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  1. 1. A2 Level Psychology PSYA3 Gender Name: _______________________________ Form: _______________________________ Teacher: _______________________________ 1
  2. 2. PSYA3 Gender Specification 2 In the exam you will have 1 hour 30 minutes to answer three sections. You are advised to spend 30 minutes on each section. Each section will be worth 24 marks. Possible questions could be one question worth 24 marks, or questions consisting of multiple parts. A maximum of 8 marks will be awarded for A01, 12 marks will be awarded for A02, and 4 marks will be awarded for A03.
  3. 3. PSYA3 Gender Sample Mark Scheme (24 Marks) 3
  4. 4. A02/A03 Commentary, Don’t forget to use your... Synoptic Toolkit I D A Approaches Behavioural Psychodynamic Biological Evolutionary Social Issues Gender Bias Ethics Culture Bias (Ethnocentrism) Use of Animals Debates Free Will or Determinism? Reductionism Nature or Nurture? Idiographic or Nomothetic? Quantitative or Qualitiative? How Science Works Experiments, Observations, Case Studies, questionnaires. Ecological Validity? Sample? Too much/little control? Objectivity? Generalisability?
  5. 5. Task: Gender-bread! What is Gender? Make one Ginger-bread man Male and the other one Female. Think about what we mean by Gender… Gender is: 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. Gender: Biological Explanations: Case Study: The Batista Family 7
  8. 8. Gender: Biological Explanations: Example Answer (A01) Outline the biological approach to gender development (5 marks) The biological approach to gender argues that ______________ and ______________factors play the main role in the formation of our gender ___________. Gender is not a product of nurture, but is determined by our DNA, chromosomes and hormones. In the case of chromosomes, it is the _______ chromosome which determines ____________ sex. For example if an embryo inherits an _____ chromosome from both parents, the chromosome pair will become XX, producing a ___________. On the other hand if the embryo inherits an X from the mother and a ______ from the father, the chromosome pair will be _____, producing a female. While genetics produce the physical sex of a baby, it is how their biology interacts with hormones which impacts on gender. If an embryo is male, then the male genitalia, the _________, produce the hormone ________________, which in puberty causes facial hair to grow, the _________ to break and muscles to develop. These characteristics and masculine in nature and promote a masculine gender. On the contrary, a female produces _________which causes the onset of _____________ and growth of breasts, in preparation for motherhood. This could cause a mother-like, feminine gender. Assessment: What mark would you give it out of 5 for A01? Why? What is good? What could be improved? 8
  9. 9. Gender: Biological Explanations: Studies Hines (1994) Looked at girls and boys aged between 3-8 years who had Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), a condition caused by a pre-natal over exposure to male hormones (testosterone) as an embryo. Only minor differences were found between the girls with CAH and a control group. The control group even showed a preference for playing with boys. Hence, there was no real difference between the amount of rough and tumble play the children engaged in. Deady et al. (2006) Investigated 25 child-free young women and assessed their attitudes on having children. They asked them how broody they felt and whether they intended to eventually have children. They also measured the amount of testosterone the women were exposed to by testing their saliva. Their attitudes and testosterone levels were correlated. It was found that those women with high levels of testosterone, displayed less of a maternal drive and desire to have children. 1) What do the studies show about gender? 2) Do they support or refute biological explanations? 3) How can we evaluate the studies in terms of A03? 9
  10. 10. Biological Approach to Gender: Evaluation Re-Cap! Which picture represents which study? What did the study find? How can it be used to evaluate biological approach? A02 + or -? 10
  11. 11. Evolutionary Approach to Gender Summarise the key Evolutionary theories of Gender. Give an example to illustrate Division of labour Mate Choice Empathising-Systematising Theory Tend & Befriend 11
  12. 12. Evolutionary Explanations of Gender: Lonely Hearts You are a single Homo-sapien who wants to find a mate to ensure reproductive success. Write a lonely hearts ad to help you on your search. Describe, using the evolutionary approach: - The qualities they need to have. - The role (gender identity) they would need to take on. 12
  13. 13. Evolutionary Explanations of Gender: Evaluation Division of Labour Mate Choice Cognitive Style Point Evidence Explain Link 13
