain why this can be used as a criticism of the multi-store model of memory. (4 marks) 6. A case study was carried out on Peter whose brain was damaged in a motorcycle accident. Psychologists tested how many numbers he could hold in his short-term memory. They did this by reading him lists of numbers and asking him to recall the numbers immediately in the right order. He could recall a maximum of two items. The psychologists found that his long-term memory was normal. a) How was Peter’s short-term memory after the accident different from most adults’ short-term memory? (2 marks) b) Does this case study support the multi-store model of memory? (4 marks) 7. According to the multi-store model of memory, STM and LTM are separate stores. Outline evidence to support this. (4 marks) 8. The multi-store model of memory proposes that there are separate short-term and long-term stores. Explain two differences between short-term memory and long-term memory in this model (2 marks + 2 marks) 3
  • 4. 9. Describe one way in which psychologists have investigated the duration of short-term memory. In your answer, you should include details of stimulus materials used, what participants were asked to do and how duration was measured. (4 marks) 10. Jamie wanted to contact his doctor. He looked up the number in his telephone directory. Before he dialled the number, he had a short conversation with his friend. Jamie was about to phone his doctor, but he had forgotten the number. Use your knowledge of the multi-store model to explain why Jamie would not remember the doctor’s number. (4 marks) The Working Memory Model 11. Tick two of the boxes below to indicate which of the following are features of the working memory model. A Serial position curve B Incidental learning store C Central executive D Phonological loop (2 marks) 12. Outline the main features of the working memory model. (4 marks) 13. Explain one limitation of the working memory model. (2 marks) 14. A brain scan shows that one area of the brain is more active when a person is doing a verbal task. However, when this person is doing a visual task, a different area of the brain is more active. a) Explain how this could relate to the working memory model. Refer to different parts of the working memory model in your answer. (4 marks) b) Give an example of an appropriate verbal task and an appropriate visual task which could be used during the brain scan. (1 mark + 1 mark) 15. Three components of the working memory model are the central executive, the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad. Briefly outline each of these components. (2 + 2 + 2) 16. An experiment was carried out to investigate the working memory model. One group of participants was asked to carry out two visual tasks at the same time. A different group of participants was asked to carry out a visual task and a verbal task at the same time. The results showed that the participants who carried out two visual tasks at the same time performed less well on the tasks than participants who carried out a visual task and a verbal task at the same time. Use your knowledge of the working memory model to explain this finding. (3 marks) 4
  • 5. Eyewitness testimony 17. A researcher carried out an experiment to investigate misleading information. Participants were shown a photograph in which a man and a woman were talking. The photograph was then taken away and the participants were asked questions about it. Participants were randomly allocated to condition one or condition two. Participants in condition one were asked: Question A “How old was the youth in the photograph?” Participants in condition two were asked: Question B “How old was the man in the photograph?” a) Why is Question A an example of misleading information? b) Describe at least one other research study into misleading information. In your answer you should include details of what participants were asked to do and what results were found. 18. Outline and evaluate research into the effects of misleading information on eyewitness testimony. (8 marks) 19. A psychologist carried out a field experiment to investigate the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. The participants were pupils and parents attending a school concert. Just before the concert began, two professional actors had an argument on the stage. During the argument, one actor pushed the other actor. Both actors then left the stage. Some of the audience were approached as they left the concert and were asked to take part in an experiment. Those who agreed were taken to a quiet room and were asked some questions about the argument. For some participants, the questions included, “Did you see the man in glasses push the other man?” In fact, neither man was wearing glasses. The participants were then asked to describe the argument in their own words. Suggest why the psychologist included the question about the man in glasses. (2 marks) 20. Outline how one research study investigated the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (EWT). (4 marks) 21. Describe what research has shown about the effect of the age of witnesses on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. (6 marks) 22. An American space shuttle exploded soon after it was launched. All of the astronauts on board were killed. Crowds of people were watching, including friends and relatives of the astronauts. Six months after the explosion, a student decided to investigate the accuracy of some of the eyewitnesses’ memory of this event. Explain how anxiety might have affected eyewitness testimony of this event. Refer to psychological research in your answer. 5
  • 6. Improving Memory 23. Traditionally, police have questioned eye witnesses using the standard interview procedure. This involves a period of free recall about an event, followed by specific questions. However, an increasing number of police forces are now using the cognitive interview technique. a) Explain how a cognitive interview differs from a standard interview. (4 marks) b) Psychologists have carried out research into the use of cognitive interviews. One possible ethical issue which might arise during this research is protection of participants from harm. Explain how psychologists could deal with this ethical issue. (3 marks) 24. Cognitive interviews have been developed to improve witness recall. Identify and explain two techniques used in the cognitive interview. (3 marks + 3 marks) 25. An American space shuttle exploded soon after it was launched. All of the astronauts on board were killed. Crowds of people were watching, including friends and relatives of the astronauts. Six months after the explosion, a student decided to investigate the accuracy of some of the eyewitnesses’ memory of this event. Outline how the student could have used a cognitive interview to investigate this event. Include at least one example of what the participants would be asked to do. (4 marks) 26. Jenny was standing at a bus stop talking on her mobile phone. The weather was wet and cold. Two men in the bus queue started arguing. One of the men was stabbed and badly injured. Later that day the police questioned Jenny, using a cognitive interview. They asked her to report everything she could remember about the incident even if it seemed unimportant. Apart from ‘report everything’, explain how the police could use a cognitive interview to investigate what Jenny could remember. In your answer you must refer to details from the passage above. (4 marks) 27. Psychologists have suggested various strategies for memory improvement. Outline one or more ways to improve memory. (4 marks) 28. A student teacher finds it very difficult to remember pupils’ names. She decides to look in a psychology book to find some useful strategies for improving her memory. Outline one strategy the student teacher could use, and explain why this might improve her memory for pupils’ names. (4 marks) 29. Describe strategies for memory improvement. (5 marks) 30. One technique used in cognitive interviews is ‘report everything’. When using this technique, the police officer in this investigation read the following instructions to the participants: “Please tell me everything you can remember about what you saw in the film. Do not leave anything out, even the small details you think may be unimportant.” Identify one other technique which could have been used by the police officer in this cognitive interview. Write down the instructions that he could have read out to the participants. (3 marks) 6
  • 7. PSYA1: DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Explanations of Attachment 31. What is meant by the term attachment? (2 marks) 32. Tick two of the statements below to indicate which of the following statements relate to Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment. (2 marks) A Attachment takes place during a critical period or not at all. B Infants become attached to the person who feeds them. C Infants are innately programmed to form an attachment. D Attachments are based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning. 33. Learning theory provides one explanation of attachment. It suggests that attachment will be between an infant and the person who feeds it. However, the findings of some research studies do not support this explanation. Outline research findings that challenge the learning theory of attachment. (4 marks) 34. Outline an evolutionary explanation of attachment (5 marks) 35. Outline and evaluate Bowlby’s explanation of attachment (8 marks) Types of Attachment 36. Ainsworth identified different types of attachment in children, including secure and insecure attachment. Identify two characteristics of an insecurely attached child. (2 marks) 37. Outline how Ainsworth studied types of attachment. (3 marks) 38. Ainsworth and Bell observed infants in an unfamiliar room to assess the quality of their attachment to their mother. Observations during this ‘Strange Situation’ related to the following categories of behaviour: o Exploration – how much the infant explored the unfamiliar room; o Separation behaviour – how the infant reacted when the mother left; o Stranger anxiety – the response of the infant to a stranger; o Reunion behaviour – how the infant reacted when the mother returned. Select two of these categories and explain how the behaviour of securely attached infants and insecurely attached infants would be different in the ‘Strange Situation’. (2 + 2 marks) b) Briefly explain why some children show characteristics of secure attachment and some characteristics of insecure attachment. (2 marks) 39. By observing interactions between the infants and their mothers in a Strange Situation, Mary Ainsworth was able to identify different types of attachment. a) Describe possible demand characteristics in this research. (3 marks) b) How does the behaviour of securely attached infants differ from that of insecurely attached infants? (4 marks) 7
