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  • 1. 1 GCSE Sociology Paper 2 Question pack REMEMBER 1 hour 30 minutes exam 90 marks 1 minute per mark Four sections on the paper, ONLY ANSWER THREE We’ve studied Crime Mass media Social inequality In each section there is: 2 x 1 mark questions 1 x 2 mark question 1 x 4 mark question 2 x 5 mark questions 2 x 12 mark questions – CHOOSE ONE Learn your key vocabulary – you have a list for each module
  • 2. 2 How to answer 4 mark questions…. The pattern of these questions is: Explain what sociologists mean by……….. EG “Explain what sociologists mean by labelling.” Sometimes the question may add when studying…… EG “Explain what sociologists mean by conformity when studying deviance.” The marks are allocated as follows: 1 mark for basic statements about the question with little or no reference to the topic that the question‟s set on. 2-3 marks for a partial or under-developed sociological explanation, possibly via an example, in which some general reference will be made to the topic that the question is set on. 4 marks for a clear explanation focused on the topic that the question is set on that uses examples from specifically relevant areas of sociology How to start your answer: In the context of (insert name of topic), (keyword) means……… Example: Social inequality section: Explain what sociologists mean by patriarchy. (4 marks) DEFINITION INCONTEXT In the context of Social inequality, patriarchy means EXAMPL E EXPLAIN THE PROCESS
  • 3. 3 The Key terms – you MUST know ALL of these and use them Crime and Deviance Agents/agencies of social control Anomie Antisocial behaviour Chivalry thesis Community service Computer crime Conformity Corporate crime Crime rate Dark figure Data protection Deviance Formal and informal social control Identity theft Indictable offence Judiciary Labelling theory Master status Official crime statistics Probation Recorded crime Relative deprivation Scapegoat Self-report studies Social control/sanctions Social construct Socially defined behaviour Social order Stereotype Sub-culture Surveillance Victim surveys White collar crime Mass Media Agenda-setting Amplification Audience Bias Blog Broadsheet Censorship Content analysis Convergence Desensitised Digital media Folk devils Freedom of speech Gatekeeper Globalisation Hyper reality Hypodermic syringe model Identity Image Interactivity Mass popular culture Moral panic News value Old/new media Pluralism Popular press Propaganda Postmodern society Readership Semiology Social networking Spin doctor Stigmatising Substitute hearth Tabloid Social Inequality Absolute poverty Achieved status Ageism Ascribed status Asylum seeker Culture of poverty Cycle of deprivation Dependency culture Environmental poverty Ethnic diversity Ethnic group Ethnic minority Glass ceiling Income Institutional racism Life chances Means testing Middle class Patriarchy Poverty trap Racial discrimination Racial equality Racial prejudice Racism Relative poverty Scapegoat Selective benefits Sex discrimination Sexism Social exclusion Social mobility Social security Socio-economic class Social stratification Stereotype Subjective poverty Underclass Unemployment Universal benefits Voluntary sector
  • 4. 4 How to answer 5 Mark questions DON‟T FORGET: underline / highlight the key words in the question and then use them in your answer. EG: Describe one way in which the status of the elderly may be lower than that of other age groups in societyand explain how this may lead to discrimination against them. DESCRIBE NEW PARAGRAPH EXPLAIN Mark scheme: Describe one: 2 marks 1 mark for a partial description. 2 marks for an appropriate and more developed description Explain: 3 marks 1-2 marks for a simple explanation linked to the description. 3 marks for a clear explanation explicitly related to the description AND relevant sociological theory / concepts.
