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  • 1. 1 GCSE Sociology Paper 1 Question pack REMEMBER 1 hour 30 minutes exam 90 marks 1 minute per mark Three sections on the paper 1. Studying Society 2. Education 3. Family In the Studying Society section there is: 2 x 1 mark questions 1 x 2 mark question 1 x 4 mark “Compare” type A question 1 x 4 mark “Explain” type B question 1 x 4 mark “explain how a method works” Type C questions 2 x 4 mark “Identify and explain in context” Type D questions 1 x 6 mark question In the family and education section there is: 2 x 1 mark questions 1 x 2 mark question 1 x 4 mark question 2 x 5 mark question 2 x 12 mark questions – CHOOSE ONE Learn your key vocabulary – you have a list for each module
  • 2. 2 The Key terms – you MUST know ALL of these and use them Studying Society Agents/agencies of socialisation Beliefs Conformity Conflict/consensus Culture Cultural differences Customs Discrimination Ethnic group/ethnicity Feminism Functionalism Gender/Sex Identity Marxism Multicultural society Nature/nurture Norms Roles- multiple roles and role conflict Role models Peer group Prejudice Race Racism Role Role conflict Sanctions Social control- formal and informal Social deprivation and the underclass Social issues Social mobility Social policies Social processes Social structures Socialisation- primary and secondary Status- ascribed and achieved Stratification Subculture Stereotype Values Welfare state Studying Society Case Study Content analysis Covert observation Closed questions Ethical considerations- anonymity, confidentiality, informed consent. Experiments- field/laboratory Generalisations Hypothesis Interviewer bias/effect Longitudinal studies Non-participant observation Official statistics Open-ended questions Overt observation Participant observation Personal documents Pilot study Population Primary data Qualitative data Quantitative data Reliability Representative sample Research aims Research methods Research process Respondent Sample Sampling frame Sampling types - random, stratified, systematic, quota, snowball Secondary data Triangulation Validity Education Academies Anti-school subculture Citizenship Comprehensive school system Cultural capital De-schooling Formal curriculum Ethnocentric curriculum Free schools Further/higher education Hidden curriculum Home education Independent sector schools Inclusion and exclusion Intelligence Quotient Labelling Marketisation of education Material deprivation Meritocracy Mixed ability classes National curriculum Official curriculum Ofsted Private schools Public school SAT s Selective schooling - tripartite system Self-fulfilling prophecy Setting and streaming School league tables State funded schools Specialist schools Vocational education Family Beanpole families Bigamy Birth rate Breadwinner Cereal packet family Child-centredness Civil partnership Cohabitation Commune Conjugal roles- joint/segregated Death rate Democratic relationships Demography Domestic abuse Domestic division of labour Divorce rate Dual-worker families Extended family Empty nest Empty shell marriage Family Diversity Fertility rate Generation Household Househusband/wife Lone-parent family Marriage rate Matriarchal family Monogamy New man Neo-conventional families Nuclear family Patriarchy Polygamy Reconstituted family/step-parent Symmetrical families Traditional family roles
  • 3. 3 Studying Society 4 mark “Compare” Questions Type A: the “compare” question – compare one thing with another. It’s always “in context” – use the context in the answer… Study Item C. Describe how sociologists investigate families and their lives compared with how journalists might investigate families and their lives. (4 marks) DESCRIBE ONE When investigating families and their lives, sociologists…. WHEREAS DESCRIBE THE OTHER Journalists would…. Your answer will be a description of one idea, linked to a description of the other idea with a connective such as “whereas” or “on the other hand” Type B: The “Explain” question – similar process to 4 mark questions in family and education: Explain what sociologists mean by joint domestic roles. (4 marks) DEFINITIONEXPLAINTHE PROCESS
