Psychological Research and Scientific Method SCHEME OF WORK – approx 30 lessons
This is what the Specification (2012) outl...
I recommend using “Psychology A2: The Complete Companion Student Book” by Cardwell & Flanagan as your key book and also
Ps...
worksheet. C-E students will
know the purpose
of peer review.
6 &
7
Research method concepts Aims
Hypothesis
Directional
N...
8 Experiments and
evaluations
Laboratory
Field
Natural
Experimental design
Repeated measures
Independent groups
Matched pa...
Event sampling
Naturalistic
observations
Controlled
observations
Observer bias
C-E students will
know the
concepts and be
...
External
Ecological
Mundane realism
Observer bias
Face validity
Concurrent validity
techniques used
to overcome the
issues...
19 &
20
Understanding significance
and probability
Null hypothesis
Alternative
hypothesis
Type 1 error
Type 2 error
Signif...
A-B students will
also be able to
understand what
the data tells us.
23 Chi-Square Test Nominal data
Categories
Chi Square...
– what the
questions might
ask.... worksheet.
also be able to
understand what
the data tells us.
26 Deciding which statist...
Qualitative data
worksheet.
effectively
understand how
qualitative data is
analysed and
apply to the
activities.
29 Design...
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Resourcd File

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  1. 1. Psychological Research and Scientific Method SCHEME OF WORK – approx 30 lessons This is what the Specification (2012) outlines: Psychological Research and Scientific Method Candidates will be expected to: • extend their knowledge, understanding and skills of research design, data analysis, and data interpretation and reporting gained at AS • develop an understanding of the nature of science and scientific method. This section builds on the knowledge and skills developed at AS level. Candidates will be expected to: • understand the application of scientific method in psychology • design investigations • understand how to analyse and interpret data arising from such investigations, • report on practical investigations. In order to gain sufficient understanding of the design and conduct of scientific research in psychology, candidates will need to practise these skills by carrying out, analysing and reporting small-scale investigation. The application of scientific method in psychology • The major features of science, including replicability, objectivity, theory construction, hypothesis testing, the use of empirical methods • Validating new knowledge and the role of peer review Designing psychological investigations • Selection and application of appropriate research methods • Implications of sampling strategies, for example, bias and generalising • Issues of reliability, including types of reliability, assessment of reliability, improving reliability • Assessing and improving validity, including internal and external • Ethical considerations in design and conduct of psychological research Data analysis and reporting on investigations • Appropriate selection of graphical representations • Probability and significance, including the interpretation of significance and Type 1/Type 2 errors • Factors affecting choice of statistical test, including levels of measurement • The use of inferential analysis, including Spearman’s Rho, Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon, Chi-Squared • Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data • Conventions of reporting on psychological investigations
  2. 2. I recommend using “Psychology A2: The Complete Companion Student Book” by Cardwell & Flanagan as your key book and also Psychology A2 for AQA (A) by Lawton, Gross & Rolls. Less on Outline of lesson Key Concepts Key Psychologists Resources Homework Progression 1 , 2 , 3 The scientific method and evaluation Empirical methods Objectivity Replicability Theory construction Hypothesis testing Induction Deduction Nomothetic Idiographic Qualitative Quantitative Triangulation Reductionism Determinism Falsification Null hypothesis Alternative hypothesis Popper Copy of spec The scientific method worksheet Scientific method PowerPoint. Sorting exercise – is psychology a science. Create glossary of new concepts and learn. A-B students will be able to effectively apply their prior knowledge from AS. C-E students will know the key components of the scientific method and some of the evaluations. 4, 5 The role of peer review and evaluation Peer review Refereeing Anonymity Publication bias Burt Kamin Hauser http://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=t wogpmM-SfY Peer Review Exam question. A-B students will understand the impact of fraudulent research.
  3. 3. worksheet. C-E students will know the purpose of peer review. 6 & 7 Research method concepts Aims Hypothesis Directional Non-directional operationalisation Investigator effects Experimenter effects Demand characteristics Social desirability bias Pilot studies Sampling Opportunity Volunteer Random Stratified quota snowball systematic population representative sample biased sample AS Research Methods recap PowerPoint. Research methods and concepts handout. Create an A3 table of research methods. A-B students will understand the concepts and be able to effectively apply to the activities. C-E students will know the concepts and be able to apply some to the activities.
  4. 4. 8 Experiments and evaluations Laboratory Field Natural Experimental design Repeated measures Independent groups Matched pairs Cut and stick starter activity. AS Research Methods recap PowerPoint. Handout of past exam questions. Exam question A-B students will understand the concepts and be able to effectively apply to the activities. C-E students will know the concepts and be able to apply some to the activities. 9, 10 Self-report methods and evaluations Questionnaires Interviews Structured Unstructured Open ended Closed ended Handout of past exam questions. AS Research Methods recap PowerPoint. Exam question A-B students will understand the concepts and be able to effectively apply to the activities. C-E students will know the concepts and be able to apply some to the activities. 11, 12 Observational studies and evaluations Observational techniques Behavioural categories Sampling methods Time sampling Design task. AS Research Methods recap PowerPoint. Design task. A-B students will understand the concepts and be able to effectively apply to the activities.