  • 5. 5 Social inequality 4& 5 mark questions 4 mark Jan 13 Explain what sociologists mean by patriarchy. (4 marks) June 12 Explain what sociologists mean by the glass ceiling. (4 marks) Jan 12 Explain what sociologists mean by the poverty trap. (4 marks) June 11 Explain what sociologists mean by social exclusion. (4 marks) Jan 11 Explain what sociologists mean by institutional racism. (4 marks) 5 Mark Jan 13 ADescribe one life chance which may be affected by an individual‟s ethnicity and explain why this happens. (5 marks) Jan 13BDescribeone consequence of poverty for an individual and explain why it may be difficult for the individual to escape from this situation. (5 marks) June 12A Describe one way in which governments have attempted to increase upward social mobilityand explain why this may not have been successful. (5 marks) June 12B Describeone possible cause of social exclusion and explain why people often find it hard to escape from this situation. (5 marks) Jan 12A Describe one way in which the status of the elderly may be lower than that of other age groups in society and explain how this may lead to discrimination against them. (5 marks) Jan 12B Describe one consequence of child poverty and explain why the problem of child poverty continues to exist. (5 marks) June 11A Describe one way in which some minority ethnic groups have fewer life chances than othersand explain why this appears to continue over time. (5 marks) June 11B Describe one reason why some sociologists use relative definitions of poverty and explain why some politicians might prefer to use absolute definitions. (5 marks) Jan 11A Describe one way in which governments have attempted to end gender discrimination in the workplace and explain why this policy might not have been successful. (5 marks) Jan 11B Describe one reason why people find themselves in poverty and explain why it might be difficult for them to get out of this situation. (5 marks)
  • 6. 6 Mass media 4 & 5 mark questions 4 mark Jan 13 Explain what sociologists mean by hyperreality. (4 marks) June 12Explain what sociologists mean by the hypodermic syringe model. (4 marks) Jan 12 Explain what sociologists mean by political socialisation when studying the effect of the mass media on political opinion. (4 marks) June 11 Explain what sociologists mean by mass popular culture. (4 marks) Jan 11 Explain what sociologists mean by deviancy amplification. (4 marks) 5 mark Jan 13 ADescribeone way in which groups such as environmentalists might use digital media to promote their cause and explain how successful this might be. (5 marks) Jan 13 B Describeone way in which the mass media may amplify deviance and explain how this may affect some minority social groups. (5 marks) June 12A Describe one way in which the mass media can present a negative image of groups such as animal rights protesters and explain why this might cause problems in a democratic society. (5 marks) June 12B Describe one way in which digital media have given more power to ordinary people and explain why this may cause problems for governments. (5 marks) Jan 12A Describe one process through which editors and journalists can influence what appears in the news and explain why this might lead to bias when covering an event. (5 marks) Jan 12B Describeone way in which the mass media stereotype males and explain why some sociologists might argue that this is a problem. (5 marks) June 11 A Describeone way in which newspaper owners can influence how the news is presented and explain why this might lead to problems in a democracy. (5 marks) June 11B Describe one way in which digital media such as the internet have changed how we get informationand explain why this may make it difficult for governments to control access to information. (5 marks) Jan 11A Describe one way in which politicians use the mass media to get their message across andexplain why this media coverage might lead people to lose faith in the main political parties. (5 marks) Jan 11B Describe one way in which the portrayal of violence in the mass media is claimed to lead to an increased level of violence in society and explain why sociologists might find problems researching such a claim. (5 marks)
  • 7. 7 Crime 4 & 5 mark questions 4 mark Jan 13 Explain what sociologists mean by a criminal stereotype. (4 marks) June 12 Explain what sociologists mean by white-collar crime. (4 marks) Jan 12 Explain what sociologists studying deviance mean by peer pressure. (4 marks) June 12 Explain what sociologists mean by labelling. (4 marks) Jan 11 Explain what sociologists mean by conformity when studying deviance. (4 marks) 5 mark Jan 13A Describe one advantage of victim surveys and explain why some sociologists have doubts about their use. (5 marks) Jan 13B Describe one way in which the police have tried to improve their relationship with minority ethnic groups and explain how successful this has been. (5 marks) June 12A Describe one police action that may lead to some members of minority ethnic groups being stereotyped as criminal and explain why this stereotyping occurs. (5 marks) June 12B Describe one reason why people in poverty are more likely to be victims of crime than the more wealthy and explain why this situation persists. (5 marks) Jan 12 A Describe one recent approach to reduce the number of violent crimes committed by young people and explain why this approach might not have been successful. (5 marks) Jan 12B Describe one way in which some sociologists believe that labelling can lead to deviant behaviour and explain why this might be a problem for certain groups within society. (5 marks) June 12 Describeone way in which governments have attempted to reduce racist behaviour in societyand explain how successful this approach has been. (5 marks) June 12 Describeone reason why there is argument and debate about levels of violent crime in societyand explain why this might make it difficult to reduce the public‟s fear of such crimes. (5 marks) Jan 11A Describe one way in which the government collects statistics about the level of crime in societyand explain why this might not be an accurate picture of the number of crimes committed. (5 marks) Jan 11B Describe one way in which recent governments have tried to reduce anti-social behaviour and explain how successful this approach has been. (5 marks)