  • 4. 4 Studying society Type A and B 4 mark questions 4 mark Jan 13A Describe how a longitudinal study might be useful for research into the influence of parents on a child’s development. (4 marks) Jan 13B Explain what sociologists mean by socialisation. (4 marks) June 12A Describe how journalists may approach the issue of racism in British schools differently from sociologists. (4 marks) June 12B Explain what sociologists mean by ethnicity. (4 marks) Jan12A Explain what sociologists mean by family diversity. (4 marks) Jan 12B Describe how a sociological approach to families may differ from a biological approach to families. (4 marks) June 11 A Describe how sociologists may approach a study of truancy and explain how this might differ from the approach of psychologists. (4 marks) June 11 B Explain what sociologists mean by social deprivation. (4 marks) Jan 11A Describe how sociologists investigate families and their lives compared with how journalists might investigate families and their lives. (4 marks) Jan 11 B Explain what sociologists mean by joint domestic roles. (4 marks) Jan 10 A Describe how the sociological idea of gender differs from the biological idea of sex. (4 marks) Jan 10 B Explain what sociologists mean by gender socialisation. (4 marks)
  • 5. 5 Studying Society “In context” 4 mark questions Type C: explaining why a method works: these questions ask you to explain why a METHOD might be useful in a context. Explain how the use of primary research might be useful for research into role conflict experienced by working women. (4 marks) DEFINE Primary research is….. LINK When researching role conflict experienced by working women, it might be useful because… Type D: The next set of questions is based around a scenario, eg: You have been asked as a sociologist to investigate the division of housework and childcare amongst married and cohabiting couples today. They are BOTH “Identify and explain” questions – 1 mark for the identify, 3 for the explain;Don’t forget to use the context: AIdentify what sociologists mean by a pilot studyand explain why you might undertake a pilot study in your investigation. (4 marks) BIdentify one ethical issue you may need to consider and explain how you could deal with this ethical issue in your investigation. (4 marks) I/D A pilot study is Explain It might need to be undertaken when studying the division of labour in married and cohabitingcouples today because
  • 6. 6 Studying society – Type C and D “In context” 4 mark questions Jan 13AExplain one way in which sociological research might help governments to design policies to support parents in Britain. (4 marks) You have been asked as a sociologist to investigate the importance of family life to teenagers. Jan 13B Identify what sociologists mean by opinion polls and explain how useful these might be for your investigation. (4 marks) Jan 13C Identify one ethical issue that you may need to consider and explain how you could deal with this issue in your investigation. (4 marks) June 12A Explain one way in which sociological research might help schools and educational authorities design policies to reduce racist bullying in schools. (4 marks) You have been asked as a sociologist to investigate the extent of racism in schools. June 12B Identify what sociologists mean by secondary data and explain how useful school racist incident figures would be for your investigation. (4 marks) June 12C Identify one ethical issue that you may need to consider and explain why you need to consider this ethical issue for your investigation. (4 marks) Jan 12A Explain the importance of clear research aims when carrying out a sociological investigation. (4 marks) You have been asked as a sociologist to investigate attitudes towards marriage. Jan 12B Identify one secondary source of information that you would use in your study and explain why this source might be useful. (4 marks) Jan 12C Identify one ethical issue which may arise when asking people about marriage and explain how you might deal with this in your research. (4 marks) June 11A Explain one way in which sociological research might help educational authorities to design policies to reduce truancy in Britain. (4 marks) You have been asked as a sociologist to investigate truancy amongst secondary school pupils. June 11B Identify what sociologists mean by official statistics and explain how useful these might be for your investigation. (4 marks) June 11C Identify one ethical issue that you may need to consider and explain why you need to consider this ethical issue for this investigation. (4 marks) Jan 11 A Explain how the use of primary research might be useful for research into role conflict experienced by working women. (4 marks)