  5. 5. Event sampling Naturalistic observations Controlled observations Observer bias C-E students will know the concepts and be able to apply some to the activities. 13, Other research methods and evaluations: Correlational analysis Case studies Longitudinal studies Content analysis Cross cultural research Meta-analysis AS Research Methods recap PowerPoint. Update glossaries and learn for test. A-B students will understand the concepts and be able to effectively apply to the activities. C-E students will know the concepts and be able to apply some to the activities. 14 Catch up lesson 15 & 16 Issues of reliability and validity Replication Inter-observer reliability Internal reliability External reliability y Inter-interviewer reliability Split half method Test-retest method Internal Reliability and validity worksheet. Exam question A-B students will be able to develop their answers in order to explain how these issues will be overcome. C-E students will know the concepts and know the
  6. 6. External Ecological Mundane realism Observer bias Face validity Concurrent validity techniques used to overcome the issues. 17 & 18 Ethical issues with human participants and non- human participants. Ethical guidelines Ethical committee Socially sensitive research Informed consent Deception Harm Privacy Confidentiality Right to withdraw Competence Responsibility Integrity Respect Sentient beings Speciesism Animal rights BPS APA Sieber and Stanley Singer Russell & Birch Ethical considerations PowerPoint. Ethical issues grid. Ethical considerations sheet. Examples of participant information sheet, consent form and debrief forms. Exam question – ethics homework A-B students will be able to effectively apply their prior knowledge from AS in terms of ethical issues and how to overcome them. C-E students will know the key ethical issues and some ways they can be overcome.
  7. 7. 19 & 20 Understanding significance and probability Null hypothesis Alternative hypothesis Type 1 error Type 2 error Significance Descriptive statistics Probability Chance Significance level Test statistic Observed value Critical value Degrees of freedom One tailed or two tailed test Significance level Levels of measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Inferential stats PowerPoint. Plenary sheet inferential stats. Multiple choice questions. A-B students will understand the meaning of the concepts in terms of data. C-E students will know the concepts. 22 Spearman’s Rho Correlation Significance Critical values Spearman’s Rho PowerPoint. Spearman’s rho worksheet. Questions from worksheet. C-E students will be able to learn and follow the procedure for the test.
  8. 8. A-B students will also be able to understand what the data tells us. 23 Chi-Square Test Nominal data Categories Chi Square PowerPoint. Chi Square worksheet. Questions from worksheet. C-E students will be able to learn and follow the procedure for the test. A-B students will also be able to understand what the data tells us. 24 Mann-Whitney U test Tests of difference Independent groups U Mann-Whitney PowerPoint Mann-Whitney handout. Questions from worksheet. C-E students will be able to learn and follow the procedure for the test. A-B students will also be able to understand what the data tells us. 25 Wilcox T test Tests of difference Repeated measures design Matched pairs Ordinal/interval T Wilcoxon PowerPoint. Wilcoxon handout Inferential stats Create revision cards for all 4 inferential tests. C-E students will be able to learn and follow the procedure for the test. A-B students will
  9. 9. – what the questions might ask.... worksheet. also be able to understand what the data tells us. 26 Deciding which statistics to use: descriptive and inferential Measures of central tendency Mean Median Mode Measures of dispersion Range Standard deviation Graphs Bar chart Scattergram Positive, Negative and zero correlation Summarising data in graphical form worksheet. Descriptive statistics PowerPoint. Measures of central tendency worksheet. Exam question. C-E students will know what the measures are and how they are done. A-B students will also be able to understand what the measures tell us about the data. 27, 28 Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data and evaluation of qualitative data. Quantitative Qualitative Inductive Iterative Validity Reflexivity Triangulation Qualitative data analysis PowerPoint. Qualitative data activity – eating disorders. Exam question. C-E students will know what qualitative data is, and what methods are used analyse it. A-B students will be able to
  10. 10. Qualitative data worksheet. effectively understand how qualitative data is analysed and apply to the activities. 29 Design and report your own study Abstract Introduction Method Design and materials Participants Ethics Procedures Results Discussion References Match the pairs activity. Designing psychological research PowerPoint. Reporting psychological investigations handout. End of unit self- assessment. Prepare for formal assessment. A-B students will have a detailed understanding of the conventions of reporting. C-E students will know the key conventions of reporting. 30 Do a past paper under exam conditions

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