ApproachesCognitive assumptions-1. Cognitive psychologistsfocus on an internal stage(stimulus-info processing-response)2. These mental processes thatcognitive psychologists focuson include memory,perception, thinking andlanguage.3. The main assumption of thecognitive approach is thatinformation received fromour senses is processed bythe brain and that thisprocessing directs how webehave or at least justifieshow we behave the waythat we do.Developmental assumptions-1. A main assumptiontherefore of thedevelopmental approachis that cognitive,emotional andbehaviouraldevelopment is anongoing process and thatsuch changes result froman interaction of natureand nurture.2. A strength of thedevelopmental approachis that many studies inthis area are longitudinalwhich means that they doget to investigate changesand how these changesare influenced.Social Psychology-1. All behaviour occurswithin a socialcontext. A majorinfluence on people’sbehaviour, thoughtsand feelings are otherpeople and society2. This area ofPsychology focusesresearch on our socialbehaviours. Theseareas include helping,obedience,conformity, prejudice,aggression andattraction.
Individual differences-1. The main assumption ofthe individual differencesperspective is that tounderstand thecomplexity of humanbehaviour andexperiences it necessaryto study the differencesbetween people ratherthan those things thatwe all have in common.For example theindividual differencesapproach largely focuseson things such aspersonality differences,and abnormality.…social psychology-1. One of the debates inpsychology is whetheran individualsbehaviour is a result oftheir personality ortheir social context.2. According to socialpsychologists ourbehaviour is influencedby the actual, imaginedor implied presence ofothers3. Social Psychology looksat the influence of theindividual, the group,the society and theculture on individual’sbehaviour.Biological –1. The main assumptionof the physiologicalapproach is thereforethat behaviour andexperience can beexplained byphysiological changes.This approachinvestigates the brain,the nervous systemand other biologicalfactors such ashormones.2. Furthermore thephysiological approachtakes a scientificapproach usinglaboratory typeexperiments
Piaget StagesSensory motor stage•Birth to 18 months•Child learns to match their senses to what they can doPre-operational stage•18 months to 7 years•Child learns to use symbolism and language and developing generalrules about mental operationsConcrete operational stage7 to 12 yearsChild can use sophisticated mental operations but is still limited in waysfor example they tend to think of how the world is not how it might beFormal Operational Stage•12 years and above•Most sophisticated stage, governed by logical thinkingPiaget saidchildren wereunable toconserve upuntil theconcreteoperationalstage howeverSamuel andBryant foundchildren asyoung as 5couldconserve.Piagets testinvolved twoquestions.
Freud StagesOral (0-1)Child gets satisfactionfrom putting objects inthe mouthAnal (1-3)Pleasure from passingfaecesPhallic (3-6)Becomes aware ofanatomical genderdifferences and getspleasure from genitalsLatency (6-puberty)Libido is dormant andhidden. Childs energyfocused on gamesGenital (puberty +)Adult sex and consensualsex with a partner ratherthan playing with self likephallic
Pavlov Conditioning (behaviourists)• Using association to createfear or a certain behaviour• Little Albert fear of rabbitby banging iron barClassical• Using reward andpunishment to createcertain behaviour• Mouse experimentOperant
Loftus and Palmer• Cognitive• Eye witness• Effect of leading questions
Aim• Investigate accuracy of memory and theeffect of leading questions.Method•45 students•5 groups•Shown seven film clips of traffic accidents•Given questionnaire which asked them todescribe the accident and answer specificquestions•Critical question: “About how fast were thecars going when they hit each other?” Onegroup was given this•Other 4 groups were given other verbs in theplace of hit such as “smashed” “collided”“bumped” or “contacted”
ResultsThe group given the wordsmashed estimated thespeed of the cars washigher than the othergroups, the group givencollided estimated lower.0 10 20 30 40 50SmashedCollidedBumpedHitContactedSeries 1SeThe results show that leadingquestions can affect the accuracyof memory. There are twoexplanations:Response bias : the critical verbinfluences the persons responseMemory representation is altered: the verb actually changes theperception of the accident
Experiment 2AimTo see if leading questionsaltered the memory or if it isresponse biasMethod:Part 1•New group of 150 students•PX shown one minute film with contained afour second multiple car accident•Three groups of Px asked questionsincluding the critical question•Group 1 asked “smashed”•Group 2 asked “hit”•Group 3 asked nothing (control)Part 2•One week later px were asked “did you seeany broken glass” there was no broken glassbut this was to see if the leading questioncould alter the perception
ResultsThe results in part 1 were same as inexperiment 1.Part 2 found that px in the “smashed”group 1 were more likely to say they sawbroken glass.0 2 4 6SmashedHitControlNoYesMemory is determined by:•Ones own perception atthe time of the event•External info supplied after(leading questions)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SP8kJ5A5xU8
StartersTheory of Mind:Theory of mind is theability to infer or interpretother peoples emotionsand state of mindAutism:Difficulty with socialrelationshipsNot understandinggestures of facialexpressionsAspergers:Normal intelligence withnormal speech but limitedsocial skills
Aim:To assess if autism and aspergers comes froma lack of theory of mind. To use a test which iscompletely ToM instead of the sally-anne test.Sally Anne test:Sally puppet putting her ball in her basketAnne moves the ball to the boxSally returns and the first order question is“Where will sally look for the ball?”The second order question is “Where doesAnne think Sally will look for the ball?”This test had a ceiling effect as it wasdesigned for 6 year olds meaning if used onadults it can only show they have a ToM of a 6year old.Baron – Cohen set out to develop The EyesTask.
MethodParticipants:Group 1 –16 people with Aspergers withnormal intelligence. 13 men and 3women. Recruited by doctors and amagazine.Group 2 –50 age matched controls (25 male 25female)Group 3 –10 Tourette px also age matched withgroup 1 and 28 men and 2 womenSimilar childhood experiences andsame part of brain associatedAll px passed 1st and 2nd order testfor 6 year oldsProcedure:Eyes task comprises of 25 black andwhite photos of male and females takenof the eye region.Each picture shown for 3 seconds and pxgiven forced choice question, choosingbetween two mental states.There were basic mental states (happysad) and complex mental states(arrogant and scheming)Judgement on what was correct wasdone by a panel of 4 judges andconfirmed by independent 8 morejudgesStrange stories and control tasks(gender recognition and basic emotiontask)
ResultsThe Autistic px performedsignificantly worse than theTourette and control group.As only two choicesavailable the px could havescored maximum 15 out of25 by chance, only 8 autisticperformed better thanchance.Females performed slightlybetter.•Adults with autism have ToM defecit despitehave normal intelligence•The test had no context and was pure ToM•Ecological validity – the pictures are still unlikereal life people so reading the emotions may notmirror reality•Often autistic people find it difficult to hold eyecontact with people•Genetic factors may account for the femaletendency to do betterMean score RangeAutistic/Aspergers 16.3/25 13-23Normal 20.3/25 16-25Tourettes 20.4/25 16-25
Washoe – 8 months atstartTaught American signlanguage and could useabout 250 signsWashoe wasencouraged to imitate.
