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    Resourcd File Resourcd File Document Transcript

    • Utopianism Envisages a perfect world. Generally critical because it implies that an ideology is based on hopes and aspirations alone. Scientism Ideology that claims to be based upon empirical evidence and objective thinking – the opposite of utopianism Fraternity Literally means brotherhood. Used to suggest that members of the working class have a common bond as strong as a family link Social Class A way of dividing society into economic and social groups. Socialists usually divide on basis of economic status. Many theorists now say it is declining as a defining feature of society. Distributive justice A fair and just principle of how rewards should be distributed in society Positive discrimination Giving a positive advantage to groups that have been discriminated against in order to give them equality of opportunity. Called affirmative action in US. Private property Land that is used in the process of production (farms, factories, mines etc.). Not to be confused with private possessions such as goods we consider our own
    • Communism A social system based on the abolition of money and competition. Instead goods are produced co-operatively and distributed equally. Revolution A complete (and usually sudden) transformation of the whole nature of society. Often violent but can be peaceful. Revisionism Originally referred to socialist movements willing to compromise with capitalism. In modern era refers to any socialist movement that will compromise on issues of class analysis and revolutionary socialism. Social democracy Used in so many ways it has very little meaning anymore. Meant a form of socialism committed to using democratic methods and the political system. Currently implies being a party in the centre of the political spectrum. Clause IV Part of the UK Labour party constitution that contained a commitment to common ownership of the means of production and redistribution of wealth Third Way Term used to describe New Labour policies after 1992. A path between socialism and neo- liberalism to social justice Social exclusion Refers to groups in society that suffer deprivation in many ways and therefore do not have the choices and opportunities of the rest of society
    • Nationalisation Process of taking large private organisations into public ownership. They are then run by the state on behalf of the community as a whole e.g. trains and phone companies. Fundamentalism In socialist terms, refers to those traditions that totally oppose capitalism and are dedicated to its opposition and destruction. Bourgeoisie A small class that owned all the means of production such as factories, workshops etc. Also includes people who work for the owners such as managers and government officials Proletariat The class which is forced to sell their labour for money ways. Industrial workers. Surplus Value Capitalists would call it profit but Marx did not want to use that word. He saw it as portion of a workers time at work that was taken by the capitalist and used for their own means Alienation What happens to workers under a capitalist system according to Marx (see Marxism for more details) Voluntarism The idea that people make change and that historical change is not inevitable but the result of social movements created by people
    • Determinism Suggests that we are slaves to the forces of history and the major historical change is inevitable. Democratic centralism Political system developed by Lenin where open discussion about decisions happened within the closed political circle. Once a decision was made discussion was over and the decision was them imposed on the state