  • 8. 8 PEELing apart your essay Crime: Discuss how far sociologists would agree that official statistics give an accurate picture of the levels of crime in society. Media: Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the audience decides what is seen and heard in the mass media. Inequality: Discuss how far sociologists would agree that Britain is now a classless society For your question, identify at least FOUR points – there must be at least ONE in each column. Sociologists WOULD agree Sociologists WOULD NOT agree Introductions Use the question at the beginning of your introduction for example;  How far sociologists would agree that official statistics give an accurate picture of the levels of crime in society is debateable because Or  How far sociologists would agree that Britain is now a classless societyis debatable because Use the introduction to break down what the question is asking you; Define any key terms it mentions – EG “Classless society” Is there a theory it is talking about – EG Marxism / Functionalism / New Right If statistics are involved, what is the key trend or pattern in this area? – EG Rising / Falling / Steady / High / low Now PEEL the question apart Use the words from the question as a starter to your first sentence Pointless picture of a banana (teacher joke)
  • 9. 9 You need to do the following for EACH of your 4 points POINT theory or concept EXPLAIN what do sociologists think about this? Is there a theory that can be linked? EXAMPLE evidence from stats or a relevant example from real life LINK to the question and next paragraph Conclusion starters Your conclusion should address the essay question directly (weigh up all the evidence/theories) and answer the ‘How far.’ part. E.g  To a large/a small / some extent sociologists agree because...  To sum up it would appear that many/some sociologists agree/disagree…  In conclusion it would seem that most/few sociologists agree/disagree…  Mention any statistics that support your conclusion
  • 10. 10 Social inequality 12 mark Questions Specimen Discuss how far sociologists would agree that ethnic inequality is the most important cause of social division in modern Britain. CAGE Discuss how far sociologists would agree that children born into poverty will grow up to be poor throughout their lives. CAUSES June 11 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that there is still a traditional working class in Britain today. THEORY Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the causes of poverty lie in the attitudes and values of the poor themselves. CAUSES Jan 12 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that there is less class inequality now than 50 years ago. THEORY Discuss how far sociologists would agree that gender discrimination in the workplace remains an issue in Britain today. CAGE June 12 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that Britain is now a classless society. THEORY Discuss how far sociologists would agree that a person‟s ethnicity is the most important factor affecting his or her life chances. CAUSES Jan 13 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that in Britain today a person‟s status is based on his or her achievements. CAUSES Discuss how far sociologists would agree that there is an underclass in Britain today. THEORY
  • 11. 11 Mass media 12 mark questions Specimen Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the image of women presented by the mass media tends to be stereotypical rather than realistic. CAGE Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the mass media is a more powerful agent of socialisation than the education system. ROLE . June 11 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the mass media have replaced the family as the main agent of socialisation. ROLE Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the political views presented by the mass media are those of the rich and powerful in society. THEORY Jan 12 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that an audience‟s behaviour is directly affected by what it sees and hears in the mass media. MODELS Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the rapid growth of the internet and other digital media has increased freedom of speech in our society. ROLE June 12 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that representations of women by the mass media are still largely stereotypical. CAGE Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the mass media are the most important agent of socialisation shaping people‟s political opinions today. ROLE Jan 13 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the audience decides what is seen and heard in the mass media. MODELS Discuss how far sociologists would agree that violence in the mass media leads to violence in real life. MODELS
  • 12. 12 Past short essay questions - crime “Old” syllabus (these questions start “To what extent would sociologists agree” instead of “Discuss how far sociologists would agree” – they mean the same thing though!) June 2003 To what extent would sociologists agree that criminal or deviant behaviour is the result of parents failing to socialise their children correctly? June 2004 To what extent would sociologists agree that official criminal statistics by themselves do not give an accurate picture of the extent of criminal behaviour? June 2005 To what extent would sociologists agree that the young people who commit crimes do so because they have different norms and values from the rest of society? June 2006 To what extent would sociologists agree that the level of youth crime in an area depends on how well parents control their children? June 2007 To what extent would sociologists find official crime figures helpful in providing an accurate picture of how much crime there is? Current syllabus Specimen 2009 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that working class males are more likely to commit crimes than other sections of society. (12 marks) Discuss how far sociologists would agree that teenage criminal and deviant behaviour results from parents failing to socialise their children correctly. (12 marks) Jan 2011 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that women are less likely to commit crime than men. Discuss how far sociologists would agree that in Britain today working-class criminals are more likely to be convicted than middle-class and upper-class „white collar‟ criminals. June 11 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that some ethnic groups appear to commit more crime than others because they are stereotyped.
  • 13. 13 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that most deviant and criminal behaviour in young people results from peer group pressure. Jan 12 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that most criminal behaviour is caused by poverty and social deprivation. Discuss how far sociologists would agree that official statistics give an accurate picture of the levels of crime in society. Jun12 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that what is seen as deviance arises from labelling by society. Discuss how far sociologists would agree that most anti-social behaviour is carried out by young men. Jan 13 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that deviant and criminal behaviour results from poor socialisation in childhood. Discuss how far sociologists would agree that women today are just as likely as men to commit crime