AimTo study human language capabilities in pygmy chimpanzees. To get true comprehensionrather than just imitation.MethodSubjects:•Kanzi aged 30-47 months, research found they are brighter chimps•Mulika, Kanzi’s sister aged 11-21 months•Common chimps, Austin and Sherman to study as comparisonsCommunication system –Lexigram with symbols on an electronic board with a later addition of a speech synthesiserso words were spoken for the symbolEarly learning –Age 6 months Kanzi watched Mother Matata use lexigram, no intentional teaching forKanzi. One and a half years Kanzi showed interest in lexigram.Kanzi developed preference for human companyMulika observed Kanzi using the lexigram
Outdoors –Food was placed at 17 locations within the 55acre forest. The name of each foodmatched the name of each site.Kanzi was shown various food items and asked to Indicate which he wanted, then takento the right location. Within four months Kanzi could select a photo and guide others tothe right place. Later he used symbols alone and Mulika could too.Data –Lexigrams indoors automatically recorded a symbol pressed by Kanzi, outdoors symbolsrecorded by hand.Each utterance was classified as 1. correct or incorrect2. Spontaneous or imitated or structured (used to see if chimps could give specificanswer)Vocabulary –To count a word as acquired it had to be a spontaneous utterance. For example if Kanziindicated he wanted to go to the tree house and then went there.In order to assess the reliability of observations 4 ½ hours of observations made in realtime and on video tape were compared.At the end of the project Kanzi and Mulika were formally tested on all the words in theirvocab. Tested by being shown photos and asked to click right symbol on lexigram
ResultsUntutoredgestures:Kanzi and Mulikaused explicitgestures tocommunicateAssociative Usage-Kanzi first heardstrawbs at mushroomsite and so associatedit with there but thenhe could have contextfree situations lateron.Lexigram –Watched byMatata usingthem, Mulikastarted using themat 12months, earlierthan Kanzi
Progress- Kanziacquired 46 wordsand Mulika 37.Mulikas rate ofacquisition wasslower than Kanzi’sCombinations – Kanzihad multisymbolexpressions. Over 17months Kanzi produced2,540 combinationsnonimitative and 265imitative. 764 were onlyever produced onceThe proportion ofimitated utterancesto spontaneous wassimilar to children15% imitation 80%spontaneousKanzi didn’trefer tohimself in hisphrases andmostly togamesKanzi and Mulikadid better onformal teststhanAustin&Sherman
K&M could selectphotos whenprompted bylexigram and byspoken word buthad trouble withsynthesiserTravel-When K was 3 yearsold, a visitor who hadnever been in the woodswas taken as a blindvisitor by Kanzi to alocation he chose. Whenthe visitor asked to betaken to places Kanzitook them.General observationsK&M made generalisationsfor words such as tomato forother red fruits. Kanzi usedwords in different ways, hewould say juice and go to thejuice location but not drinkjuice meaning he meant theplace name
K&M grasped using words muchquicker than Austin and Shermanwho needed extensive trainingMatata needed extensive trainingalso which may suggest there is acritical age for language acquisitionK&M are the only chimps to havebeen recorded using language andsymbols with no contextual cuesKanzi could direct someone else todo something for example to requestA to do something to B when he wasnot A or B. This is beginning to usesyntax, enabling to structure a story.Difficult to generalise as such a smallsamplehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QBlDGX95eys
Aim• To see if learning took place in one situationcould be generalised to another situation• To see if children imitated aggressivebehaviour• To assess the social learning theory
Method• Participants were childrenfrom a university nurseryaged between 3-5 years old• There were two adult‘models’ male and femaleand a female experimenter•There were two groups and one controlgroup•Group one observed an aggressive model•Group two observed a non aggressivemodel•Control group of 24 children had nomodel•Each group 1 and 2 were divided into 4groups-Boys watching male modelsBoys watching female modelsGirls watching female modelsGirls watching male models•Making a total of 8 groups with 6 subjectsThis means there are3 independentvariables in this study–The behaviour of themodelThe sex of the subjectThe sex of the modelTo give the same aggression levels inchildren, each was rated by teachers andassigned at random to each group
What happened?Each child was taken to a room and satin the corner and made to settle in withcolouring. The model was escorted tothe opposite corner where a tinker toyset, chair and table and inflatable Bobodoll with mallet was.Non – Aggressive model:The model assembled the tinkertoy set calmly and ignored thedollAggressive condition:The model turned aggressivetowards the Bobo doll. Theypunched the doll in thenose, stuck the doll with themallet, kicking it and throwing itwhilst saying “hes coming back formore” and “hit him down”Control group:The children did not have amodel
Aggression arousal –The experimenters provokedthe children becauseobserving aggressivebehaviour may reduceimitation due to feelingintimidated.The children were taken to another room withattractive toys like a fighter plane and let toplay, then the experimenter took away thetoys and said she was reserving them for otherchildren to provoke them.Then the child was taken toanother room filled withaggressive toys (dart gun, bobodoll and mallet) and nonaggressive toys (tea set, crayonsand plastic animals)Each child was observed frombehind a blacked out mirror by themale model or another observerevery 5 seconds.Giving a total of 240 responses ofthe childs actions.They were recorded as:•Imitative aggression responsesPhysicalVerbal aggressionNon- aggressive verbal responses•Partially imitative responsesMallet aggression (uses it on toysother than bobo)Sits on bobo doll not aggressively•Non imitative responsesStrikes bobo dollAggressive acts towards other toysAggressive gun play
ResultsComplete imitation-Children in the aggressivemodel group imitated bothverbal and physicalaggressive behaviour.In contrast children in thenon aggressive model groupshowed very few imitationsof aggressive behaviour. 70%scored zeroPartial imitation wassimilar results to thecomplete imitationNon-imitative behaviour-The aggression modelgroup displayed more non-imitative behaviour thanthe non aggressive modelgroupNon aggressive behaviour-Children in the non aggressive modelgroup spent more time playing withoutany aggressionOverall the aggressive modelgroup, group 1 was moreaggressive, more imitative andless calm than group 2.
All childrenbehavedaggressivelyin some wayat somestageGender-The male models had a greater influence than the femalemodelsBoys imitated more physical aggressionBoys were more aggressiveThe closest imitation was when a child observed a model ofthe same sex
Samuel and BryantBackground:Piaget began working on childrens abilityto conserve and Rose and Blankconducted a slight variation of Piaget’sstudy.In Piagets study the children were asked2 questions before and after thetransformation.In Rose and Blanks the children wereonly asked after the transformation tookplace.Children often succeeded more in Roseand Blanks study.Aim:To investigatewhetherchildren underthe age of 8 areable tounderstandchanges inquantity(conservation)
252 girls and boys aged 5-8 were divided in four groups:•5 years 3 months•6 years 3 months•7 years 3 months•8 years 3 monthsEach group was divided into task groupsStandard condition:Given tradition Piagetstyle study, asked twoquestionsOne judgement:Asked one questionafter display waschangedFixed Array:Saw last display afterchange and askedquestion, controlgroup, showswhether childrenneed pretransformation info toanswer second Q
Mass – Pre transformationTwo equal cylindersTwo unequal cylinders
Number – Pre transformation2 rows of 6countersarrangedidenticallyOne row of 5One row of 6Same length
Post transformationOne row is spread out so rowsare not equal
Volume – Pre transformationTwo identicalglasses with sameamounts of liquidTwo identicalglasses withdifferentamount
Post transformationLiquid ispoured fromone to anarrowerone
Results:•No differences found in equal and unequalconditions•Older children made fewer mistakes•Children made fewest errors when shown thetransformation and asked only one question•Children made fewer mistakes on numbertask•Children did worse on fixed array whichmeans children use information from pretransformation to answer final questionbecause the fixed array group didn’t have thisinfoAge Standard 1 Question Fixed array5 8 7 96 6 4 67 3 3 58 2 1 3Results indicate failureon Piaget’s two questiontest was partly due tobeing asked twoquestions and gettingconfused.Children can useconservation but mayget confused or lead byquestions.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtLEWVu815o
Freud (Background)ID, Ego, SuperegoThe ID stands for ‘it’ in latin, it is the primitive drives and desiresthat we are born with. Sexual desires and hunger are in this part.This is entirely unconscious.As we grow older we develop the Ego, this conflicts with the IDas it makes our ID behave, in society we cannot act out or get ourdesires straight away. The Superego is about what is right andwrong in society, conflicting with the ID once more.Freud believed our conscious makes up a small part of ourpersonality, the unconscious has our beliefs, emotions andimpulses that are pushed down and not available to us in theconscious mind because of the anxiety they couldcause, however they do affect our behaviour nonetheless.
Oedipus ComplexOedipus Greek Myth story -As a child, an old man told Oedipus that he wasadopted, and that he would eventually kill his biologicalfather and sleep with his biological motherFreud thinks that children are born with desires, they playwith their mouth first (oral stage) then they move to gainpleasure from passing poo!! (anal stage) then they focuson their genitals (phallic stage)Their mother is the firstsource of affection and erotic feelings, during phallicstage a boy wants to possess his mother and feelscompetition with the father, he fears he will lose his willyif he thinks this way so takes on the behaviour of his rivalhis father.