  14. 14. Evolutionary Explanations of Gender: Evaluation Synoptic Evaluation (A02) Nature versus Nurture The evolutionary approach to gender has roots in ______________. It implies that gender behaviour has been coded into our genes because it is _____________. However, this doesn‟t account for the role of ____________ _____________ in gender development. The social approach argues that a reliance on evolution ignores the impact of experience and the ________________ on the construction of our gender ___________ . On the other hand for most of the 20th century, social explanations dominated psychology. Therefore it is useful to provide an alternative explanation. Adaptive Genes Biology Identity Historical Records Fertility Questionnaires Choose Social Factors Environment Hunter Gatherer Culture Social Desirability Personal Experience Dishonest Predispose Determinism versus Free Will According to evolutionary explanations, our _____________ specify which adaptive role we take. Men naturally take on the role of the ______________ _______________ and seek out young, attractive woman as an indicator of ______________ . However, genes only ____________ us to certain gendered behaviours, they do not dictate how we _____________ to behave. Other factors may also be at play such as _______________, ______________ _____________ or the way we make our own decisions. Research Methods Support for the evolutionary approach comes from ______________ ______________, observations and _________________ which have been conducted cross culturally. But how accurately does this data represent people from different cultures? _____________ _______________ issues may result from self-report methods, leading to a _____________ representation of gender identity across cultures. 14
  15. 15. Gender: Biosocial Explanations MALE Biological & Physical Social Both Think of as many Male sex roles as you can . Then place them into the appropriate area of the Venn diagram. Can the roles be explained using biological/physical factors, social factors or both? 15
  16. 16. Gender: Biosocial Explanations FEMALE Biological & Physical Social Both Think of as many female sex roles as you can. Then place them into the appropriate area of the Venn diagram. Can the roles be explained using biological/physical factors, social factors or both? 16
  17. 17. Gender: Biosocial Explanations The Biosocial Approach argues… Social Role Theory, Eagly & Wood (1999)Biosocial Theory, Money & Ehrhardt (1972) • Division of Labour • Mate Choice • Hormonal Differences 17
  18. 18. Gender: Biosocial Explanations: A02 Studies… Condry & Condry (1976) 200 male and female college students were shown a videotape of a baby playing and reacting to different stimuli. The same tape was shown to everyone. For half of the participants, the child was introduced as „David‟, a boy, and for the other half, the child was introduced as „Dana,‟ a girl. The child was seen reacting to a jack-in-the-box, which popped out several times. The first time the child was startled, the second time it became agitated and the third time, began to cry. Participants were asked to interpret and describe the child‟s responses. Those participants who thought it was a girl tended to describe “her” as fearful of the jack in the box. Those that regarded the infant as a boy interpreted the tears as a sign of anger. This showed that knowledge of whether a child is a girl or boy, the label of „male‟ or „female‟ leads to different interpretations and treatment of behaviours. These interpretations are often in line with gender roles. Eagly and Wood (1999) Re-examined the data from Buss‟ study of 37 cultures in which males were found to select a mate based on physical attractiveness and youth, and females were found to look for resources in a man. Originally this data was found to support the adaptive nature of gender, in the evolutionary approach. However Eagly and Wood argue that these sex differences can also be explained by differences in social roles. Women have a lesser financial power and earning capacity than men and will inevitably seek out financial security. Similarly want to exert their power and seek out younger women who are more obedient. Eagly and Wood used the Gender Empowerment Measure to look at which cultures had greater or less gender equality. In cultures where women had a higher status and the division of labour between the sexes was more equal, differences in mating preferences became less pronounced. This suggests that social roles also influence mate choice. 1) What do the studies show about gender? 2) Do they support or refute the biological approach? 3) How can we evaluate the studies in terms of A03? 18
  19. 19. Gender: Biosocial Explanations: A02 A02  A02  19
  20. 20. Gender: Gender Dysphoria is… 1 2 3 4 5 20