  • 8. 40. Sam and Dan are both twelve months old. They are observed separately in Ainsworth’s Strange Situation. Sam is slightly upset when his mother leaves, but Dan is very upset and cries loudly. a) Identify the type of attachment suggested by the behaviour of each chiild. (2 marks) b) Sam’s and Dan’s behaviour was then observed when the mothers returned. Give one example of the behaviour that each child would be likely to show. (2 marks) c) Apart from ethical issues, explain one or more limitations of using the Strange Situation to assess the type of attachment in young children. 4 marks) 41. A researcher used the Strange Situation to investigate the attachment types of two infants. Megan was classified as insecure-avoidant. Rosie was classified as insecure- resistant. Explain how Megan’s behaviour would differ from Rosie’s behaviour in the Strange Situation. (4 marks) Culture and Attachment 42. A psychologist analysed the results of ‘Strange Situation’ studies from different countries. Some of the results are shown below. Country (and number of studies) % of each type of attachment Secure Insecure- Avoidant Insecure- Resistant Country One (2) 64 7 29 Country Two (18) 65 21 14 Country Three (4) 67 26 7 a) Outline what the table above shows about cultural variations in attachment. (3 marks) b) Explain one criticism of investigating cultural variations in attachment using the ‘Strange Situation.’ (3 marks) 43. Observation in a Strange Situation has been used to investigate cultural variations in attachment. Outline what research has shown about cultural variations in attachment. (4 marks) 44. Some people say that Ainsworth’s studies lacked validity. Explain this criticism of Ainsworth. (4 marks) 8
  • 9. Disruption of Attachments 45. Explain the difference between privation and disruption of attachment. You may use examples to help explain the difference. (4 marks) 46. Psychologists have studied the effects of early experience on children’s later behaviour. This has included the effects of institutional care and privation. Explain what is meant by the terms institutional care and privation. You may use examples in your answer. (4 marks) 47. Simon, a two-year-old boy, was left by his parents in a residential nursery for nine days. His mother did not see him during this time because she was in hospital. He was looked after by many different carers who gave him good physical care. Explain how Simon’s behaviour might change as a result of disruption of attachment. (4 marks) 48. Suggest one way in which Simon’s experience when his mother went into hospital could have been improved. (2 marks) 49. Research has suggested that institutionalisation can have negative effects on children. In the 1990s, many children were found living in poor quality orphanages in Romania. Luca had lived in one of these orphanages from birth. When he was four years old, he was adopted and he left the orphanage to live in Canada. His development was then studied for a number of years. a) Outline possible negative effects of institutionalisation on Luca. (4 marks) b) The scenario above is an example of a case study. Outline one strength and one limitation of this research method. (2 marks + 2 marks) c) Disruption of attachment can occur when children experience separation from their attachment figure during their early childhood. Outline one study of the effects of disruption of attachment. (4 marks) Day Care 50. Outline what research has shown about the effects of day care on children’s aggressive behaviour. (6 marks) 51. A recent study recorded the amount of time that children spent in day care from birth to four years, and asked each child’s mother to rate her child for aggression and disobedience. The study found that, as the time spent in day care went up, the mothers’ rating of aggression and disobedience also went up. The researchers also found that children who experienced better quality day care had fewer behavioural problems than children who experienced lower quality day care. a) Outline two characteristics of high quality day care. (2 marks + 2 marks) b) What have studies shown us about the effects of day care on peer relations? (4 marks) 52. State the findings of one study into the effects of day care on social development. (4 marks) 9
  • 10. 53. Both of Ali’s parents work full time, so they have decided to put him into day care. They do not have any relatives or friends who could care for Ali, but there are several types of day care available locally. a) Name two different forms of day care which might be suitable for Ali (2 marks) b) What advice would you give to Ali’s parents to help them choose the most suitable day care for Ali? (4 marks) 54. A psychologist assessed the aggressive behaviour of 100 five-year-old children who were starting school. The children had attended day care for at least 20 hours a week. Fifty of the children had attended day nurseries. The other fifty children had been looked after by childminders. The children who attended the day nurseries were more aggressive than the children who had been looked after by childminders. 55. The researcher then decided to investigate how day care affects peer relationships. Explain what is meant by peer relations. 56. A researcher investigated the effect of age of starting day care on levels of aggression. Four-year-old children attending a day nursery were used. Each child was assessed by the researcher and given an aggression score. A high score indicated a high level of aggression. A low score indicated a low level of aggression. The maximum score was 50. What do the mean scores in Table 1 suggest about the effect of age at which children started day care on children’s aggression? (2 marks) Implications of research into attachment for childcare practices 57. Outline two implications of research into day care for childcare practices. (3+3 marks) 58. Explain how child care has been influenced by findings of research into attachment. (4 marks) 10
  • 11. PSYA1: RESEARCH METHODS METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Experimental method, including laboratory, field and natural experiments 59. A psychologist assessed the aggressive behaviour of 100 five-year-old children who were starting school. The children had attended day care for at least 20 hours a week. Fifty of the children had attended day nurseries. The other fifty children had been looked after by childminders. The children who attended the day nurseries were more aggressive than the children who had been looked after by childminders. a) Explain why this is an example of a natural experiment. (2 marks) b) Explain why it might be better to carry out research into eyewitness testimony in the real world, rather than in a laboratory. (3 marks) 60. A psychologist carried out a field experiment to investigate the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. The participants were pupils and parents attending a school concert. Just before the concert began, two professional actors had an argument on stage. During the argument, one actor pushed the other actor. Both actors then left the stage. Some of the audience were approached as they left the concert and asked to take part in an experiment. Those who agreed were taken to a quiet room and were asked some questions about the argument. For some participants, the questions included “Did you see the man in the glasses push the other man?” In fact, neither man was wearing glasses. The participants were then asked to describe the arguments in their own words. a) What is a field experiment? (2 marks) b) Other than ethical issues, outline one weakness of using a field experiment in this investigation. (2 marks) 61. Dave, a middle-aged male researcher, approached an adult in a busy street. He asked the adult for directions to the train station. He repeated this with 29 other adults. Each of the 30 adults was then approached by a second researcher, called Sam, who showed each of them 10 photographs of different middle-aged men, including a photograph of Dave. Sam asked the 30 adults to choose the photograph of the person who had asked them for directions to the train station. Sam estimated the age of each of the 30 adults and recorded whether each one had correctly chosen the photograph of Dave. 62. Suggest one reason why the researchers decided to use a field experiment rather than a laboratory experiment. (2 marks) 63. Explain why it might be better to carry out research into eyewitness testimony in the real world, rather than in a laboratory. (3 marks) Studies using a correlational analysis 64. Outline one strength and one weakness of using correlational research to investigate the effects of day care. (2 marks + 2 marks) Outline one strength and one weakness of using correlations in stress research. (4 marks) 11
  • 12. Observational techniques 65. Give one advantage of using observation in psychological research. (2 marks) 66. One situation in which disruption of attachment can occur is when a mother of a young child is admitted into hospital. A researcher decided to study the behaviour of a two-year- old boy who experienced this disruption of attachment. She decided to use naturalistic observation of the boy both before his mother was admitted into hospital and after she returned home. Each period of observation lasted for one hour. (a) Suggest two suitable behavioural categories the researcher could use to record the boy’s behaviour. (2 marks) (b) How might the researcher record the boy’s behaviour during the one-hour observation? (2 marks) (c) Explain why the psychologist might want to carry out a pilot study before the main observation. (2 marks) Self-report techniques including questionnaire and interview 67. Questionnaires and interviews are both self-report techniques. Explain one advantage and one disadvantage of using a questionnaire rather than an interview. (4 marks) Both life changes and daily hassles are often measured using questionnaires. Give two limitations of using questionnaires. (2 marks + 2 marks) A researcher used a questionnaire and an in-depth interview to assess Georgia’s personality. After completing the questionnaire Georgia was found to be Type A. However, after the in-depth interview she was found to be Type B. Explain why these methods might produce such different results. (4 marks) 68. Questionnaires have been used by psychologists to investigate stress. Explain one possible ethical issue that might arise when using questionnaires in this area of psychology. (2 marks) b) Apart from ethics, explain one other problem of using questionnaires to investigate stress. (2 marks) Case studies 69. Psychologists sometimes use case studies to study children. One example was of a boy who was discovered at the age of six. He had been kept in a darkened room and had had almost no social contact with people. How could a psychologist maintain confidentiality when reporting a case study? (2 marks) 70. Psychologists use a range of techniques to gather information in case studies. Outline one technique which the psychologist could use in this case study. (2 marks) 71. Apart from ethical issues, explain one or more limitations of using case studies. (4 marks) 72. Case studies are a commonly used method of investigating abnormality. a) What is meant by a case study? (2 marks) 12