Aim:To Test the oedipus complex on a real child and explain origin ofphobiasLittle Hans is theparticipant, agedbetween 3 and 5during the casestudy. Hans fatherrecorded eventsand conversationswith Hans and sentthem to Freud.Hans met Freud andpsychoanalysedhim.Hans and his little widdlerAt 3 Hans started playing with his willy, heassumed both animals and his parents musthave big ones,. He kicked about whentouching his willy or pooing showing he lovedit.His mother found him playing with it and saidshe would get it cut off, this lead to Hansbeing scared of losing his willy and having torepress these desires. He felt sexual desire forhis mother which was also repressed andexpressed in wanting to kiss other girls.
Hans felt competition with his father andexpressed his conflicting aggression and love bykicking him and then kissing where he hit.When Hans was 3 ½ his little sister was born, hedidn’t like sharing his mother and admittedwatching his sister in the bath and wishing hismother would let go of her, this unconsciousdesire to see her drown translated into a fearthat his mother could drown him too.Mother - he had sexual desires for her but shehad threatened to cut his willy off so this createdanxieties.Father – Rival, conflicting love and aggressionSister- He wished Hanna would drown which ledto anxiety over mother drowning him
PHOBIA!When Hans was 4 ½ he developed a fear that a whitehorse would bite him, Freud said this reflected a fearhe would lose his mother.It was partly based on a real event – hans heard aman warn his daughter a white horse would bite herIt linked to his mother telling him it was not right ifshe touched his willy, the link was if you touch awhite horse it will bite you, if someone else touchesyour widdler its wrongHans had anxieties that his mother would leave himbecause of his requestHis father told him women have no willies so hethought his mothers had been cut off!
Giraffe Dream –“in the night there was a big giraffe and a crumpledone, the big one called out when I took the crumpledone, then I sat on the crumpled one” The big girafferepresented Hans father or his fathers penis and thecrumpled one was his mother vagina. Hans wouldcome into their bed in the morning and his fatherwould warn his mother not to (the giraffe calling out)Hans sits on his mothers lap (sitting on crumpledone)
The Plumber dream-“I was in the bath and the plumber came andunscrewed it and stuck a borer in my stomach”interpreted as Hans was in bed with his mum thenDaddy came and pushed me away with his big penis.His fantasy was that the plumber took off his bumand willy and replaced them with a presumablybigger one like his fathers, this showed he wants tobe like his father.
Babies –Hans was interested in laden carts and lumf (poo) hethought a heavy cart was like a pregnant woman andbabies were lumfs, when Hanna was born he wastold babies came from storks but he thought that hismother had pooed Hanna out. Hans called carts‘stork box carts’ because his mum said babies camefrom storks and he thought they were like a cart withlumf in, this box brought the baby (pregnancycomplex)Finally they explained babies came from insidemummy.Hans had an ongoing fantasy of having his ownchildren and being their daddy
If Hans was abnormal then the studyis invalid, Freud said that such actsare common in childhood.The analysis was conducted by hisfather and so could have beeninfluencedHowever there were benefits of aclose relationship with this methodas Hans could open up.Freud concluded that Little Hanssupported his theory of the oedipuscomplex and fatherly rivalry.Freud concluded phobias whererepressed anxieties, phobias aretriggered by real events butrepresented unconscious anxieties.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uRyGSwEK_Yg
Brain ScanningPET scanner – positron emission tomography, patients injected with radioactiveglucose, when the most active brain tissue uses the glucose the scanner picks up theradioactivity. It is presented as a picture of coloured ‘hot spots’MRI – magnetic resonance imaging – Strong magnetic field turned on and off, atoms ofbrain change alignment and the scanner maps the structure of the tissueCAT- computerised axial tomography – taking a series of x-rays to show areas ofdamageHippocampus - It belongs to the limbic system and playsimportant roles in long-term memory and spatial navigation. Likethe cerebral cortex, with which it is closely associated, it is apaired structure, with mirror-image halves in the left and rightsides of the brain
AimTo demonstrate that thehippocampus is the region in thebrain associated with spatialmemory and navigation. To lookat morphological changes of thehippocampus in taxi drivers whoneed navigational skills.
MethodParticipants –•16 London Taxi Drivers•Right-handed•Age range 32-62•Licensed drivers for more than 1.5 years•Healthy•Control group of 16 matched pairsProcedure –Data was collected using MRI scans analysedby two techniques.Method 1 – VBMVoxel based morphometry, unbiased method.VBM identifies differences in the density ofgrey matter, grey matter lies on the surface ofthe brain and also deep inside structures suchas the hippocampus it is the most dense partin neural connections suggesting high orderthinking.Method 2 Pixel counting –Hippocampul volume was calculated using a pixelcounting technique. The pixels were countedfrom the images from the MRI. Each scan wasmade of a slice of the hippocampus there were24 slices lying next to eachother each slice 1.5mm thick. The professional counting the pixelswas blind to which group it came from. Theyadded up pixels from each slice and multipliedthis by the distance between adjacent slices.They altered this to count for bigger brains inpeople.
The slices covered were•Anterior hippocapus (6slices)•Body hippocampus (12slices)•Poesterior hippocampus(6 slices)VBM – Between the controls and the taxidrivers the only part of brain with more greymatter was the right and left hippocampi.It was mainly increased in the taxi driversposterior hippocampi and in the controls theanterior hippocampi had more grey matter.Pixel counting-There was no significant difference betweenthe taxi drivers and the control in terms ofmethod 1 (intercranial volume) and method 2(total hippocampi volume) with pixelcounting.The taxi drivers posterior hippocampus waslarger than the controls.The amount of time spent being a taxi driverincreased the right posterior hippocampusbut did not increase the anteriorhippocampus.LeftHippocampusRightHippocampusAnterior ControlBody ControlPosterior Taxi Drivers Taxi Drivers
What results show…The results indicate there is a relationship betweennavigational skills and the distribution of grey matter, i.eincreased grey matter in the posterior hippocampus in taxidrivers with better navigational skills.Nature or Nurture? –Whether the distribution is an effect of training navigationalskills or whether it is present in some individuals whichpredisposes them to take a job like taxi driving. This wastested by looking at the correlation between time spent as ataxi driver and hippocampus increase, this showed itincreased with more training so this was acquired.The right and left hippocampus were different, the left notcorrelating with taxi driving experience which suggests it is ofuse for other spatial memoryThe posterior could basically borrow grey matter from theanterior when navigational skills are in demand.
Determinism is the idea that every event is casuallydetermined by an unbroken chain of prior events.According to this idea there are no mysterious miracles andno random events.Freud argued our behaviour is caused by unconsciousprocesses, we might think we are acting freely but in factour behaviour is predictable and forced.Everything happens for a reason etc as the chaos theoryexplains little events lead to major events.Biological psychologists have recently backed updeterminism as brain scans show brain changes alter ourbehaviour such as Raine’s experiment on murderers havingfrontal lobe damage.
Ways to measure sleep-Brain wave activity measured byEEGElectric activity of muscle byEMGEye movement by EOGREM- rapid eye movement iswhen you dream.The stages of sleep go throwwaves of brain activity first•Beta•Alpha•Theta•DeltaNormal night of sleep-Sleeper progress through 4stages ending up in REM this isfollowed by returning throughstages 4 to 2 and then back toREM. This cycle is repeatedthroughout the night takingapprox 90 minutes.
Awake –Beta waves in brain asyou become relaxedthey becomeslower, more regularand are alphawaves, same asmeditation1&2-Brain waves slowdown called thetawaves. Greateramplitude andfrequency. Gradualtransition fromrelaxed to asleep3&4-Delta waves which areslowest and highestamplitude. This is whensleepwalking occursREM- dream sleep.Lack of muscle tonecreates temporaryparalysis with EEGactivity similar toawake stage.