  21. 21. My little boy’s grown up to be a girl of 17! Mother’s bond with sex-change teenager… They enjoy going clothes shopping together and share make-up tips. But for the first 16 years of her life Hannah was Arron, Carol's son. Carol, 45, says: "Our relationship has totally changed since Hannah told me she wanted a sex change. "We've gone from verbally violating each other as we pass in the house to having a really close relationship where we go to town together and she advises me on what to wear and how to do my make-up. "She is a lot calmer and more positive now. And she smiles more. "I won't pretend it's been easy for any of us but I know Hannah will never be truly happy until she is a woman - and I just want what's best for her." In her fashionable outfit, with her hair extensions neatly curled, it is clear Hannah, 17, feels most comfortable dressing as a girl. She says: "I've known since I was about five really. I remember being in the bath with my older sister Stacey, who is now 23. "I realised that we had different bits but I felt like a girl as well. "When I was little I used to play with Stacey's Barbie dolls. I never liked football or any of the things boys are meant to love. "As I got older I became more and more convinced that I didn't want to be a boy." Afraid of people's reactions and unsure where to turn, Hannah kept her feelings secret for years. She says: "Other kids used to say I was gay. But I knew I wasn't. I always felt like a straight girl who was in a boy's body. "I used to tell people I was 'asexual' because that was easier than explaining what I really was. "It was the little things that made school torture, like having to get changed for PE in the boys' changing rooms. It just felt so wrong. I'd always pretend I'd forgotten my gym kit or skive off school to get out of it." Hannah, who is studying animal care at college but hopes to pursue a career in hair and make-up, says: "When I was about 15 I started wearing sporty tracksuits and spiking my hair up to see if I could act and dress like a boy and still be happy. But it just wasn't me." One day Stacey put seven-year-old Arron in a bridesmaid's dress. Carol says: "She came over and said, 'Look at me mum'. I had never seen her so happy. Growing up, Arron had tantrums when we went shopping, which I now realise was because we were shopping for boys' clothes. I realise now I was blind to the real issue." Despite the clues, nothing could have prepared the mum for the day in December 2009 when Hannah finally admitted she was unhappy with being a boy. Carol, from Chellaston, Derbyshire, who also has 21
  22. 22. a ten-year-old son, Dale, says: "She looked worried. I asked what the matter was and she said, 'I think I want a sex change.' "I was shocked. I cried a lot in those first few days. I was scared of what the future held. "I had to go through a kind of grieving process - but gradually I came to accept it." Hannah, who is 5ft 11in, adds: "She said I was far too young and I would change my mind. I felt really guilty for upsetting her." The medical term for Hannah's condition is gender dysphoria. In the December after her confession, weeks after she turned 16, Hannah visited her GP with the full support of her mum and said she wanted a sex change. She started dressing as a woman in February last year and began taking female hormones last month, the first step to fully becoming a woman. The results can be seen in the picture of her above. She hopes for a full sex change operation on the NHS within the next few years. Hannah says: "It's great. I feel more feminine now. My hips have widened and my cheekbones have filled out. Soon I'll develop breast tissue. You have to live as a woman for a couple of years before they let you have the operation. "I attend a transgender support group - the LGBT Centre in Leicester - every month." In November last year Hannah changed her name by deed poll. The transformation has not been easy for her family either. She says: "I'll get called a 'faggot' and a group of guys at college sing Dude Looks Like A Lady." Carol adds: "I've experienced prejudice. My son Dale has been beaten up by kids trying to get him to say, 'My brother's gay'. But a lot of people have been supportive." Hannah says stepdad Paul, a 40- year-old labourer who has brought her up for 15 years, is coming to terms with her change. She has no contact with her real dad. As for boyfriends, Hannah says: "I am attracted to guys but it wouldn't feel right to be in a sexual relationship until I'm fully a woman. I want to get married and have kids one day." Carol says: "When you've had a son for 16 years it's very difficult to accept that they're gone. But although I've lost my son, I've gained a wonderful daughter who means the world to me." Hannah adds: "It's almost like I've been reborn. I'm convinced becoming a girl has saved my relationship with my mum." 22
  23. 23. Gender: Gender Dysphoria Hannah’s Story Describe the symptoms/signs of Gender Dysphoria. What signs did Hannah have? How could the biological approach explain Hannah’s Gender Dysphoria? How can this approach be evaluated? How could Hannah’s Gender Dysphoria be explained by psychological factors? How can the psychological approach be evaluated? Describe what happened to Hannah in the end? 23
