What is a learner?
What is does it
mean to reflect?
Why should we nurture
reflection as opposed to
How do we nurture reflection ??
When is the best time to reflect?
When is the best time to nurture
Who should be doing the
reflecting and who the nurturing?
A psychological definition: Learning is a change in
behaviour that happens as a consequence of
experience and not due to biological maturation
If study habits are the behaviour for change...
can we encourage the children to change their studying
behaviour in order to be more successful in the future?
Often pupils say they worked so hard for a certain test
and then did badly, they blame themselves, they lose
motivation, hope, lose courage and fail to initiate
A habit is a regular pattern of behaviour, a tendency
to generally do something in a certain way
how do we encourage pupils to kick old habits that
are not working for them and adopt new ones?
how do we encourage pupils to experiment with new
ways of working which might lead to greater success?
we want our pupils to be ‘learners’, to change their
old behaviours in accordance with the new
experiences; to take note of how they did in one task
and apply it to the next task in order to improve
We want our pupils to be more reflective and think
about their thinking.
In his book ‘Evidence Based Teaching’, Geoff Petty
Many teachers spend too much time on content and
not enough on skills despite summative assessments
that require thinking skills, decision making skills, the
creation of coherent and justified arguments
When students are not taught how to think they may
struggle and this may be put down to low intelligence
Often we complain that pupils don’t do various
different things effectively; plan, draft, proof read, use
sources effectively, apply frameworks etc;
But did we remember to teach them how as well as
what? Did we help them to recognise how they are
currently working and what they could change?
Teachers need to actively teach content whilst teaching
skills (Geoff Petty book has hundreds of ideas)
Pupils need to be encouraged to think about...
HOW they personally approach tasks they have been
asked to complete either in class or at home
to recognise when they are or aren’t applying taught
To review the work they have completed against
checklists (created ideally by them using exam board
materials) and demonstrate to the person assessing them
how they have attempted to meet the grading criteria
When pupils create work that is not up to standard how
do we know what the pupil was thinking about as they
Has the pupil considered what they were thinking as
they created it?
If we both knew...(teacher and pupil) we could work
together to fix things more effectively.
We need to work together to consider the HOW?!
Many studies show that when thinking skills are
integrated in with content teaching in combination
with tasks that encourage pupil reflection, attainment
goes up not just in the lesson where they are
encouraged to do this but in other subjects to.
This should convinces teachers that building in time
for reflection is worthwhile
It increases pupil attainment
It helps us as teachers to demonstrate to inspectors that
our pupils are developing positive attitudes to learning
and that we know our pupils (because we have asked
the pupils to engage in activities that reveal
information about the ways that they work to
themselves but also to share this knowledge with us -
we then need to use this information to differentiate
Work by psychologist Carol Dweck on motivation and
pupils ideas about their own intelligence may help
them to realise why reflection is important and that
changing the way that we work really can impact on
As the ‘Keep Dancing’ powerpoint shows ...
times of transition such as GCSE to A level/IB
can be critical flashpoints where pupils could lose all
confidence in their ability and stop implementing coping
strategies (listening and seeking help, trying new ways of
working, planning time etc)
if they struggle early and hold a fixed intelligence
Petty suggests that ...
20% of teaching time should be spent on subject specific
thinking and writing skills
The greatest effect sizes are found when...
skills teaching is integrated with content and when this is
paired with pupil relfection/self assessment
In turn then perhaps pupils should be roughly spend
20% of their time reflecting on ‘process’ as opposed to
creating a ‘product’. In practice...
A2 HW = 4 hours a week per subject; 2 hrs per teacher
I often set one essay as hw
20% of two hours is 24 minutes; 12 minutes thinking
HOW to address the task and 12 reviewing the task.
One student will act as monitor today and will assign
choose three certificates to issue based on what the are
supposed to be able to do, e.g.
best of use terminology
most detailed knowledge of a study
best knowledge of research methods
best able to evaluate a study without being prompted
student most able to elicit participation from others;
best progress on changing style of note taking
The student will report back as part of plenary and
Give the class the learning objective straight from the
Have them create their own exam questions for
different mark allocations (2, 4, 5, 12 etc, varying
AO1/AO2 requirements); write them on paper and
swap amongst other pairs/groups
Choose a 12 mark essay question to work towards
Get them to create detailed checklists about what they
think the mark scheme should include
Have them think about what they would like to be
taught/learn about in order to meet get the correct
content into the essay that they have planned.
Set a question as lesson starter which requires the
pupils to think about what they already know and
apply it to the new situation
E.g. How would psychologists research day care?
on your own
as a pair –choose the best ideas from the pair and justify
why one idea better than the other (S and W of each)
then decide what they will put forward as their joint
idea to other pair
link up with another pair and as a foursome, discuss
and create the best idea.
As part of the plenary give out a quick self assessment
such as ...
Did I ask a question when i didn't understand
Did I ask about something I found interesting?
Did I ask a question of another pupil?
Did I volunteer to answer a question?
Did I join in with the pair work effectively?
Did I speak up if someone said something I didn’t
entirely agree with?
We learn by doing; active learning is much better
recalled, enjoyed and understood.
Active learning require us to 'make our own
meaning' , to develop our own conceptualisations of
what we are learning.
During this process we physically make neural
connections in our brain, the process we call learning.
Passive methods such as listening do not require us to
make these connections or conceptualisations.
Give the learner feedback on their incomplete
understandings and encourage them fix this, for example
by helping each other.
Give the teacher feedback on which learners understand,
and who needs help
Develop thinking skills such as analysis, problem solving,
Help learners to use their learning in realistic and useful
ways, and see its importance and relevance
Are more fun! Give the teacher a bit of a rest
Have them fill in a tick sheet self assessment where
they say Y/N to whether they think they have
completed all the things they should have done to
access top band marks.
If they feel they have not reached the criteria, they
should explain why.
When reviewing homeworks/essays...
Work with the mark scheme to get pupils to create a
checklist for assessment; they could do this using the
snowball method (one their own, in pairs, in a four
made of two pairs)
Carefully choose and ask a top performing pupil to be
interviewed in front of the class about how the
approached and completed
if they agree you may be able to copy their essay for the
class and then the pupils can assess the essay using
Students write a few lines at the end of each lesson or
week, describing what they have learned, what they are
unclear about along with personal observations
Questions to help structure the reflection...
Did you bring everything that you needed for the lesson?
Had you done any necessary preparatory work?
How are you getting on with your most recent targets?
What did you feel went really well for you today?
What didn’t go so well?
Same as reflective journal but online and interactive
You set blogs (or facebook page) for each of your
class; possibly through the VLE
pupils blog each day about what they have learnt as
they review and consolidate the days lessons; focus is
on processes and skills not necessarily content; the
how of learning
Other pupils can read and comment on progress
Pupils support each other
Learners: “Their attitudes towards learning are
exemplary and they are highly productive”
• “know their pupils’ capabilities and adapt
teaching well to meet their needs
• “are highly effective in building on previous
learning and helping pupils to overcome
• “Marking and assessment are productively
focused on guiding improvement and ensure that
pupils have a clear understanding of their
strengths and areas for development”