Dement and Kleitman – Dream activityThe relationship between eye movements and dreaming demonstrates thatREM sleep and dreaming are the same thingIV – REM/NREM sleep (not controlled)DV – Whether they could recall their dreamVariables – Time awoken
MethodOn day of experiment participants were told toeat and drink normally but abstain from alcoholor caffeine drinks.Electrodes were attached around the px eyes tomeasure EOG and attached to px head to recordbrain waves EEG the px then went to sleep attheir normal sleep time in a dark room.At various times during the night the px wereawoken by a bell during REM sleep or just beforeor after. They were awoken 5.7 times a night andslept for 6 hours.Participants- Nineadults: 7 male 2female
The investigators used various different patterns for awakening the fivemost intensively studied participants. They used a table of randomnumbers, one px was awoken three times during REM sleep and NREMand one was told he would be awoken during REM sleep but wasawoken randomly during REM and NREM. None of the px were told ifthey had just been in REM when they were awoken.The px were told to speak into recording device near their bed stating a)whether they had been dreaming b) describe the dream c) whetherthey were dreaming for 5-15 minutes.Recording done without an investigator present made sure there wasless investigator effect , however the investigator was listening fromoutside and occasionally came into the room to clarify and question.After this the participants usually fell back to sleep within 5 minutes.
ResultsOccurrence of REM activity-•All participants had REM every night•REM correlated with fast EEG•When no REM present there were periods ofdeeper sleep shown by slow wave activity•No REM occurred during onset of sleep•REM periods lasted 3-5o minutes, mean 20minutes.•REM tended to get longer the later in the night.•Eye movement was not constant in REM butbursts of 2-100 movements•Recall was better when PX were awoken within 8minutes of an REM period•When px were awoken in NREM sleep they weredisorientated and couldn’t remember specificcontent of a dream•Most instances of dreams unable to recall in REMsleep occurred in the early part of the night
•REM periods occurred at regularintervals, individual for each px•Despite being awoken REM was stillfrequent the same as undisturbed•If px was awakened during an REMperiod during the final hours of sleep theyusually went back into REM as if the brainactivity had not finishedMethod 1- Eye movements period and dream recallPX were considered to be dreaming only if they had a detailed description ofdream content.The five most intensely studied px were labelled DN, IR, KC, WD, PM. The tableshows the percentage of the amount of dreams recalled out of the amount oftimes Px were awoken, for example DN recalled 17 dreams out of the 24 times hewas awoken so 7 times he was awoken in REM sleep he couldn’t recall hisdreams, a percentage of 65%. There was a high incidence of recall in REM sleepand low in NREM sleep. In REM sleep there was only 20% no recall in total and inNREM there was 93% no recall in total.Px REM sleep%NREM sleep%DN 65% 12.5%IR 76% 6%KC 90% 9%WD 88% 3%PM 80% 8%
Method 2-Length of REM periodsTo see if REM and dreams are correlated further REM period length and theestimated duration of a dream was examined.This was done by awakening px 5-15 minutes after the onset of REM sleepand asking them to decide which duration they thought it was.PX Right Wrong Right WrongDN 8 2 5 5IR 11 1 7 3KC 7 0 12 1WD 13 1 15 1PM 6 2 8 3Total 45 6 47 135 minutes 15 minutesParticipants were mainlycorrect in their judgement ofhow long they thought theirdream had been
Method 3-Eye movement patterns and visual imagery of the dream.It was propose the variation in eye movements maycorrespond to where and what the dreamer was lookingat in their dream.To investigate this px were awoken when their eyemovements were mainly vertical or horizontal, both orneither.Type of eye movement ContentVertical – 3 dreams reported •Standing at bottom of cliffand looking at climbers•Climbing ladders•Shooting at basketball netlooking upHorizontal – 1 dream reported Two people throwingtomatoes at eachotherBoth- 10 dreams Looking at things close tothemNeither -21 dreams Watching something in thedistance
Starters-Cerebral cortex-•Largest part•Cortex is specific tomammals•Divided into 4 lobes-•Frontal lobe –reasoning, planning, problemsolving,emotions•Parietal lobe (top) –movement, orientation•Occipital lobe (back)– visual processing•Temporal lobe(sides)- memory andspeechCorpus Callosum –Connects left and righthemispheres.Thalamus –Relay station for signalsfrom senses (skin,stomach, eyes) It analysessignals and sends them onHypothalamus –Controls bodytemperature, hungerand thirst. Involved inemotions and sexualactivity.Cerebellum- has twohemispheres.Coordination, movement, posture andbalanceBrain stem – major route ofcommunication between spinalcord and brain. Controls heartrhythms.The left side of the body iscontrolled by the righthemisphere and vice versa.
AimTo study the psychologicaleffects of hemisphericdisconnection in split brainpatients and to show howthe right and lefthemispheres work in normalpatients. Previous split-brainstudies with humans showedno important behaviouraleffects.The participants had all undergone hemispheredisconnection because they had a history of advancedepilepsy which could not be controlled by medication.
Participants –The participants were 11‘split-brain’ patients whohad suffered severeepilepsy.The study also makes useof the case study method.The case studies were in-depth investigations of the11 participants.MethodProcedure-The method used was a natural (alsocalled quasi) experiment. The quasi-experiments involved comparing theperformance of the 11 participants onvarious tasks with the performance ofpeople with no inter-hemispheredisconnection. The independentvariable was therefore the whether aperson had hemisphere disconnectionor not and the dependent variable wasthe participants performance on thetasks.The tasks were carried out inlaboratory conditions, usingspecialised equipment and were highlystandardised. The tasks all involvedsetting tasks separately to the twohemispheres.The task involved blindfolding one of theparticipant’s eyes and then asking them to fixatewith the seeing eye on a point in the middle of ascreen. The researchers would then project astimulus on either the left or right hand side of thefixation point for less than 1/10 of a second. Thepresentation time is so small to ensure that theparticipant does not have time for eye movement asthis would ‘spread’ the information across both sidesof the visual field and therefore across both sides ofthe brain.
Results•If a picture is projected in one visual fieldit is only recognised in that visual field.•If visual material appeared on the rightvisual field (left hemisphere) the patientcould describe it in speech and words•If the same visual material was projectedto the left field (right hemisphere) theparticipant said they could see nothingbut a flash(lang is on the left hemisphere)•This showed the right hemispherecannot speak or write.$ and ? Signs –If a $ is flashed to the leftvisual field (righthemisphere) and ? Is flashedto the right visual field (lefthemisphere) the patient willwrite the $ and say the ?Using touch- Objects placed inthe right hand (left hem) canbe named in speech andwriting. Objects in left hand(right hem) can only beguessed at.Dual Processing task –No cooporation betweenhemispheres, if twoobjects are placed in eachhand and then hidden inpile of objects both handsselect their own objectand ignore the otherhands object.
Everyday effects –Split brain patients often don’t experience thedeconnection found in everyday life as it is onlyapparent when visual material is displayed quickly.In everyday life they can say an answer or movetheir eyes to share info between the hemispheres.Their IQ and personalities do not change fromdeconnection but in complex activities and havelimited attention spans and problems with shortterm memory.Closing notes – Patients seem to have two minds in one body.Each side of the brain has different functions.