  • 13. b) Outline one weakness of using a case study as a method of investigation. (2 marks) INVESTIGATION DESIGN Hypotheses, including directional and non-directional 73. A psychologist carried out an experiment using an independent groups design. The psychologist wished to investigate the effectiveness of a strategy for memory improvement. In one condition, participants were taught a memory improvement strategy. In the other condition, participants were not taught this memory improvement strategy. All participants were asked to memorise 10 pictures of familiar objects. For example, the first was a doll, the second was an apple. All participants were then given 50 pictures each, and asked to select the original 10. Write a directional hypothesis for this experiment. (2 marks) 74. A researcher carried out an experiment to investigate how many numbers could be held in short-term memory. The participants were 15 children and 15 adults. Participants were asked to repeat lists of random numbers, in the correct order, as soon as they were read out by the researcher. For example, when the researcher said, “3, 4, 2, 8” the participant immediately repeated “3, 4, 2, 8”. When the researcher then said, “7, 5, 9, 6, 4” the participant immediately repeated “7, 5, 9, 6, 4”. One number was added to the list each time until participants were unable to recall the list correctly. Each participant’s maximum digit span was recorded. Write an appropriate non-directional hypothesis for this experiment. (2 marks) 75. Dave, a middle-aged male researcher, approached an adult in a busy street. He asked the adult for directions to the train station. He repeated this with 29 other adults. Each of the 30 adults was then approached by a second researcher, called Sam, who showed each of them 10 photographs of different middle-aged men, including a photograph of Dave. Sam asked the 30 adults to choose the photograph of the person who had asked them for directions to the train station. Sam estimated the age of each of the 30 adults and recorded whether each one had correctly chosen the photograph of Dave. Identify one aim of this experiment. (2 marks) Experimental design (independent groups, repeated measures and matched pairs) 76. Explain what is meant by an independent groups design. (2 mark) 77. Explain one strength and one limitation of using an independent groups design. (4) 78. A researcher carried out an experiment to investigate misleading information. Participants were shown a photograph in which a man and a woman were talking. The photograph was then taken away and the participants were asked questions about it. Participants were randomly allocated to condition one or condition two. Participants in condition one were asked: Question A “How old was the youth in the photograph?” Participants in condition two were asked: Question B “How old was the man in the photograph?” Name an appropriate experimental design which could be used in this experiment. Explain why a repeated measures design would be unsuitable to use in this experiment. (1 mark + 3 marks) 13
  • 14. 79. A psychologist used an independent groups design to investigate whether or not a cognitive interview was more effective than a standard interview, in recalling information. For this experiment, participants were recruited from an advertisement placed in a local paper. The advertisement informed the participants that they would be watching a film of a violent crime and that they would be interviewed about the content by a male police officer. The psychologist compared the mean number of items recalled in the cognitive interview with the mean number recalled in the standard interview. Explain one advantage of using an independent groups design for this experiment. (2 marks) Design of naturalistic observations 80. Some research has suggested that there is a relationship between the time children wend in day care and their aggressive behaviour. Researchers selected a group of school children who had been in day care. They asked the children’s mothers to estimate how many hours a week their children had spent in day care. They measured he same children’s aggression. Suggest one way in which the children’s aggression could be measured. (2 marks) 81. Observation in a Strange Situation has been used to investigate cultural variations in attachment. Give one advantage of using observation in psychological research. (2 marks) Design of questionnaires and interviews 82. A psychologist investigated the effect of different forms of day care on children’s later social development. She selected two different types of day care: child minders and day nurseries. The children had been in one of these types of day care full-time for at least a year before they started primary school. Each child’s mother was asked to complete a questionnaire. a) Write one suitable question which could be used in the questionnaire to produce quantitative data. (2 marks) b) Write one suitable question which could be used in the questionnaire to produce qualitative data. (2 marks) 83. A psychologist carried out a research study to investigate the effects of institutional care. To do this, she constructed a questionnaire to use with 100 adults who had spent some time in an institution when they were children. She also carried out interviews with ten of the adults. For this study, explain one advantage of collecting information using a questionnaire. (3 marks) Operationalisation of variables, including independent and dependent variables 84. A psychologist showed participants 100 different cards, one at a time. Each card had two unrelated words printed on it, eg DOG, HAT. Participants in one group were instructed to form a mental image to link the words. Participants in the other group were instructed simply to memorise the words. After all the word pairs had been presented, each participant was shown a card with the first word of each pair printed on it. Participants were asked to recall the second word. The following results were found. 14
  • 15. a) What is the independent variable (IV) in this study? (2 marks) b) What is the dependent variable in this study? (2 marks) 85. A psychologist used an independent groups design to investigate whether or not a cognitive interview was more effective than a standard interview, in recalling information. For this experiment, participants were recruited from an advertisement placed in a local paper. The advertisement informed the participants that they would be watching a film of a violent crime and that they would be interviewed about the content by a male police officer. The psychologist compared the mean number of items recalled in the cognitive interview with the mean number recalled in the standard interview. Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable in this experiment. (2 marks) Pilot studies 86. A researcher carried out an experiment to investigate misleading information. Participants were shown a photograph in which a man and a woman were talking. The photograph was then taken away and the participants were asked questions about it. Participants were randomly allocated to condition one or condition two. Participants in condition one were asked: Question A “How old was the youth in the photograph?” Participants in condition two were asked: Question B “How old was the man in the photograph?” Explain why it would be appropriate to use a pilot study as part of this experiment. (4 marks) Control of extraneous variables 87. Some psychology students read about an experiment which suggested that organisation is a useful strategy for improving memory. The students carried out an experiment to investigate the effects of organisation on word recall. They made up a list of 50 items that could be bought in a supermarket. The participants were teachers at their school. One group of participants saw the words organised into categories such as fruit, vegetables, dairy products and cleaning materials. The other group saw the same words presented randomly. a) Suggest one possible extraneous variable in this study. (1 mark) b) Suggest one way in which the students could control for this extraneous variable. (2 marks) 88. Dave, a middle-aged male researcher, approached an adult in a busy street. He asked the adult for directions to the train station. He repeated this with 29 other adults. Each of the 30 adults was then approached by a second researcher, called Sam, who showed each of them 10 photographs of different middle-aged men, including a photograph of Dave. Sam asked the 30 adults to choose the photograph of the person who had asked them for directions to the train station. Sam estimated the age of each of the 30 adults and recorded whether each one had correctly chosen the photograph of Dave. Identify one possible extraneous variable in this experiment. Explain how this extraneous variable could have affected the results of this experiment. (1 mark + 3 marks) 15
  • 16. Reliability and validity 89. A psychologist showed participants 100 different cards, one at a time. Each card had two unrelated words printed on it, eg DOG, HAT. Participants in one group were instructed to form a mental image to link the words. Participants in the other group were instructed simply to memorise the words. After all the word pairs had been presented, each participant was shown a card with the first word of each pair printed on it. Participants were asked to recall the second word. The following results were found. a) Explain how a psychologist could find out whether these results are reliable (2 marks) b) Some people say that Ainsworth’s studies lacked validity, explain this criticism of Ainsworth. (4 marks) 90. Psychologists have carried out research into the use of cognitive interviews. One possible ethical issue that might arise during this research is the protection of participants from harm. Explain how psychologists could deal with this ethical issue. (3 marks) Selection of participants and sampling techniques 91. A psychologist investigated the relationship between type of attachment in childhood and success in later adult relationships. He published a questionnaire in a local newspaper. The participants were people who read the newspaper, filled in the questionnaire and sent it to the psychologist. Participants’ answers to the questions were used to decide whether they had been securely or insecurely attached as children. The participants who were identified as securely attached children were more likely to have successful adult relationships than those identified as insecurely attached children. Identify the sampling technique used in this study. Outline one weakness of using this sampling method. (3 marks) 92. Psychologists often need to select participants to take part in research. The descriptions below are all types of sampling method. A - The psychologist puts an advert in a newspaper, asking for participants. B - The psychologist uses lists of students in a university and selects every tenth student to take part. C - The psychologist asks some of his psychology students to take part in the research. D - The psychologist gives a number to all students in a university, then selects participants in an unbiased way. In the table below, write which description, A, B, C, or D, matches each sampling method. (3 marks) 16