  24. 24. PSYA3: Gender Dysphoria Discuss one or more explanations for Gender Dysphoria. (24 marks) 24
  25. 25. PSYA3: Gender, Cognitive Development Theory, Kohlberg (1966) Imagine you are following one child throughout their gender development. Create a story board of what happens to them at each stage of Kohlberg‟s Gender Constancy Theory. Stage 1: Gender Labelling Stage 2: Gender Stability Stage 3: Gender Consistency 25
  26. 26. PSYA3: Kohlberg’s Gender Constancy Theory Gender Identity/Labelling Gender Stability Gender Consistency/Constancy Weinraub (1984) completed an observational study on 2-3year olds. Children who had mastered gender identity made more sex stereotyped toy preferences than children who had not acquired gender identity. Once children had identified themselves as a boy or girl, they behaved in ways that they thought individuals of that sex should behave. McConaghy (1979) found that when young children were shown a line drawing of a doll where the male genitals were visible through the doll‟s dress, children under the age of 5 judged the doll to be female because of it‟s external appearance. Damon (1977) read children a story about a boy who likes to play with dolls and asked their opinion on this. Young children thought it was acceptable for the boy to play with the dolls. Older children tended to say it was wrong or unusual. He concluded that young children have no concept of gender appropriate behaviour and that older children have a more developed sense of gender. Kuhn et al (1978) also looked into sex sterotyping by asking very young (2-3) children about dolls. They found strong sterotyping and they tended to give positive characteristics to their own gender but not the opposite. This shows that understanding of gender exists even at a very young age. Slaby and Frey (1975) used a structured interview and asked young children sex trait questions. E.g. „Were you a little boy or a little girl when you were a baby?‟ „When you grow up will you be a mummy or a daddy?‟ Answers given by these children did not recognise that these traits were stable over time, until the children were 3 or 4 years old. Slaby and Frey (1975) used a structured interview to ask children questions such as „If you plated football would you be a boy or a girl?‟ The children who scored high on both stability and consistency showed the greatest interest in same sex models, and therefore attention to gender-appropriate behaviour. Thompson (1975) found that two year olds were 76% correct in identifying their sex, where as 3 year olds were 90% correct. They could correctly label themselves. 26
  27. 27. PSYA3: Gender: Cognitive Development Gender Labelling Gender Stability Gender Consistency Point Evidence Explain Link 27
  28. 28. Task 1: Key Terms: Define the following key terms… Task 2: Imagine you are a 4 year old. Write a paragraph describing your in group schema… PSYA3: Gender Schema Theory, Martin and Halverson (1981) Schema: In group: Out group: 28
  29. 29. Task 3: Summarise , in no more than 1 sentence, how each of the following explains gender development: PSYA3: Gender Schema Theory, Martin and Halverson (1981) Schemas: Ingroup and Outgroup Processes Resilience of Gender Beliefs 29
  30. 30. PSYA3: Gender Schema Theory, Martin and Halverson (1981) A02 Studies Fagot (1985) found that two-year-olds who can correctly label the genders spent 80% of their time in same-gender groups, whereas those who cannot spend only 50% of their in same-gender groups. Also, early labelers are subsequently more sex-typed in their choice of toys and have greater knowledge of gender stereotypes (Fagot & Leinback, 1989). Martin and Little (1990) tested three- to five-year-olds on gender identity, stability and constancy, as well as on clothing and toy stereotypes, toy preferences and peer preferences. They found that children require only gender identity for their preferences and knowledge to be influenced. Martin and Halverton (1983) found that when children view pictures or watch films of individuals in cross-gender activities, such as a male acting as a nurse or a female as a doctor, they either miss the point, distort the information or quickly forget it (insisting that the man was the doctor and the woman was the nurse). This demonstrates the resilience of children‟s gender-role beliefs and attitudes. When they processed gender-related information in terms of their schemas, they admit data that are consistent with their schemas, and disregard or reject data that are inconsistent with them. Bradbard et al 1986: „When 4-9 year olds were told that certain „neutral‟ items were in fact boy or girl items, they took greater interest in the ingroup labelled toys. A week later, more details about the ingroup toys were accurately recalled than those toys in the outgroup.‟ Martin and Halverson (1983) found that when children were asked to recall pictures of people children under 6 recalled more gender consistent (Male fire-fighter) ones than inconsistent (Male nurse). This shows that children pay greater attention to information consistent with gender schemas. Hoffman (1998) found that children whose mothers work have less stereotyped views of what men do. This suggests that children are not entirely fixed on gender schemes and can take on some gender inconsistent ideas. For each study, decide whether it supports or refutes Gender Schema Theory and why… 30