Milgram – ObedienceDV- the level of shock at which PXstopped
AimThe issue of obedience is relevant to WWII when theGermans systematically slaughtered millions of innocentpeople. Obedience may be deeply ingrained in thehuman character.The aim was to investigate the process of obedience andto demonstrate the power of authority.Participants:Milgram advertised for 500new Haven men to cometo Yale uni for “learning”tests.Everyone was to be paid$4.50 simply for comingand would be paidwhether they stayed in thestudy or not.•40 men•Aged between 20-50•Various occupations•Part of experiementer wasplayed by a biology teacherdressed in lab coat.•The learner or victim wasplayed by a 47 year oldaccountant•Both were Milgramsconfederates
MethodEach px was told the experimenter wantedto see how punishment would affectlearning. Each study would involved 1teacher and 1 learner.The learner and teacher were taken to aroom where the learner was strapped intoan electric chair. The learner was advised“although shocks are extremely painfulthey will not leave permanent tissuedamage”The teacher was asked to read aseries of word pairs to the learnerand then read the first word of thepair along with four terms. Thelearner had to indicate which of thefour terms was originally paired withthe first word.The shock machine had 30 switcheslabelled with a number from 15 to450 volts.To convince the teacher the shockswere real they were given a 45 voltshock.Teacher was told to give a shock forthe wrong asnwer and to move alevel higher each time.A pilot study showed it takes a while forthe subjects to get it right. The teacherwas given 10 words and the learner made7 errors so reached a shock of 105 volts
The learner had a predeterminedset of responses, giving approx 3wrong answers to every correctanswer.The learner made no sign ofprotest until 300 volts, at this pointhe pounded on the wall but thenceased to make any furtherresponse to questions.The subject usually turned tothe experimenter and askedwhat to do, he was told wait 5-10 seconds before treating thelack of response as wrong andincreasing the shock. At 315the learner pounded again butthen nothing moreIf the subject turned back to theexperimenter and asked theexperimenter was trained to givea set response of “prods” madein sequence. If the subjectrefused to obey prod 4 theexperiment was terminatedProd 1 Please continueProd 2 The experiment requiresthat you continueProd 3 It is absolutely essentialyou continueProd 4 You have no other choiceyou must go onExtra prods Although shocks arepainful they will not leavepermanent damage“” Whether the learner likesit or not you must go on
Each subject was scoredbetween 0 and 30 depending onwhen they terminated theexperiment.Most sessions were taped andsome photographs takenthrough one way mirrors.Observers wrote descriptions ofsubjects behaviour.All subjects were interviewedafter and asked open questions.They were given somepsychological tests.De briefing and a friendlyreconciliation was offered.Results-With few exceptions subjects believed theexperiment and when asked about the shocksthe modal answer was they must have been“extremely painful”Many subjects showed nervousness and tension“subjects sweat, tremble, bite their lips, groanand dig fingernails into flesh”Some had full blown uncontrollable seizures!Key Findings:•Over half of the subjects (26/40) went all theway with the shocks•Only 9 stopped at intense shock 300voltsThe sheer strength of obedient tendency eventhough we are taught as children not to hurtanother person, the experimenter never usedphysical force, and they wouldn’t lose the money.The intense tension and physical conditions suchas sweating of the subject.
Why did they obey?•The location at a prestigious uni provided sense of authority•Subjects assume experimenter know what he is doing•Subjects assume the learner has volunteered•Subject feels under obligation and doesn’t want to disrupt study•The sense of obligation is reinforced as he is being paid•It is a novel situation so subject doesn’t know how to behave•Subject assumes the pain is temporary•Since the learner has participated up to level 20 they assume they can carry on•The subject is torn between meeting demands of subject and expriementer•The subject has little time to resolve this conflict•The conflict is between two deeply ingrained tendencies: Do not harm another humanand obey those who are authority figuresSituational vs DispositionalCircumstance changes behaviour vs Personality affects behaviour
Tyranny and TerrorHitler is an infamous tyrantcausing mass genocide.The September 11th 2001attacks on the USA was thebiggest terror attack inmedia history, in one day ittook away the safety fromthe USA and created a oneday war.Social Identity theory -Henri Tajfel states that the socialgroups and categories we belong toare an important part of our self-concept. This means people willoften interact with other people as arepresentative of their social group.Sometimes acting as an individualand sometimes as a group member.Social groups do not exist inisolation, but in a social contextsome groups have more power orprestige. Once a socialcategorisation of a group has beenmade, next is social comparison toattach a status.
Stanford PrisonZimbardo used 24 subjects of normal mental health and ability who were mainly whitemiddle class.He recruited an ex convict for advice and took on the role of a warden. The subjects wererandomly assigned guards or prisoners. They were given no expectations or instructions onhow to behave. The guards were told to keep control of the prisoners but warned not to usephysical aggression.Both sets of subjects were given uniforms to promote feelings of anonymity. The guardsuniform was classic khaki trousers, shades and shirt to convey a sense of power whilst theprisoners had to wear a smock with a number on and a cap made from stockings to makethem feel uncomfortable and inferior.The role play soon took an ugly turn and following a revolt by prisoners the guards becamemore extreme in their behaviour. The prisoners were subjected to humiliation and thingsdeteriorated quickly. Zimbardo brought the study to a close after 6 days instead of 14.The main ethical implications and the results show that the role we are asked to play affectsour behaviour.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sZwfNs1pqG0
AimIntroductionThe impacts of Zimardo’s study was the ethical issues meaning many postexperiments have been limited to a lab.Social Identity theory can be predicted to have “Permeability” – groupmembers believe that it is possible to move out of a group they will notcategorise themselves as a member.The aim was to create an institution that resembled a hierarchicalstructure such as school or prison. A study which would enable theevaluation of group inequalities in terms of power and status.It was not a replica of Zimbardo’s but set up to investigate theissues raised.The main predictions were•Dominant group members will identify with their group•Surbordinate group members will only identify with their groupand will challenge inequalities if groups are seen as impermeableand insecure.
Method•Study conducted in December 2001•The bbc’s role was to create a prison environment, film andprepare the study for broadcast•Designed for 10 days•Not reality TV as not for entertainment•Experimental design as interventions were introduced and it isa case study as the behaviour of only one group was assessedEthics:Study was monitored throughout by ethics committeePx signed consent formParticipants:•Male•Recruited through national newspapers•15 px underwent psychometric tests•Diversity of age, ethnicity and social class•15 divided into 5 groups of 3 people matched as close as poss•From each group 1 was randomly assigned “guard”•1 prisoner was not involved at the beginning of study
Procedure•Prisoners were allocated to 3 person cells, seperated from guards by a lockablemesh fence•Video and audio recording were throughout prison•Dependent Variables were measured however not every day such as clinical(depression) Social (social identification) and Organisational (compliance withrules)•Guards were briefed before study told they were in charge for smooth runningof prison and respect the rights of prisoners•Guards were allowed to lock cells, and use punishments or rewards•Guards had better living conditions•There were 3 planned interventions•Permeability – expectation of movement between groups, prisoners were toldguards were selected by reliability and that if they could show this they could getpromoted. One prisoner was promoted•Legitimacy – After 3 days px were told there actually no differences betweenguards and prisoners but it would be impractical to re-asign. This meant thegroup division was not legitimate•Cognitive alternatives – on day 4 prisoner 10 was to be introduced. Chosenbecause of background as trade union official and therefore was thought hecould negotiate and organise action or revolt.
ResultsPhase 1 – Rejecting inequalitySocial Identification –Measured every day on a ratingsuch as (I feel strong ties withprisoners/guards)Observation used to assessPrisoners showed little groupidentification until the groupsbecame impermeable after thepromotionThey started to discuss how theycould work together to improveconditions.Guards did not identify with theirgroupSecurity of intergroup relations –Low group identification between guards ledto ineffective leadership. This meant theprisoners did not regard them as legitimate.This meant there was no need for the secondintervention of Legitimacy.Prisoner 10 joined on day 5 and established anegotiating structure.Further measures of prisoners –1. Willingness to comply with authority2. Willingness to engage in actions to make theprison system work (measures of 1 and 2declined when prisoner 10 started workagainst the guards regime)3. Self-efficacy (persons belief in own ability)4. Depression, the unity of prisoners lead todecline in depression scoresCombined Impact-On the evening of day 6 prisonersbroke out of cells and occupied theguards quarters
Phase 2 – Embracing inequalityThe participants met with experimenters to drawup terms of a new commune. Within a day thisnew social structure was in crisis because two exprisoners violated rules.A new group of one ex guard and 3 ex prisonerscreated a plan for a harsher hierarchy. Thesupporters of the new commune were passivebecause they may have not wanted to show theirsupport on tv.However after debriefing they said they liked theidea of a stronger social order.Over the course of the study prisoners and guardsshowed increase right wing authoritarianism. Anew plan meant a re-assignment of px roles.Prisoners and guards scores were similar near theend.The new regime was not implemented due toethical issues and the existing regime was notworking so the experiment was closed on day 8.