  • 7. 7 You have been asked as a sociologist to investigate the division of housework and childcare amongst married and cohabiting couples today. B Identify what sociologists mean by a pilot study and explain why you might undertake a pilot study in your investigation. (4 marks) C Identify one ethical issue you may need to consider and explain how you could deal with this ethical issue in your investigation. (4 marks) June 10 A Explain one way in which a longitudinal study would be useful for research into the socialisation of boys and girls in modern British society. (4 marks) You have been asked as a sociologist to investigate why girls significantly out-perform boys in examination subjects such as Art and English. B Identify one way in which you could select your sample and explain why this would be appropriate. (4 marks) C Identify one ethical issue which may arise in the course of doing your research and explain why this might be an issue for this particular research. (4 marks)
  • 8. 8 How to answer 6 mark questions…. The pattern of these questions is: Identify ONE….. and explain why it is better than another……….. EGIdentify one primary research method that you would useand explain why it is better than another possible primary method for your investigation NOTE: These questions always focus on the SCENARIO What you need to do: a) I/d the first method b) I/d the second method c) Explain why one is better than the other d) Link to the context The marks are allocated as follows: 1–2 marks for basic statements. 3–4 marks for a partial explanation comparing the method in simple terms. 5–6 marks for a clear explanation relating the characteristics of the methods to their effectiveness in obtaining the kind of information specifically required by the scenario. How to start your answer:Identifyone primary research method that you would useand explain why it is better than another possible primary method for your investigation Identify method 1 one primary research method that I would use is Identify method 2 Alternatively, anotherprimary research method that I would use is NEW PARAGRAPH Explainwhy one’sbetter Method 1 would be better than method 2 because….. This would enable me to investigate the issue more effectively because…
  • 9. 9 6 mark Jan 13 Identify one primary research method that you would use and explain why it is better than another possible primary method for your investigation. (6 marks) June 12 Identify one observational method that you would use and explain why it is better than another possible observational method for obtaining information for your investigation. (6 marks) Jan 12 Identify one method of interviewing that you might use and explain whether this method is better than using postal questionnaires for your research into attitudes towards marriage. (6 marks) June 11 Identify one sampling method that you would use and explain why it is better than another possible sampling technique for obtaining a representative sample. (6 marks) Jan 11 Identify one secondary source of data that you could use and explain why it is better than another possible secondary source for obtaining the information you need. (6 marks) June 10Identify one primary research method that you would use and explain why it is better than another possible primary method for obtaining the information that you need. (6 marks)
  • 10. 10 How to answer 4 mark questions in Education and Family …. The pattern of these questions is: Explain what sociologists mean by……….. EG “Explain what sociologists mean by labelling.” Sometimes the question may add when studying…… EG “Explain what sociologists mean by conformity when studying education.” The marks are allocated as follows: 1 mark for basic statements about the question with little or no reference to the topic that the question’s set on. 2-3 marks for a partial or under-developed sociological explanation, possibly via an example, in which some general reference will be made to the topic that the question is set on. 4 marks for a clear explanation focused on the topic that the question is set on that uses examples from specifically relevant areas of sociology How to start your answer: In the context of (insert name of topic), (keyword) means……… Example: Family section: Explain what sociologists mean by patriarchy. (4 marks) DEFINITIONIN CONTEXT In the context of thefamily, patriarchy means EXAMPLE For example…. EXPLAINTHE PROCESS This happens because…
  • 11. 11 How to answer 5 Mark questions DON’T FORGET: underline / highlight the key words in the question and then use them in your answer. EG: Describe one way in which gender roles in the family have changed in the past 50yearsand explain why this change has happened. DESCRIBE one way in which gender roles in the family have changed in the past 50 years is NEW PARAGRAPH EXPLAIN this change has happenedbecause Mark scheme: Describe one: 2 marks 1 mark for a partial description. 2 marks for an appropriate and more developed description Explain: 3 marks 1-2 marks for a simple explanation linked to the description. 3 marks for a clear explanation explicitly related to the description AND relevant sociological theory / concepts.
  • 12. 12 Education 4 & 5 mark questions 4 mark Jan 12 Explain what sociologists mean by a faith school. (4 marks) June 12 Explain what sociologists mean by the self-fulfilling prophecy. (4 marks) Jan 12 Explain what sociologists mean by pupil subcultures. (4 marks) June 11 Explain what sociologists mean by vocationalism in education. (4 marks) Jan 11 Explain what sociologists mean by labelling in schools. (4 marks) June 10 Explain what sociologists mean by the hidden curriculum. (4 marks) 5 mark Jan 13A Describe one way in which schools put pupils into groups and explain how this may affect a pupil’s educational achievement. (5 marks) Jan 13b Describe one government policy of the past 25 years which has attempted to improve educational standards and explain how successful this policy has been. (5 marks) June 12A Describe one way in which a school’s performance is measured and explain how this may or may not be a good way of measuring the standards of a school. (5 marks) June 12B Describe one function that education may perform for society and explain how this may benefit society. (5 marks) Jan 12A Describe one way in which teacher expectations can affect attainment and explain how this may or may not lead to an improvement in educational achievement. (5 marks) Jan12B Describe one way in which a personal tutor or mentor can try to raise individual pupil performance and explain how this may lead to an improvement in educational achievement. (5 marks) June 11 A Describe one way in which schools attempt to encourage a sense of what it means to be British and explain how this may help to improve social cohesion. (5 marks) June 11B Describe one government policy of the last 20 years which has attempted to widen the range of young people participating in post-16 education. Explain how this policy may or may not have increased educational opportunities. (5 marks) Jan 11A Describe one way in which a school can try to raise pupil performance and explain how this may lead to an improvement in educational achievement. (5 marks) Jan 11B Describe one government educational reform of the last 25 years and explain how this may have increased or decreased educational opportunities. (5 marks) June 10 ADescribe one way in which parents can assist their children to achieve well at school and explain how this would help. (5 marks) June 10 B Describe one way in which governments have attempted to check what happens in schools and explain what effect such monitoring may have on a school. (5 marks)
  • 13. 13 Family 4 & 5 mark questions 4 mark Jan 13 Explain what sociologists mean by cohabitation. (4 marks) June 12 Explain what sociologists mean by primary socialisation. (4 marks) Jan 12 Explain what sociologists mean by authority relationships in families. (4 marks) June 11 Explain what sociologists mean by a reconstituted family. (4 marks) Jan 11 Explain what sociologists mean by a traditional nuclear family. (4 marks) June 10 Explain what sociologists mean by an extended family. (4 marks) 5 mark Jan 13A Describe one way in which gender roles in the family have changed in the past 50 years and explain why this change has happened. (5 marks) Jan 13B Describe one family type which is more commonly found in Britain today than in the 1970s and explain why this change has happened. (5 marks) June 12ADescribe one family type found in Britain and explain how it is different from any one other family type. (5 marks) June 12B Describe one way in which an individual’s family or household situation might change over the course of their life, apart from divorce, and explain why this change may occur. (5 marks) Jan 12ADescribe one change in the role of women in families and explain why this change has occurred. (5 marks) Jan 12B Describe how the pattern of divorce has changed in Britain over the last 50 years and explain why this pattern has occurred. (5 marks) June 11A Describe one way in which relations between parents and children have changed in the last 30 years or so and explain why this change has happened. (5 marks) June 11B Describe the feminist approach to the family and explain how this approach is different from other sociological approaches. (5 marks) Jan 11A Describe one possible consequence of divorce for husbands and explain how this may have an effect on them. (5 marks) Jan 11B Describe one change in family size in Britain and explain why this change has occurred. (5 marks) Jan 10 ADescribe one form of help which a grandparent might provide for a family and explain how this may help members of a family. (5 marks) Jan 10 B Describe one way in which governments might provide assistance to lone parent families and explain how this would assist lone parents. (5 marks)
  • 14. 14 PEELing apart your essay Education:Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the type of school a child attends has a significant effect on his/her life chances Family: Discuss how far sociologists would agree that marriage is important in Britain today For your question, identify at least FOUR points – there must be at least ONE in each column. Sociologists WOULD agree Sociologists WOULD NOT agree Introductions Use the question at the beginning of your introduction for example;  How far Sociologists would agree that marriage in Britain today is important is debateable because Or  How far sociologists would agree that the type of school a child attends has a significant effect on his or her life chancesis debatable because Use the introduction to break down what the question is asking you; Define any key terms it mentions – EG “life chances” Is there a theory it is talking about – EG Marxism / Functionalism / New Right If statistics are involved, what is the key trend or pattern in this area? – EG Rising / Falling / Steady / High / low Now PEEL the question apart Use the words from the question as a starter to your first sentence Pointless picture of a banana (teacher joke)