  • 17. 93. A psychologist used an independent groups design to investigate whether or not a cognitive interview was more effective than a standard interview, in recalling information. For this experiment, participants were recruited from an advertisement placed in a local paper. The advertisement informed the participants that they would be watching a film of a violent crime and that they would be interviewed about the content by a male police officer. The psychologist compared the mean number of items recalled in the cognitive interview with the mean number recalled in the standard interview. a) Name the sampling technique used in this experiment. (1 mark) b) Suggest one limitation of using this sampling technique. (2 marks) 94. Dave, a middle-aged male researcher, approached an adult in a busy street. He asked the adult for directions to the train station. He repeated this with 29 other adults. Each of the 30 adults was then approached by a second researcher, called Sam, who showed each of them 10 photographs of different middle-aged men, including a photograph of Dave. Sam asked the 30 adults to choose the photograph of the person who had asked them for directions to the train station. Sam estimated the age of each of the 30 adults and recorded whether each one had correctly chosen the photograph of Dave. Name the sampling technique used in this experiment. Evaluate the choice of this sampling technique in this experiment. (1 mark + 3 marks) BPS Code of Ethics and ways in which psychologists deal with them 95. A psychologist investigated the relationship between type of attachment in childhood and success in later adult relationships. He published a questionnaire in a local newspaper. The participants were people who read the newspaper, filled in the questionnaire and sent it to the psychologist. Participants’ answers to the questions were used to decide whether they had been securely or insecurely attached as children. The participants who were identified as securely attached children were more likely to have successful adult relationships than those identified as insecurely attached children. a) Identify one ethical issue the researcher would need to consider in this research. (1) b) Suggest how the researcher could deal with this ethical issue. (2 marks) 96. A psychologist used an independent groups design to investigate whether or not a cognitive interview was more effective than a standard interview, in recalling information. For this experiment, participants were recruited from an advertisement placed in a local paper. The advertisement informed the participants that they would be watching a film of a violent crime and that they would be interviewed about the content by a male police officer. The psychologist compared the mean number of items recalled in the cognitive interview with the mean number recalled in the standard interview. a) Discuss whether or not the psychologist showed an awareness of the British Psychological Society (BPS) Code of Ethics when recruiting participants for this experiment. (3 marks) 17
  • 18. b) Explain why it is sometimes necessary to deceive participants in social influence research. c) Describe one way in which deception has been dealt with in social influence research. (2 + 2 marks) d) Milgram’s experiments into obedience can be criticised as being unethical. Describe two ethical issues that can be illustrated by Milgram’s research. (2 + 2 marks) Demand characteristics and investigator effects 97. By observing interactions between the infants and their mothers in a Strange Situation, Mary Ainsworth was able to identify different types of attachment. Describe possible demand characteristics in this research. (3 marks) 98. Psychologists carried out a laboratory experiment to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive interviews. All participants watched the same film of a robbery. They were randomly allocated to Group One or Group Two. Participants were then asked to recall the robbery. The investigators used a cognitive interview to access recall of participants in Group One and a standard interview to access recall of participants in Group Two. What is meant by the term investigator effects? Explain possible investigator effects in this study. (4 marks) DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION Presentation and interpretation of quantitative data including graphs, scattergrams and tables 99. In an experiment into conformity, an experimenter varied both the number of confederates (stooges) and the ambiguity of the task. The bar chart below shows the findings. a) What does the bar chart show about conformity? (4 marks) b) Most research into conformity takes place in a laboratory. Outline one strength of conducting research into conformity in a laboratory. (2 marks) 100. A psychologist collected data on the effectiveness of three types of therapies for different types of disorders. The results are displayed in the bar chart below. 18
  • 19. 101. What conclusions about the effectiveness of different therapies can you draw from them bar chart? (4 marks) 102. One measure of the functioning of the immune system is the level of activity of white blood cells What does the graph above tell you about the relationship between stress and the level of activity of white blood cells? (2 marks) 103. A psychologist analysed the results of ‘Strange Situation’ studies from different countries. Some of the results are shown below. Outline what the table above shows about cultural variations in attachment. (3 marks) 19
  • 20. 104. A researcher investigated the effect of age of starting day care on levels of aggression. Four-year-old children attending a day nursery were used. Each child was assessed by the researcher and given an aggression score. A high score indicated a high level of aggression. A low score indicated a low level of aggression. The maximum score was 50. Draw an appropriate bar chart to display the data presented in Table 1. Correctly label your bar chart. 20
  • 21. 105. What does the frequency distribution show about the results? (3 marks) Analysis and interpretation of quantitative data. Measures of central tendency including median, mean, mode. Measures of dispersion including ranges and standard deviation b) Write the mode for each group in the table below. 106. A researcher investigated the effect of age of starting day care on levels of aggression. Four-year-old children attending a day nursery were used. Each child was assessed by the researcher and given an aggression score. A high score indicated a high level of aggression. A low score indicated a low level of aggression. The maximum score was 50. 21
  • 22. Name one measure of dispersion that the researcher could have used to describe the data. (1) 107. A psychologist carried out an experiment using an independent groups design. The psychologist wished to investigate the effectiveness of a strategy for memory improvement. In one condition, participants were taught a memory improvement strategy. In the other condition, participants were not taught this memory improvement strategy. All participants were asked to memorise 10 pictures of familiar objects. For example, the first was a doll, the second was an apple. All participants were then given 50 pictures each, and asked to select the original 10. What do the standard deviations in Table 1 tell us about the performance of the two groups? (2 marks) Analysis and interpretation of correlational data 108. A recent study recorded the amount of time that children spent in day care from birth to four years, and asked each child’s mother to rate her child for aggression and disobedience. The study found that, as the time spent in day care went up, the mothers’ rating of aggression and disobedience also went up. a) What kind of correlation is this research showing? (1 mark) 109. Some research has suggested that there is a relationship between the time children spend in day care and their aggressive behaviour. Researchers selected a group of school children who had been in day care. They asked the children’s mothers to estimate how many hours a week their children had spent in day care. They measured the same children’s aggression. 22
  • 23. How many children are represented in this scattergram? (1 mark) 110. One measure of the functioning of the immune system is the level of activity of white blood cells. What does the graph below tell you about the relationship between stress and the level of activity of white blood cells? (2 marks) b) Outline one strength and one weakness of using correlations in stress research (4 marks) Presentation of qualitative data 111. What is meant by the term content analysis? (2 mark) 112. A researcher used content analysis to investigate how the behaviour of young children changed when they started day care. He identified a group of nine-month-old children who were about to start day care. He asked the mother of each child to keep a diary recording her child’s behaviour every day for two weeks before and for two weeks after the child started day care. a) Explain how the researcher could have used content analysis to analyse what the mothers had written in their diaries. (4 marks) b) Explain one or more possible limitations of this investigation. (4 marks) 113. A psychologist carried out a research study to investigate the effects of institutional care. To do this, she constructed a questionnaire to use with 100 adults who had spent some time in an institution when they were children. She also carried out interviews with ten of the adults. In this study, the psychologist collected some qualitative data. a) Explain what is meant by qualitative data. (2 marks) b) Write one suitable question that could be used in the interviews to produce qualitative data. (2 marks) 23 Measure of white blood cell activity as a percentage of normal level.
  • 24. BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY The body’s response to stress 114 Use the phrases below to complete the diagram so that it shows the role of the hypothalamus in the body’s response to stress. (6 marks) • Gets body ready for ‘fight or flight’ • Stimulates the adrenal medulla • Stimulates the adrenal cortex • Releases adrenalin • Releases corticosteroids • Stimulates the pituitary gland to release ACTH 115. Outline the pituitary-adrenal system’s response to stress (4 marks) 116. Outline the key components of the pituitary-adrenal system. (2 marks) 117. Outline how the body responds to stress (6 marks) 118. Outline the sympathomedullary pathway. (3 marks) 24 Hypothalamus Liver releases energy and immune system in suppressed Physiological reactions e.g. increased heart rate
  • 25. 119. In a study of stress the stress and blood pressure of participants were measured. Data from the study were plotted on the graph below. Outline what the graph seems to show about stress and blood pressure, and explain difficulties in drawing conclusions from this graph. (4 marks) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 50 100 150 Blood pressure Stressscore Series1 120. The following are features of the pituitary-adrenal system and the sympatho- medullary system. Tick the boxes next to three features of the sympatho-medullary system. (3 marks) Tick 3 boxes only Noradrenaline Pituitary gland Adrenal cortex Adrenal medulla Sympathetic nervous system. 121. You are a passenger in a car that has suddenly put on its brakes to avoid hitting a dog. Your breathing quickens, your mouth is dry and you have a feeling of ‘butterflies’ in your stomach. But after a few minutes these physical changes start to disappear. Using your knowledge of the body’s response to stress, explain why you are likely to have experienced: a) The changes that occurred in the first 30 seconds (2 marks) b) The changes that occurred after a few minutes. (2 marks) 122. Outline the main features of the pituitary-adrenal system. (3 marks) 25
  • 26. You are just about to cross the road when a car comes speeding round the corner and narrowly misses you. Afterwards, standing safely on the pavement, you notice that your mouth is very dry, your breathing is very fast and your heart is thumping. Using your knowledge of the body’s response to stress, explain why you are likely to have experienced these changes. (4 marks) 123. The body’s response to stress includes the pituitary-adrenal system and the sympathomedullary pathway. The following are all features of this stress response. A Adrenal medulla B Noradrenaline C Adrenal cortex D Adrenaline E Cortisol/Corticosteroids F Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) Select two from the above list that are linked to the pituitary-adrenal system and two from the list that are linked to the sympathomedullary pathway. Put one letter in each box. Pituitary-adrenal system Sympathomedullary pathway (4 marks) Stress related illness and the immune system. 124. Outline the impact that stress may have on the immune system. (6 marks) 125. A doctor has been given a new drug to test which is intended to help boost the immune system and help prevent people getting colds. How have psychologists investigated the relationship between stress and the immune system? (4 marks) 126. Sandy and Vandita play for the same netball team. Two weeks ago, while playing in a competition, they both grazed their elbows. Vandita’s wound is healing well, but Sandy’s wound is taking much longer to heal. Sandy is very worried about the plans for her wedding and her forthcoming house move. Using your knowledge of psychology, explain why Sandy’s wound is taking longer to heal than Vandita’s. (4 marks) 127. Outline some of the difficulties psychologists have encountered when investigating the relationship between life changes and stress. (4 marks) 128. Questionnaires have often been used in stress research to investigate the impact of life changes on health. Outline one advantage and one disadvantage of using questionnaires in stress research (3 + 3 marks) 129. During the last few months Paula has suffered from head-aches and colds and has been having difficulties sleeping. She decided to keep a diary and discovered that her head-aches, colds and sleep problems were associated with experiences such as having too much homework, losing house keys and being stuck in traffic. a) What is the name for these sorts of stress-related experiences? (1 mark) 26
  • 27. b) Use your knowledge of psychology to explain why Paula may be feeling unwell. (4 marks) Life changes and stress 130. Lee and Denis were talking in the doctor’s waiting room. Denis remarked that his new neighbours were very noisy and that whenever he drove into town it was getting increasingly difficult to find anywhere to park. Lee said that his wife had died recently and that he was just about to retire. Using examples from the conversation above, discuss the difference between life changes and daily hassles. (4 marks) 131. The following are examples of stress in everyday life, some are life changes and some are daily hassles. From the list, select two examples of life changes and two examples of daily hassles. A Divorce B Household chores C Room temperature D Retirement from work E Traffic jams F Getting married G Changing school H Missing the bus (4 marks) b) Explain what psychological research has shown about the stressful impact of either life changes or daily hassles. (4 marks) 132. Psychologists sometimes use questionnaires to find out about stress. Explain two strengths of using questionnaires in research. (4 marks) 133. Outline and evaluate research into life changes as sources of stress. (8 marks) Workplace stress including the effects of workload and control 134. Using your knowledge and understanding of research into workplace stress, suggest possible strategies for reducing stress in the workplace. (8 marks) 135. Identify two factors that have been shown to affect stress levels in the workplace. (2 marks) b) Explain how one of these factors affects stress levels in the workplace (2 marks) 136. Identify one source of stress in the workplace (1 mark) 27 Life changes: select two from the list above and write one letter in each box. Daily hassles: select two from the list above and write one letter in each box.
  • 28. b) Outline what research has shown about how this source of stress can affect an individual (2 marks) 137. Discuss how factors in the workplace may affect stress (8 marks) 138. Psychologists have found that the physical environment (e.g. noise, heat) can be a source of stress in the workplace. Apart from the physical environment outline two other sources of stress in the workplace. (4 marks) 139. Mr Harris is about to move his business into a brand new building. He is very keen to create a healthy working environment and reduce workplace stress. In this way, he hopes to improve productivity and reduce absenteeism. What advice would you give Mr Harris? Use your knowledge of psychological research in this area. (6 marks) 140. Describe one or more studies of workplace stress. (5 marks) 141. Brett and Sahil both work for the same company and have been talking about recent changes at work. Brett said that his pay is now dependent on other people’s performance and that his department has introduced tighter deadlines and more rigid working hours. Since these changes were made, he has had more days off sick and is concerned that his health is beginning to suffer. There have been no changes in Sahil’s department and he said that he hardly ever takes days off sick. Explain why Brett might have been affected by the changes in his department. Refer to psychological research into workplace stress in your answer. (6 marks) Personality factors and stress 142. Roy and Mick are members of a football team; both play to the same high standard. Roy never minds if the team does not win; he just enjoys playing with his team-mates and spending time with them after the match. Mick always wants to win and gets angry if the team loses. a) Which personality type is each person likely to have? (2 marks) b) Explain whether Roy or Mick is more likely to suffer from a stress-related illness. Use research in your explanation. (4 marks) 143. Susan is an example of someone who could be described as ‘Type A’. Describe one or more characteristics of Susan’s personality. (2 marks) b) Describe one or more other personality factors which might explain how people react differently to stress. (4 marks) 144. Outline psychological evidence that suggests personality can affect our experience of stress (6 marks) 145. Outline what is meant by Type A behaviour (2 marks) b) Outline a method used by psychologists to assess whether someone shows Type A behaviour. (2 marks) 146. Describe personality factors that have been shown to influence the way people respond to stress. (5 marks) 28
  • 29. 147. Harry always meets deadlines. He hates being late and always likes to keep himself busy with plenty to do. Alex does not mind being late for anything and although he tries to meet deadlines, he is not worried if he misses some of them. a) Is Harry or Alex more likely to have Type A personality? (1 mark) b) Explain why having Type A personality makes him more likely to suffer the negative effects of stress. (3 marks) c) Outline one way in which psychologists measure Type A personality. (2 marks) 148. Mark is very competitive and he hates losing any game he plays. At work, he is often impatient and likes working to tight deadlines. He can become quite hostile when challenged. a) What personality type is Mark likely to have? (1 mark) b) Using your knowledge of how personality factors can affect the body’s response to stress, explain how Mark might respond to the effects of stress. (4 marks) Stress management 149. In response to rising stress levels in the local population, a Health Service Provider was keen to provide stress management techniques as part of the treatments they offered. One technique was introduced involved helping a client to identify his/her negative, irrational thoughts and to replace them with more positive, rational methods of thinking. The therapist helps a client to understand better where their faulty thinking is leading, by the client and therapist working together using role play so that the consequences of the faulty thinking are plainly seen. New goals are then set for the client, so that more realistic and rational beliefs are included into his/her ways of thinking. a) Identify the stress management strategy outlined above (1 mark) b) Explain one reason why this stress management technique could prove to be effective (2 marks) c) Explain one limitation of the stress management technique described above (2 marks 150. Outline the use of drugs in the control of stress. (4 marks) 151. Karen has been feeling extremely stressed for several months. She has recently been promoted at work and is worried that she is not able to do the job properly in spite of praise from her managers. She also finds it very difficult to say “no” when colleagues ask for assistance. Her health is suffering and she decides to try Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) to help manage her stress. Explain what is involved in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and how it could be used to help Karen. (6 marks) 152. Name one psychological method of stress management. (1 mark) b) Explain strengths of this psychological method of stress management (5 marks) 29
  • 30. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Conformity 153. Two of the following are descriptions of types of conformity. A) Publicly conforming to views of others, but maintaining one’s own private views. B) Movement neither away from or towards a group norm C) True conversion of public and private views to match those of a group. These views are not dependent on group membership a) In the table below, write down which example A, B or C matches each type of conformity listed in the table (2 Marks) Type of Conformity Internalisation Compliance b) Outline one real-life example of i) Internalisation (2 marks) ii) Compliance (2 Marks) 154. Many investigations into conformity have raised the ethical issue of deception. a) Explain why deception is an ethical issue (2 Marks) b) Outline a strategy for dealing with this ethical issue (2 Marks) 155. The following statements are all related to conformity. A Doing what the group does in order to be liked by them. B Doing what the group does because we do not know what else to do. C Going along with the group, even if we do not really agree with what they are doing. D Going along with the group because we accept their beliefs and attitudes into our own cognitions. In the table below, write which statement, A, B, C or D, describes each type of conformity. (2 marks) Type of Conformity Internalisation Compliance 30
  • 31. b) Explain what is meant by internalisation in the context of conformity. (2 marks) c) Explain what is meant by compliance in the context of conformity. (2 marks) 156. It is Ani’s first day in a new job and he spends a lot of time watching to see what his colleagues are doing, so that he will fit in with them and be liked. Explain Ani’s behaviour in terms of compliance. (2 marks) 157. Outline one method that psychologists have used to study conformity. (2 marks) b) Explain one limitation of this method. (2 marks) c) Suggest an appropriate way of overcoming this limitation. (2 marks) 158. The following phrases refer to different types of conformity. Select the two phrases that describe internalisation. Tick two boxes only. (2 marks)  A The deepest level of conformity B The individual conforms publicly with the rest of the group but may privately disagree with them. C The beliefs of the group become part of the individual’s own belief system D The individual goes along with the group but does not agree with them. E The individual changes his/her beliefs, but it is a temporary change. 159. Explain what is meant by informational social influence. (3 marks) b) Explain what is meant by normative social influence. (3 marks) 160. Jan and Norah have just finished their first year at university where they lived in a house with six other students. All the other students were very health conscious and ate only organic food. Jan had listened to their point of view and now she also eats only organic food. Norah was happy to eat organic food while in the house, but when she went home for the holidays she ate whatever her mother cooked. Both girls conformed, but for different reasons. Explain which type of conformity each girl was showing. (4 marks) 161. Outline and evaluate explanations of conformity. (8 marks) 162. Josie, Hana and Caitlyn have just started new jobs and all three are keen to do well. Josie laughs a lot at the jokes her colleagues tell, even though she does not always find them very funny. Hana observes her colleagues closely and makes sure that she completes the work in the same way that they do, so that she does not make any mistakes. Caitlyn prefers to learn through trial and error. She believes that by trying and by making mistakes, she will really understand what she is doing. Which girl’s behaviour is being influenced by normative social influence and which girl’s behaviour is being influenced by informational social influence? Justify both choices. (6 marks) 31