RevelationsRole of television-The px could havebeen play actingbecause of thecamera’s orreluctant to becontrolling guardsPersonality-Because of a change inauthoritarianismpersonality cant explain theevents.Dominance only occurredin group identity notpersonality.This shows the emphasison support andinterdependence betweenindividuals and groups.The studypoints atsituationalbehaviourSocial identification shiftswith context. Alsoextreme behaviours canbe restrained. Onebusiness man wasreluctant to be a brutalguard meaning behaviurcan be caused by past andfuture contexts.Shared socialidentity lead tosupport andpositive metality
Conclusions1. The results support Zimbardo that tyrannycan only be understood by looking at groupprocesses2. The results contradict that group processesare toxic i.e anti-social behaviour but rathercan be positive3. The results show it is the breakdown ofgroups that can cause tyranny4. The study shows it is possible to run ethicalstudies into social processes
Bystander EffectKitty Genovese drovehome from her jobat 3:15am when shegot out WinstonMoseley followedher and stabbed her.Her neighboursheard her cries andone shouted atWinston who droveaway. Kitty went toher home and fiveminutes laterWinston came to herhouse robbed, rapedand murdered her.38 individualsobserved or heardthe attack but only afew called the police.The bystander effect is aphenomenon wherepeople are less likely tohelp someone when thereare others present. Thereare two theories:Pluralistic ignorance:In an emergency you maylook for other peoplesresponses, if they look calmyou think it is not anemergency. They do thesame so you all do nothingbecause none of you aredoing anythingDiffusion ofresponsibility:You think someoneelse will take careof it, however theythink you orsomeone else will.No one doesanything
AimThe aims were:1. Type of victim –People who seem to haveinflicted their affliction onthemselves are less likely toreceive help. Piliavin wantedto see if people were lesslikely to help a drunk man oran ill man.2. Race of VictimPiliavin wanted to see if therace affected the level of helpthey received. The study wasconducted in a time whenracial disputes were notentirely solved in america.3. Impact of modelling (modelbehaviour)People are more likely to helpif they have seen someoneelse help, would a model4. Group sizeTo see if increased group sizeled to decreased helping
MethodParticipants:4,500 men and womenUnaware of their involvementTravelling the 8th Avenuesubway in New YorkSlightly more whites thanblacksApprox 43 people in a carriage8.5 people in “critical area”Took place between 11am and3pm over a two monthperiod.The four victims were aged26-35, one was black 3 white.All were male and dressedidenticallyOn each trial a team of four General studiesstudents boarded the train sepately.•There were 4 different teams•2 girls acted as observers and took seatsoutside the critical area•The male model and the Victim remainedstanding•After 70 seconds the victim staggeredforwards and collapsed, he remained on hisback staring at the ceiling•The start point 59th street and the endpoint 125th street had 7 ½ minutes inbetween•If no one helped when they reached theend point the model would help the victimup
On 38 trials thevictim was drunkand 65 trials thevictim was sober.1. The drunkcondition thevictim smelled ofalcohol andcarried a bottlewrapped in apaper bag2. The canecondition thevictim appearedsober and had ablack caneThe white modelswere aged between24-29. There werethree possibilites:•No model: themodel didn’t help•Early model:helped after 70seconds•Late model: helpedafter 150 seconds•The point was tosee if the modelaffected thebehaviour ofpassengersMeasures-On each trial one observer noted•Race, sex, location of everyperson in the critical area•Total number of persons in thecarriage•Total number who helped•Race, sex location of those whohelpedThe second observer noted•Race, sex and location ofeveryone in adjacent area•Time when first help was offeredBoth observers noted anycomments made by passengersand tried to elicit comments fromthe passenger next to them
ResultsAmount of help offered:Piliavin reported that thecane victim receivedspontaneous help 95% of thetime whilst the drunk victimreceived 50%1. On 49/81 trials the victimwas helped by two ormore2. On 21 out of 103 trials 34people left the criticalarea when the victimcollapsedTime taken to help:Help was slower in thedrunk conditionOnly 17% of drunkvictims were helpedbefore the modelstepped in whereas 83%of the cane were helpedwith no interventionThe mean time for canewas 5 seconds and themean for drunk was 109seconds90% of the helpers were malesBlack victims received less helpless quickly and in the drunkcondition there was a slightsame race effect.Some comments were “youfeel so bad when you don’tknow what to do” and “its formen to help him”Group size:The more passengers in theproximity the more likely helpwas to be given. Contradictingearlier studies by Darley andLatanes “diffusion ofresponsibility theory”
ConclusionsPiliavins response to peoples reasons forbehavious in emergency situations:1. Observation of an emergency creates a senseof arousal2. Arousal is interpreted differently in differentsituations e.g fear3. Arousal is heightened by a) the more oneempathises with the victim b) the closer oneis to the emergency c)the longer theemergency continues4. The arousal can be reduced by a)helpingdirectly b)getting help c) leaving the scene d)rejecting the victim as underservingHelping Not helpingReward Praise Continuation of otheractivitiesCost EffortEmbarrassmentHarmSelf blamedisapprovalof others•People who are drunk are less likelyto receive help•Men are more likely to help•Tendency for same race effect•Group size did not mean less help
EthicsEthical Guidelines for psychology:1. Consent2. Deception3. Debriefing4. Withdrawal from the study5. Confidentiality6. Protection of participants7. Observationalresearch, without consent isunethical8. Giving advice , the psychologistmust be qualified to give thatadvice9. Colleagues, they must takeaction if another psychologistbreaches theseMany studies involve some ethicalproblems however these are oftendeemed okay because of theconsequence and outcome of thestudy being revolutionary orimproving someones life despite forexample deception.The social approach:It looks for explanations of behaviourin a social community. There are thingssuch as “mob psychology” which whenpeople are in a crowd they lose theirindividual morals and will doaggressive or unusual things due tobeing in that mass situation.
Individual DifferencesThis approach tries to see thedifferences between peopleand looks as abnormalitiesrather than conformedbehaviour.They are concerned withpersonality and how it canchange depending onsituation. Measuringpersonality can be done withpsychometric tests howeverall personality tests have tobe interpreted and carriedout by someone whose ownpersonality will effect theway they perceive the results.Many people have multipleidentities depending onsituation and how they feelabout something. We all havemany traits.Online personalities areinteresting as people often feelimmortal and indespensdiblebehind a computer, acting andsaying things they could neverin real life. You have the abilityto control who you are andwhat you’re like
Rosenhan StartersSchizophrenia has positivesymptoms (those that areadditional to normal behaviour)and negative symptoms (thosethat are a reduction in normalbehaviour). Diagnosis is oftendone with self reports andobservations. There is nobiological test for it so it is adifficult disease to diagnose.Hallucinations:Drugs – people have hallucinationswhen they take LSD, often these aredescribed as illuminating and wideningyour iagination however they can givefeelings of anxiety and fear.The danger of these drugs is what youcan do on them and if you getHallucinogen persisting perceptiondisorder (HPPD) where even when thedrug is gone you still hallucinate.Hearing voices – most peopleexperience this at some point howeversometimes it can be disconcerting andlast all day. Hearing voices is oftenassociated with religion and the voiceof god as well as the voice of satan.
AimConceptions of normal andabnormality are not universal. If apsuedopatient was categorized asinsane then the diagnosis points atbeing determined by situation andenvironment rather than the patient.Study 1-To see if sane individuals who presentedthemselves to a psychiatric hospitalcould be diagnosed as insane.Study 2 –To see if the tendency towardsdiagnosing the sane as insane could bereversedStudy 3-To investigate patient – staff contactEthnocentrism is the bias to whichwe see things from our point of viewand those who think like us.
Study 1Method:Pseudopatients were 5 men and 3 women ofvarious occupations and ages. Rosenhan wasone of the pseudopatients himself.Setting12 different hospitals were used, located in 5states across America, they represented old,modern, poorly staffed, well staffed and onewas private.Procedure –Each patient called a hospital and got anappointment, on arrival they said they hadbeen hearing voices which had the words“hollow” “empty” and “thud”. These were usedas they provided an existential crisis (who ami?) not associated with scizophrenia.Each patient desrcibed their own livesand none were abnormal, howevernames were changed because of thelabel of schizophrenia can effect laterlife.The patients were admitted to wardswhere they acted no abnormalbehaviour, although they were slightlynervous for being found out, for being ona ward with insane people and for beingadmitted so quickly.The patients scretly didn’t take theirmedication, however they followed wardroutine, nurses said they were co-operative, friendly and showed noabnormalities. The patients did not knowwhen they would get out and it was upto them to get out by their own devices.
ResultsAll were admitted and bar onewere diagnosed withschizophrenia. Each waseventually discharged with a labelof “schizophrenia in remission”.This diagnosis shows the stickinessof the label once you’re diagnosedwith schizophrenia it doesn’t leaveyou.Hospitalisation varied from 7 to 52days with an average of 19 days.Explanation:The failure to detect sanity could not bedue to1. The quality of hospitals2. The time available to observe them(they were in for a reasonable time)3. Their behaviour (many real patientsdetected their sanity and said“You’re not crazy, you’re ajournalist”Doctors may have diagnosed thembecause they are more inclinedtowards a “type 2 “ error as it isclearly more dangerous to diagnosean insane person as sane.Type 1 error – diagnosing asick person as healthyType 2 error – diagnosing ahealthy person as sick
Study 2Method:The staff in one psychiatric hospitalwere informed of the results of thefirst study and told that at some timeduring the next three months one ofmore pseudopatients would try tobe admitted. Each member of staffwere asked to rate patients whosought admission on a scale of 1(high confidence the patient was apseudopatient) to 10.Results:Over three months 193 patients wereadmitted none of them were actuallypsuedopatients.•41 were judged to be pseudopatients•23 were suspected by at least onepsychiatrist•19 were suspected by a psychiatristand one other staff memberThe hospital were now making moretype 1 errors to avoid making type 2errors “one thing is certain, anydiagnosis process that lends itself soreadily to massive errors is not veryreliable”The actual participants werethe doctors and nurses, thepsuedopatients wereconfederates.
Study 3Method –In 4 of the hospitalspseudopatients approachedstaff and asked “Pardon Me,could you tell me when I will beelifible for grounds privileges?”basically when am I going to bedischarged. The psuedopatientdid this very normally.Results –The most common response wasa brief reply and made no eyecontact. Only 4% of psychiatristsstopped and only 0.5% of staffstopped. 2% in each groupactually chatted.In contrast as a control, a younglady approached staff on theStanford Uni campus and askedthem 6 questions. All of the staffmembered stopped and answeredall questions. The avoidance ofcontact between staff and patient isto depersonalise the patients.
DiscussionThe results show the effectof a label on someone andour perception of them.Once a person is labelled asabnormal all data isinterpreted in that light.Labels are self-fulfilling forpsychiatrists and patients,there is an overlap ofinsane and sane.Experience inside the ward:People think you cannot recoverfrom a mental illness, for examplethe remission label. There wasvery limited contact between staffand patients.Powerlessness anddepersonalisation:the staff treated patients withlittle respect by beating andswearing at them. The treatmentis depersonalising and creates asense of powerlessness.Conditions were personal privacywas minimal, no doors ontoilets, patients are seen asinvisible.Our perception and fear of the mentallyill causes ambivalence which leads toavoidance. The use of drugs convincesstaff treatment is being conducted sothey keep away. The hierarchichalstructure of the hospital means those incharge have little to do with patients.It asks the questionhow many aremisdiagnosed? Andcan theenvironment leadto socialisation andmortification.
Thigpen and Cleckley StartersMultiple Personality DisorderCondition characterised by having at least onealter personality which is usually involuntaryand independent. It is different toschizophrenia as schizophrenics often can’ttest reality whereas MPD patients have nodifficulty testing reality. MPD is commonlythought to be a response to extremelytraumatic situations which there is noescape, if the px goes away In their own headthen they can remove themselves from thepain.Symptoms•PX has at least two distinctpersonalities with own ways ofthinking•At least two of these personalitiesassume control of the px behaviour•Px extensive inability to rememberpersonal information•Not caused by substance abuseDissociationAlmost as if you go into automaticpilot mode, you almost watchyourself do something even thoughyou are doing it. We can usedissociation to deal with stressfulevents and use It as a copingstrategy.Types of dissociation:•Amnesia – a loss of memory orpersonal info•Depersonalisation – out of bodyexperiences, feeling your body isn’treal•Drealisation – things around youappear unreal•Identity confusion – a sense ofconfusion as to who you are•Identity alteration – refers todramatic shift in your identity thatchanges your behaviour
HypnotismHypnotism includes –1. Intense concentration2. Extreme relaxation3. High suggestibilityIt can be used for entertainment, therapyor personal development.Some therapists use hypnotism to uncoverrepressed memories such as childabuse. Repressed memory theory isthe theory that many disorders are theconsequence of repressed memories,these cannot be recalled withouthypnotism or a therapist. This can becontroversial as is the therapist helpingthem uncover or create memories.Hypnosis could be argued is an extremeexample of social conformity as theperson responds to what they think ifexpected of them.Demonic possessions –The px has “demons” insidethem causing their strangebehaviour and the only way torid them of this is an exorcismThis is commonly carried outat American mass religiousceremonies.
Thigpen and Cleckley – MultiplePersonality Disorder 1954Aim – To record the case history of apatient with multiple personalities
Patient(s)Eve White –25 year old married woman.Described as “matter-of-fact,truthful and consistently sober”She was referred to Dr Thigpendue to blinding headaches andblackouts. The case was relativelynormal until White couldn’t recalla recent trip. So hypnotism wasused to clear this up.The letter –The letter from Eve was recognised byher handwriting however the lastparagraph had different handwriting andwas playful. She denied ever sending theletter yet she remembered starting it. Shebecame agitated and then a strange lookcame over her face, she then looked upand said “Hi there, Doc!”Eve Black –EW had transformed from aconventional figure to anattractive woman. She waschildish, care free, playful andegocentric.
Eve Blacks HistoryWhen EB was out EW was completely oblivious and had no recollection of what she did. She hadhad two separate identities since childhood. However EB could recall some of what EW did andEB regarded EW stress over her marriage as trivial.EB often lied and said she used to come out when they were children to play pranks howeverEW provided indirect evidence as she could remember being punished for things she couldn’tremember doing. EW parents and husband also supported this.At age 6, EB wandered into the woods to play with some other children and said she enjoyedplaying and being able to leave or detach and leave EW to be punished for her actions. EWhusband said he had found she had bought lots of new clothes and hidden them away andshouted at her however EB confessed to being the culprit.EB denied any association with EW husband and child who she despised and had never madeherself known to her parents or husband so they had no idea however they were aware ofsubtle changes in her which they called her strange habits as EB could imitate EW voice andgestures to disguise.EB confessed to marrying another man whilst EW was working away from home and EB hadcome out and gone to a bar and married a man she had just met whom she lived withunbeknownst to EW.EW’s hostility towards her marriage and roles made her feel guilty and activated repressionwhich meant she could remove the conflict from her conscious awareness. EB allows a dischargeof hostility, EB role is to embody all EW angry feelings allowing EW to continue a loving andhappy persona
MethodThigpen and Cleckley spentapprox 100 hours over 14 monthsinterviewing both Eves andcollecting material about theirbehaviour. Initially in order tointerview EB, EW had to behypnotised but it soon becamepossible to just ask to speak to EBand she came out. This could bean ethical issue as it complicatedEve Whites life as Eve Black couldpop out more easily.Therapy –It was difficult to proceed with therapy as EBrefused so they struck a deal to allow her moretime out if she particiapted.EB said she had created the imaginary voices EWheard and could cause the blackouts and wipeEW’s memory if she tried hard.The aim of the therapy was to try to reintergratethe personalities, they tried to call out bothpersonalities at once but EW suffered a badheadache.During the course of therapy EW left her hsubandand her daughter went to live with her parents.EW’s headaches desisted and she was able toachieve some stability, EB seldom came outalthough still went on dates with bad companyagain unbeknownst to EW.Psychological tests such aspsychometrics and personalitytests and IQ tests wereconducted on both Eves. EWshowed signs of repressionwhilst EB showed signs ofregression and wanting toreturn to an earlier stage in life
After 8 months of therapy EWheadaches came back, EB denied anyrole in this and said she wasexperiencing blackouts too. Duringhypnosis EW dropped her head andwhen she returned she lookedconfused and asked who are you. Thisnew personality was called Jane andwas more bold than EW but notdifficult like EB, a somewhatcompromise of the two.EEG test –A study was done on all threepersonalities brainwaves, tenseness was mostprominent in EB then EW thenJane. EW and Jane has similaralpha rhythm yet EB was on theborderline between normal andabnormally fast. Abnormally fastis sometimes associated withpsychopathic personality.Thigpen and Cleckley realisedtheir role in the creation ofJane, they faced a dilemma ofhow much to encourage her totake over the two Eves, theybelieved that ultimately thechoice lay with the patient.
The three PersonalitiesJane was aware of everything the othertwo did but could not fully access theirmemories. Jane could report when EBwas lying. She felt free from EW’s roleas mother although she felt compassionfor the child. Jane gradually took overmore and more from EW althoughcould not displace EB and could onlycome through EW.EW admitted the best solution was forJane to take over her role as mother asshe had been unsuccessful althoughJane was reluctant to come between adistressed mother and her child.Jane’s Letter about EW –She felt great awe for EW as EW saved the lifeof a little boy, she had darted in front of a carto save him and he became her baby, shecontinued to walk down the street with himand Jane had to come out to prevent apossible kidnap arrest and find the mother.
ConclusionsPossible explanations –•She was a skilled actress though this is unlikely as it was alongitudinal study•She could have been schizophrenic although othersymptoms were not apparentJane seemed to be a fusion of the two personalitieshowever different from both.Thigpen and Cleckley thought it appropriate to state eachEve and Jane were separate personalities although thephysical evidence such as the EEG was not impressive anda handwriting professional determined although the lettershad different styles they had been written by the samepersonPsychological tests –EW scored 110 on IQtestEB scored 104 on IQEW on drawings ofhuman figures scoredrepressive whilst EBscored regressive.On Rorschach ink blottest EW was rigid andhostile whilst EB had ahysterical tendency.
Explanations of addiction1. Neurotransmitters2. Genetics – some genes have beenshown to appear more in addictivepersons3. BehavioursGriffiths components of addictive behaviours –1. Salience - how important the behaviour or addiction becomes to aperson, even when they’re not doing it they are thinking about it2. Euphoria – the rush or buzz from it3. Tolerance – increasing amount of activity to achieve the same effect4. Withdrawal symptoms – the amount of unwanted symptoms whenthe addiction is reduced5. Conflict – addictive people often develop conflicts with peoplearound them due to their addiction and this causes internalconflicts and social msiery6. Relapse – the chance of a relapse after being clean is very highComponents to gambling1. The stake – how much is put on2. The predictability of the event – howpredictable the outcome is3. The odds – ratio of two possibleoutcomes
Griffiths – the role of cognitive biasand skill in fruit machine gamblingIV – RGS and NRGSDv – The win/play etc rate and type ofverbalisations
IntroductionNormative decision theory –The theory claims it can predictthe decisions a gambler will makehowever this is unsupported asoften the decisions are irrational.Heuristics and Biases –Heuristic is a strategy to worksomething out or set of rules. Theproblems for gamblers is that theheuristics they choose producedistortions as they are selected onthe wrong occasion. The 6distortions are..All of these heuristics >lead to bias cognitive processingi.e distortions in a personsthinking1. Illusion of control – behaviours which give theillusion you are in control such as choosing thefruit machine makes you think there is an elementof control2. Flexible attributions – self-esteem is given byattributing winning to their own skill and losing tosome external factor they can spin losing into a“near win” to keep going3. Representativeness – the belief that randomevents have a pattern and that you must be morelikely to win if you have lost a lot4. Availability bias – you hear people have won soyou think it is common5. Illusory correlations – people believe that someevents are correlated with success such as rollinga dice softly for low numbers6. Fixation on absolute frequency – measuringsuccess in terms of absolute rather than howoften
AimAim – to consider whethergamblers are actually more skilfulor whether their behaviour ischaracterised by cognitivedistortions.To compare the behaviour ornon-regular and regular fruitmachine gamblers.Hypothesis –1. There would be no differencebetween regs and non-regson the 7 behaviouraldependent measures used toasses skill2. Regs would produce moreirrational verbalisationsassessed by the thinkingaloud method3. Regs would be more skillorientatedDependent Variable(outcome)DefinitionTotal Plays Total number of plays duringplay sessionTotal time Total time of play in minutesduring one play sessionPlay rate Total number of plays perminute during play sessionEnd stake Total winnings in number of10p’s after play session overWins Total number of wins in aplay sessionWin rate (time) Total number of minutesbetween each winWin rate (play) Total number of playsbetween each win
MethodParticipants –60 px with a mean age of23.4Half were regs (29 malesand 1 female) and halfwere non-regs (15 malesand 15 females)RGS gambled at least oncea week and NRGS gambledat the most once a month.Participants were recruitedthrough poster ads and asnowball sample. Thegender imbalance couldn’tbe rectified as fruitmachine gambling isdominated by males.Design –Each px was given £3 and asked to play on“fruitskill” and play 60 gambles to hopefullywin back the £3.Ecological validity was considered:•Setting – the experiment was a fieldexperiment because behaviour could havebeen altered if in lab conditions•Money – using someone elses money mayreduce the excitement and risk which is part ofgambling however allowing px to keep theirwinnings tried to compensate for this lack ofecological validity.
Thinking aloudHalf the px in each group were randomlyassigned to the thinking aloud condition. It isprobably the best method of assessingcognitive processes and what a person isthinking.An additional hypothesis was - thinking aloudpx would take longer to complete task thannon thinking aloud pxThe following instructions were given to thethinking aloud group –•Say everything that goes through your mind•Keep talking as continuously as poss•Speak in complete sentences unlessunavoidable•Do not try to justify your thoughtsThese were tape recorded and later transcribed
Significant findings –•RGS made more percentageverbalisations in cat 1 and 21•NRGS made significantly morepercentage verbalisations in cat 14, 15,31•RGS referred to frustration and mindgoing blank•RGS produced more irrationalverbalisations•Many verbalisations involvedpersonification of the machineResultsBehavioural data –RGS had a significantlyhigher play rate (8gambles per minuteopposed to 6 perminute)RGS who thought aloudhad a significantly lowerwin rate, the number ofgambles between eachwin was lower thanNRGSVerbalisations –To analyse this quantitative datacontent analysis was used. Acoding system of 31 utterancecategorisations such as irrational(the fruit machine likes me) andrational (reference to luck, it’s myday today)Then each statement made by pxwas categorised into the codingsystem . Totals for RGS and NRGSwere calculated.
Cat Irrational verbalisations NRGS RGS1 Personification of machine 1.14 7.542 Explaining loses 0.41 3.124 Swearing at machine 0.08 0.60Rational Verbalisations7 Reference to winning 6.77 9.7914 Questions relating to confusion 13.24 1.5615 Statements of confusion 4.81 1.7216 Reference to skill 1.47 5.3417 Humour 0.89 0.4121 Reference to number system 1.45 9.4925 Hoping and needing a symbol 0.77 3.2828 Reference to luck 0.69 0.5231 Other utterances unrelated 25.53 11.73
Skill resultsPost-experimental semi-structured interviewsasked:•Is there any skill involved? Most NRGS saidmostly chance whereas most RGS said equalchance and skill•How skilful do you are compared to theaverage person? NRGS viewed themselves asbelow av but RGS said above average•What skill is involved in playing fruitmachines? RGS said knowledge of not playingwhen it had just paid out, and knowing whenit will pay outIt is interesting to note that of the 14 RGS whobroke even after 60 gambles, 10 continued toplay and then lost everything whereas only 2out of the 7 NRGS continued after breakingeven.
ConclusionBehavioural data showed that there was nodifference between RGS and NRGS supportinghypothesis 1 and the verbalisations showed moreirrational by the RGS.RGS were more skill orientated.Many RGS exclaimed their mind had gone blank andstopped speaking for 30 seconds whereas NRGSrarely did. It is thought the RGS go into auto pilotmode when playing or that they go into escapemode and use gambling to escape a troubledpresent so are not thinking constantly.The main differences were RGS being skill orientatedand making irrational verbalisations andpersonifications, this study can be used torehabilitate gamblers using the thinking aloudmethod by confronting them with their cognitivebias and irrational thoughts.