  • 15. 15 You need to do the following for EACH of your 4 points POINT theory or concept EXPLAIN what do sociologists think about this? Is there a theory that can be linked? EXAMPLE evidence from stats or a relevant example from real life LINK to the question and next paragraph Conclusion starters Your conclusion should address the essay question directly (weigh up all the evidence/theories) and answer the ‘How far.’ part. E.g  To a large/a small / some extent sociologists agree because...  To sum up it would appear that many/some sociologists agree/disagree…  In conclusion it would seem that most/few sociologists agree/disagree…  Mention any statistics that support your conclusion
  • 16. 16 Education 12 mark Questions Older essays: Discuss how far sociologists would agree that a pupil’s social class is the most important influence on his or her educational achievements? Discuss how far sociologists would agree that differences in home background are the most important cause of differences in educational achievement between ethnic groups? Discuss how far sociologists would agree that differences in family income are responsible for differences in educational achievement between social groups? New specimen Discuss how far sociologists would agree that encouraging pupils to adopt British values has become in recent years the most important function of the education system. (12 marks) Discuss how far sociologists would agree that parental attitudes are the most important influence on a child’s educational achievement. (12 marks) June 2010 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that educational reforms over the last 25 years have been successful in raising the achievement of all pupils. (12 marks) Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the situation in a pupil’s home is a more important cause of educational under-achievement than the type of school he or she attends. (12 marks) June 2011 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that a student’s ethnic background is the main reason for differences in educational achievement. (12 marks) Discuss how far sociologists would agree that peer group pressure has a significanteffect on a student’s choice of subjects at school and of courses at college. (12 marks) Jan 2011 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the way in which pupils are grouped within a school has a significant effect on their educational performance. (12 marks) Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the main function of schools is to teach children to become part of society. (12 marks) Jan 2013 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that a pupil’s social class background is the main reason for differences in educational achievement. (12 marks) Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the type of school a child attends has a significant effect on his/her life chances. (12 marks)
  • 17. 17 Family 12 mark questions To what extent would sociologist agree that there is no longer such a thing as a typical family in modern Britain (June 04) To what extent would sociologists agree that the married couple family is no longer the typical family? (9 marks) (June 06) To what extent would sociologists agree that marriage and family life benefit men more than they benefit women? (June 05) June 2007 To what extent would sociologists agree that changes in social attitudes have been responsible for the increase in the divorce rate since the 1960s? 2007 - specimen Discuss how far sociologists would agree that living in a family tends to benefit men more than women. (12 marks) OR Discuss how far sociologists would agree that it is realistic to talk of a typical British family today. June 2010 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the nuclear family is the norm in Britain today. (12 marks) Discuss how far sociologists would agree that inequalities exist within the home. Jan 2011 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that marriage is still considered important in modern British society. (12 marks) Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the traditional nuclear family is the mostappropriate family type in which to raise children in modern Britain. (12 marks) June 2011 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that there is equality between men and women in the family. (12 marks) Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the wider extended family is becoming less important in society today. (12 marks) Jan 2012 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that there is no longer a typical British family.(12 marks) Discuss how far sociologists would agree that changes in family size have led to families becoming more child-centred. (12 marks) June 2012 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the roles of men and women in families have changed significantly in the past 50 years. (12 marks)
  • 18. 18 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that changes in the divorce rate over the past 50 years are due to changes in the law. (12 marks) Jan 2013 Discuss how far sociologists would agree that marriage is important in Britain today. (12 marks) Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the nuclear family is no longer the norm in modern Britain. (12 marks)

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