  • 32. Obedience 163. Milgram carried out an experiment investigating obedience. One criticism of this study is that it was unethical. Discuss one ethical issue raised by this research. (4 marks) 164. When a teacher tells you to do something, it is usual for you to obey. a) Using your knowledge of factors that have been found to affect obedience, explain why you might obey in this situation. (6 marks) b) In what ways would the situation have to change in order for you to resist the command? (2 marks) 165. Milgram’s work into obedience provided us with valuable insights into why people obey, even though it was carried out in a laboratory. a) Outline two explanations of why people obey. (2 + 2 marks) b) Milgram’s work can be criticised for being unethical. Describe one way in which his work is unethical. (2 marks) c) Apart from ethical issues, give one strength and one limitation of Milgram’s methodology. (2 + 2 marks) 166. Identify and explain two differences between conformity and obedience in terms of the psychological processes involved (4 marks) 167. Two forms of social influence are obedience and conformity. Explain how these two forms of social influence are different. (3 marks) 168. Milgram’s experiments into obedience can be criticised as being unethical. Describe two ethical issues that can be illustrated by Milgram’s research. (2 + 2 marks) b) Choose one of the ethical issues identified in your answer to (a) and explain a way of dealing with it. (2 marks) 169. Lachlan, a manager in a large company, has a problem managing employees in the storage department. Although most employees obey his instructions, those in the storage department frequently do not. When he gives orders face to face they generally obey, but when he sends instructions via e-mail, employees in the storage department often don’t follow his orders. He has also noticed that when he moves employees from other departments to the storage department, they quickly fall into the pattern of not obeying instructions. a) Explain one factor that may be contributing to employees not obeying Lachlan’s orders (2 marks) b) Outline ways in which Lachlan could increase obedience levels among employees in the storage department (6 marks) 32
  • 33. 170. In a hospital, you are very likely to obey a nurse. However, if you meet her outside the hospital, for example in a shop, you are much les likely to obey. Using your knowledge of how people resist pressures to obey, explain why you are less likely to obey the nurse outside the hospital. (4 marks) 171. Some research into obedience has been carried out in laboratories. Other studies into obedience have been carried out int he real world, including field experiments and observations. Outline one advantage of conducting obedience research outside a laboratory setting. (2) b) Outline one limitation of conducting obedience research outside a laboratory setting. (2) 172. Outline two explanations of why people obey. (2 + 2 marks) 173. When you are a passenger on a train, you are much more likely to move to another seat if the ticket collector tells you to move than if another passenger tells you to do so. Use your knowledge of why people obey to explain this behaviour. (4 marks) Independent behaviour 174. Explain what is meant by locus of control (4 marks) 175. Three students, George, Petra and Dan, have just started in the sixth form. Dan is a confident person who thinks that his fate lies firmly in his hands. By the end of the first week, Dan has put himself forward to be nominated as the class representative. Petra has also put her name forward to be nominated. She believes it is just luck whether or not she will be selected and feels that there is not much she can do about it. George did not put his name forward because his father told him not to. a) What type of locus of control does Petra’s behaviour show? (1 mark) b) What type of locus of control does Dan’s behaviour show? (1 mark) c) George did not put his name forward as the class representative. Use your knowledge of social influence research to explain this. (2 marks) d) Which one of the three students is most likely to resist pressures to conform? Use your knowledge of psychology to explain your choice. (4 marks) 176. Explain how locus of control influences independent behaviour. (4 marks) 177. When we are in a large group of friends, it is very easy to agree with them and simply go along with their views. However, sometimes we are able to resist the pressure to conform. Using what you have learned from studying conformity, outline one reason why we might resist the pressure to conform. (2 marks) 178. Describe one explanation of how people resist pressure to conform (3 marks) 179. Using your knowledge of psychology, explain why some people might resist pressures to conform. (4 marks) 180. Tom hates the way his friends always drink too much when they go out for the night. He tries to moderate his own drinking on such occasions, but they poke fun and call him names so he just joins in. From your knowledge of psychology, suggest two ways that Tom might resist the pressure put on him by his friends to drink heavily. (6 marks) 33
  • 34. Describe one explanation of how people resist pressures to conform (3 marks) b) Give one criticism of this explanation (2 marks) 34
  • 35. 181. Outline two explanations of how people sometimes resist pressure to conform (6) 182. Identify whether each of the statements below represents internal or external locus of control (4 marks) A Children get into trouble because their parents punish them too much. B People’s misfortunes are the result of the mistakes they make. C In the long run, people get the respect they deserve in this world. D No matter how hard you try, some people just don’t like you. 183. Locus of control has been shown to exert an influence on independent behaviour. a) Explain what is meant by locus of control (4 marks) b) Explain how locus of control can influence independent behaviour (4 marks) 184 Discuss one or more explanations of independent behaviour, for example, how people resist pressures to conform or obey. (8 marks) 185. Explain one or more reasons why people obey authority. (6 marks) 186. The following results are percentages of participants who gave the maximum shock, in variations of Milgram’s experiment into obedience to authority. Condition % Participants obeying • Experimenter and two obedient confederates are in the same room as the participant. 92.5% • Experimenter is in the same room as the participant. 65% • Experimenter is in a different room from the participant. 20.5% • Experimenter and two disobedient confederates are in the same room as the participant. 10% What do these results suggest about the power of the confederates in variations of Milgram’s study? (4 marks) Social change 187. Explain what social influence research can tell us about social change (4 marks) 188. How do we explain social change using findings of research into social influence? (6) 189. Describe how social influence research has contributed to our understanding of social change. (6 marks) 190. For many years, smoking in public places such as trains, pubs and restaurants was quite acceptable. People could smoke wherever they wanted and non-smokers had to put up[ with smoky atmospheres. However, in 2007 the Government finally introduced a law banning smoking in public places and those who smoke are limited in where they can smoke. Using your knowledge of research into the psychology of social change, explain how this social change has occurred. (4 marks) 191. Mike and his grandfather were having a conversation about recycling. Mike explained that he always puts empty cans and plastic bottles in one box and newspapers and cardboard in another box and that his mum takes these to be recycled once a week. His grandfather said that when he was Mike’s age, people did nto recycle. Mike said that everyone in his street recycles and that they have a big box at school especially for 35
  • 36. recycling. Using your knowledge of the psychology of social change, explain why recycling is now behaviour carried out by a majority of people in this country. (6 marks) INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Definitions of abnormality 192. Outline two definitions of abnormality. 193. Diane is a 30-year-old business woman and if she does not get her own way she sometimes has a temper tantrum. Recently, she attended her grandmother’s funeral and laughed during the prayers. When she talks to people she often stands very close to them, making them feel uncomfortable. a) Identify one definition of abnormality that could describe Diane’s behaviour. Explain your choice. (3 marks) b) Explain one limitation of this way of defining abnormal behaviour. (3 marks) 194. Abnormality can be defined as ‘the failure to function adequately’. Outline and evaluate this definition of abnormality. (6 marks) 195. One definition of abnormality is deviation from social norms. Identify and explain one other definition of abnormality. (3 marks) b) Evaluate the definition of abnormality that you identified in your answer (4 marks) 196. It has been suggested that the meeting of certain criteria indicates whether or not a person has ideal mental health. Helen has been told that she has ideal mental health: for example, she adapts well to her environment. a) Give two other criteria for ideal mental health that you would expect Helen’s behaviour to show. (2 marks) b) Outline two limitations of the deviation from ideal mental health definition of abnormality. (4 marks) Biological explanations for abnormality 197. Outline and evaluate the biological approach to psychopathology. (8 marks) Psychological explanations for abnormality 198. Which two of the following statements (A-E) apply to the behavioural approach to psychopathology? Tick the two correct boxes. A Unresolved conflicts in childhood affect adult behaviour B All behaviour is learned in the same way C Abnormal behaviour is caused by faulty thinking D The same basic laws that explain animal behaviour can also explain human behaviour E Irrational thoughts lead to abnormal behaviour 36
  • 37. (2 marks) b) Explain one limitation of the behavioural approach (2 marks) 199. Describe key features of the behavioural approach to psychopathology (4 marks) b) Outline one limitation of the behavioural approach to psychopathology (2 marks) 200. The behavioural approach assumes that abnormal behaviour is learnt through classical conditioning, operant conditioning and imitation. Evaluate the behavioural approach to psychopathology. (4 marks) 201. Outline key features of the psychodynamic approach to psychopathology. (4 marks) 202. The behavioural approach assumes that abnormal behaviour is learned through classical conditioning, operant conditioning and imitation. Evaluate the behavioural approach to psychopathology. (4 marks) 203. Outline key features of the cognitive approach to psychopathology. (4 marks) b) Outline one limitation of the cognitive approach to psychopathology. (2 marks) 204. The following statements refer to different approaches to abnormality. Select three statements that describe the psychodynamic approach. • Holding unrealistic and irrational beliefs about oneself and the world. • Behaviour is caused mainly by the unconscious. • Behaviour is shaped by forces in the environment. • There is conflict between the id and the super-ego. • The human mind is an information processor. • Abnormality is caused by unresolved childhood problems. (3 marks) 205. Which two of the following statements apply to the cognitive approach to psychopathology? • Abnormal behaviour is learned in the same way as normal behaviour. • Abnormality is caused by distorted thoughts. • Abnormality is caused by unresolved childhood conflicts. • Abnormal behaviour is the result of irrational beliefs. • Abnormality is due to damage to the brain. Biological treatments 206. Dr Francis has been treating a patient for severe depression. He has been prescribing anti-depressant drugs and although, initially, the patient appeared to show some improvement, it was only temporary. Dr Francis has offered her ECT but she knows very little about it. What information could Dr Francis give to this patient about this therapy? (4 marks) 207. Hugh has a phobia of the dark. Because of this phobia, he has problems sleeping and has difficulty getting to and from work in the dark winter months. His doctor suggests a biological therapy might be the solution and prescribes a short course of drugs. 37
  • 38. a) What advice should the doctor give concerning the disadvantages of this type of drug therapy? (4 marks) b) Identify one psychological therapy that Hugh could consider and explain why it might help him. (3 marks) Psychological therapies 208. Claire constantly worries that she will be unable to finish a task. She thinks that is she does not complete it perfectly it will not be worth doing. These thoughts are so bad that she finds it difficult to start anything and her work is suffering. a) Outline what is involved in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (3 marks) b) Why might Cognitive Behavioural Therapy be appropriate for Claire? (2 marks) 209. Sally often gets anxious for no apparent reason. She believes that people do not like her and becomes distressed when she has to meet strangers. She is very nervous when faced with new or unexpected situations. Sally has been referred to a therapist for psychoanalysis. a) Outline two techniques used in psychoanalysis. (2+2 marks) b) Sally asks whether there are any problems with this therapy. What would you tell her? (2 marks) c) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is another psychological therapy. Explain why this might be an appropriate therapy for Sally’s problems. (2 marks) 210. Hamish has a phobia of heights. This phobia has now become so bad he has difficulty in going to his office on the third floor and he cannot even sit on the top deck of a bus any more. He has decided to try systematic desensitisation to help him with his problem. Explain how the therapist might use systematic desensitisation to help Hamish overcome his phobia. (6 marks) 211. There are various types of psychological therapy for treating abnormality. a) Outline what is involved in psychoanalysis. (3 marks) b) Outline what is involved in systematic de-sensitisation. (3 marks) 212. Dr Francis has been treating a patient for severe depression. He has been prescribing anti-depressant drugs and although, initially, the patient appeared to show some improvement, it was only temporary. Dr Francis has offered her ECT but she knows very little about it. The patient decides not to have ECT and asks Dr Francis what other therapies are available. He suggests Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Describe how CBT would be used to treat her. (4 marks) 38
  • 39. 213. A psychologist collected data on the effectiveness of three types of therapies for different types of disorders. The results are displayed in the bar chart below. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 A B C Biological Behavioural Psychoanalyti c What conclusions about the effectiveness of different therapies can you draw from the bar chart? (4 marks) 214. Describe systematic de-sensitisation as a method of treating abnormality (3 marks) b) Explain one weakness of systematic de-sensitisation. (2 marks) 215. Two different drug therapies were tested on a group of patients. All the patients suffered with the same anxiety disorder. Half the patients were given Therapy A and the other half were given Therapy B. Improvement was assessed on a scale from 0 – 25, where 0 = no improvement. The table below shows the improvement made between the start and the end of the treatment. Average and range of improvement scores Average Range Therapy A 6.5 2-19 Therapy B 6 4-9 Explain what these findings suggest about the different therapies? (4 marks) 216. Psychoanalysis is a beneficial therapy for some people. However, as with all therapies, it has limitations. Evaluate psychoanalysis as a therapy. (4 marks) 39 Percentage of patients who improved according to type of disorder and type of therapy Percentage of patients who show improvement after 6 months of therapy Type of disorder
  • 40. Several techniques, including hypnosis, have been used in psychoanalysis to help to uncover repressed material. Outline one other technique that may be used in psychoanalysis. (2 marks) PSYA1: Past 12 Mark Questions Jan 2009 Outline and evaluate one or more explanations for attachment June 2009 Outline and evaluate research into the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. Jan 2010 Outline and evaluate research into privation June 2010 Psychologists have studied children who have lived in institutions such as orphanages. Outline and evaluate research into the effects of institutionalisation. Jan 2011 Outline and evaluate the working memory model. June 2011 Outline and evaluate research into the effects of age of witnesses on accuracy of eyewitness testimony. Jan 2012 Outline and evaluate research into the effects of day care on children’s social development (eg aggression, peer relations). Jan 2013 Outline and evaluate research into the effects of failure to form attachment (privation). Other possible 12 mark questions for memory • Describe and evaluate the Multi-Store Model of Memory • Outline and evaluate research into the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. • Outline and evaluate research into the effects of misleading information on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. • Describe and evaluate the use of the cognitive interview • Outline and Evaluate research on the accuracy of EWT • Outline strategies for improving memory and evaluate their effectiveness Other possible 12 mark questions for Developmental • Discuss Learning theory as an explanation of attachment behaviour • Critically consider evolutionary explanations for attachment behaviour • Outline and evaluate what research using the ‘strange situation’ in attachment research 40
  • 41. • Discuss cultural variations in attachment • Outline and evaluate research into the effects of disruption of attachment • Discuss how research into attachment and day care has influenced child care practices PSYA2: Past 12 Mark Questions Jan 2009 Outline and evaluate the biological explanation to abnormality June 2009 Outline and evaluate one or more explanations of why people obey. Jan 2010 Abnormality is difficult to define. It can be hard to decide where normal behaviour ends and abnormal behaviour starts. Discuss definitions of abnormality. June 2010 Outline and evaluate research into the relationship between the immune system and stress-related illness. Jan 2011 ‘Freud’s views on the origins of abnormal behaviour and ways of treating it had a great impact on psychology.’ Outline and evaluate the psychodynamic approach to abnormality. June 2011 “Not everyone conforms or obeys authority; some people resist these pressures and remain independent.”. Outline and evaluate research relating to independent behaviour. Jan 2012 ‘There are several methods used to manage the negative effects of stress. These methods can be biological or psychological.’ Discuss two or more methods of stress management. June 2012 Outline and evaluate research into conformity. Jan 2013 ‘Behaviourists believe that all behaviour, both normal and abnormal, is learned through processes such as classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning.’ Discuss the behavioural approach to explaining psychological abnormality. Other possible 12 mark questions for Biological Discuss what research has told us about Life changes and stress Discuss what research has told us about Daily Hassles and stress Outline and evaluate research in workplace stress Discuss Personality factors and stress Other possible 12 mark questions for Social Discuss explanations of why people conform Outline and evaluate research findings into obedience Discuss how people resist pressures to conform Discuss how people resist pressures to obey authority Discuss how social influence research helps us to understand social change Discuss the role of minority influence in social change Other possible 12 mark questions for Individual Differences 41
  • 42. Outline and Evaluate Cognitive approach to abnormality Discuss the use of biological therapies in the treatment of abnormality Discuss the use of psychoanalysis as a method of treating abnormality Discuss the use of systematic desensitisation as a method of treating abnormality Discuss the use of CBT as a method of treating abnormality 42

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