  31. 31. PSYA3: Cognitive Development Theories of Gender The difference between Gender Schema Theory and Gender Constancy Theory is.. Stangor and Ruble (1989) proposed a compromise which aimed to unify both theories: Synoptic AO2 for the overall Cognitive Approach to Gender (Issues, Debates, Approaches) AO2  AO2  31
  32. 32. PSYA3: Gender: Social Influences: Key Terms Social Cognitive Theory – Bandura Key Term Definition Example Indirect / Vicarious Reinforcement Modelling Direct Reinforcement Direct Tuition 32
  33. 33. PSYA3: Gender: Social Influences Complete the mind map to help you remember how social factors can shape our gender. 33
  34. 34. PSYA3: Gender: Social Influences: A02 Studies A02 Support  A02 Refute  34
  35. 35. PSYA3: Gender: Social Influences: Synoptic A02 A02 Support  A02 Refute  35
  36. 36. PSYA3: Gender: Social Influences: Evaluation Critical Commentary Imagine you are given the question: ‘Discuss social influences on gender” complete a critical commentary of the social approach to gender. Use the suggestions below to prompt you. You MUST include the following: - Positive A02 points of the social approach. - Negative A02 points of the social approach. - Evaluate the approach from the viewpoint of other approaches we have studied in gender. You SHOULD include the following: - Studies which refute the social approach, using them for evaluation. - Studies which support the social approach, using them for evaluation. You COULD include the following: - Detailed A03 evaluation of studies – evaluating methodology. - A full range of detailed synoptic evaluation points, from a variety of debates, issues and approaches. 36
  37. 37. PSYA3: Gender: Social Influences: Evaluation Critical Commentary 37
  38. 38. PSYA3: Gender: Cultural Influences Cultural Similarities Cultural Variations Complete the table with gender differences which are common across cultures, and gender differences which vary between cultures. 38
  39. 39. PSYA3: Gender: Cultural Influences: Key Studies Williams & Best (1990a) found evidence of cultural similarities in gender stereotypes. They tested 2,800 students in30 different countries using a 300 item adjective checklist. Participants were asked to decide whether each adjective was most associated with men or women. There was a broad consensus across countries. Men were seen as more dominant, aggressive and autonomous, where as women more nurturant and interested in affiliation. This suggests there are universal stereotypes about gender. 39
  40. 40. PSYA3: Gender: Cultural Influences: Key Studies 1) Summarise the findings of each study. What do they say about gender across cultures? 2) What sorts of problems might be faced by researchers who investigate cultural variations? 3) How might these problems affect the validity of their research? 40
  41. 41. PSYA3: Gender: Cultural Influences: Key Studies 1) What do the cross cultural findings suggest in terms of the nature/nurture debate? 2) How else can cross cultural research be evaluated? 3) Can variations in gender between cultures, just be a product of cultural differences? 4) How can we evaluate the cultural approach as a whole? 41
  42. 42. PSYA3: Gender: Tracking Your Progress 42 After each assessment complete the tables to track your targets, feedback and progress. Predicted Grade Target Grade Assessment 1: Biological Explanations Date of feedback: Mark: Grade: Targets for improvement: Follow up tasks: Date to be completed by: Date completed:
  43. 43. PSYA3: Gender: Tracking Your Progress 43 Assessment 2: Evolutionary Explanations Date of feedback: Mark: Grade: Targets for improvement: Follow up tasks: Date to be completed by: Date completed: Assessment 3: Biosocial Approach Date of feedback: Mark: Grade: Targets for improvement: Follow up tasks: Date to be completed by: Date completed:
  44. 44. PSYA3: Gender: Tracking Your Progress 44 Assessment 4: Gender Dysphoria Date of feedback: Mark: Grade: Targets for improvement: Follow up tasks: Date to be completed by: Date completed: Assessment 5: Cognitive Development Theories Date of feedback: Mark: Grade: Targets for improvement: Follow up tasks: Date to be completed by: Date completed:
  45. 45. PSYA3: Gender: Tracking Your Progress 45 Assessment 6: Social Influences Date of feedback: Mark: Grade: Targets for improvement: Follow up tasks: Date to be completed by: Date completed: Assessment 7: Cultural Influences Date of feedback: Mark: Grade: Targets for improvement: Follow up tasks: Date to be completed by: Date completed: