12 mark essay title questions..some possible questions to consider……………Year 10Family:Discuss how far that it is no longer ...
Discuss how far men nowadays help out equally with housework.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this• Wil...
• Low ‘face to face’ contact due toliving far away from family membersso no close supportWhat are the changing patterns of...
professional persons as well asrespect for authorityDiscuss what is the purpose or function of schools.Positive view Negat...
Law made Changes to Education system• 1870: Education Act –• 1944 Butler Education Act (Tri-partite Act)• 1965: Comprehens...
supervised which prepares thembetter for school• Less sexism tolerated in society• Changing job market – more servicesecto...
interpreted in a number of ways.Discuss how far the mass media is the most important role in the socialisationprocess.View...
• Norm referencing:• Global monopoly empires – NewsInternational• Owners could not dictate content ofpress because people ...
9
Discuss how far gender identities in the media have changed over the last 50 years.View that agrees with this View that di...
arranged marriage etc stereotypicaltopics of ethnicitymarriage and domestic violence asissues so nothing really changedSoc...
Discuss how far the Marxist view of stratification is a fair one.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with thisM...
Discuss how far Britain is an open society where achievement is based uponmeritocratic principles.View that agrees with th...
• Lack of formal parenting and passingon of society’s values• Watching parents take drugs/alcohol• Poverty – seeing family...
Discuss how far women are treated equally with regards to crime and deviance.View that agrees with this View that disagree...
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  1. 1. 12 mark essay title questions..some possible questions to consider……………Year 10Family:Discuss how far that it is no longer possible to describe what a typical family typelooks like in the U.K.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this• 20% of families now only ‘nuclear’• Single parent families• Re-constituted (step) families• Vertical/Horizontal variations• Gay families• Cohabitation arrangements• Cultural variations• Post modern living has no fixed rules• Rise in divorce rates• Increase in one-person households• Increase in friend households• Falling fertility changes madefamilies smaller in size• Most people start off life in a nuclearfamily and may depart from this idealto return to it later e.g. divorcees• Nuclear family still the norm in T.Vand advertising – Cereal PacketImage• Heterosexual nuclear family is stillcommon place, still 20%.• Most people who do cohabitate doend up in a nuclear family eventually• People who cohabitate are onlydelaying marriage and later becomenuclear familyDiscuss how far the functionalist’s view of the family is an accurate one.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this• Family shown as a harmonioussystem.• Main functions of family aresocialisation of the young,reproduction, emotional support andeconomic provision.• Warm bath theory of the family• Romantic view of family ‘rose tintedspectacle view’• Feminist view family as patriarchaland unfair on women. Womenbecome domestic slaves, dual burden• Domestic abuse in the family is verycommon for women and children• Conflict in general within the familyis common• Marxist view family as a place ofexploitation for women and men.Family soaks up the stresses and painsof working for an unreasonable wage.• The ‘family’ is just a system to ensurethe rich keep their money in their ownnetworks.1
  2. 2. Discuss how far men nowadays help out equally with housework.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this• Willmott and Young studydemonstrated that males help outequally (in their symmetrical familystudy).• Rise of the ‘New Man’• Changing expectations of men inmedia• Changing ambitions of women,putting careers before home• Use of contraception means womennot forced to just look after childrenat young age• Increased interest in home life wheremen and women spend more time athome doing DIY and DVD’s etc• Willmot and Young’s study wasreliant upon asking one key question‘does your husband help out at leastonce per week’! Easy to reach thisstandard.• The ‘New Man’ is a myth, men havenot changed at all. Still do not helpout.• Research points out that women havea ‘double burden’ which means theydo paid and unpaid work.• Women still have the responsibilityfor taking care of the home andchildren which is reflected inMaternity leave being more generousfor women, men have shorterpaternity leave and expected to go towork.• Research highlights even when menand women both have full time jobs itis women who do most of thehousework.Discuss how far relationships within the family have changed over time.In the past family relationships were.. Today family relationships havechanged...• Extended families dependent uponeach other• Patriarchal – father was head of houseand highest status• Roles of what each person did clearlydefined such as mother washousewife and children knew theirplace• Power and money in marriage use tobe unequally split, man in charge• Children not appreciated and familiesspent leisure time apart.• High ‘face to face’ contact due toliving close to family members soclose support networks• Isolated nuclear family living milesapart• Mother in charge (matrifocal) ormaybe single parent family• Roles may be blurred -Mother maynot be housewife but full timeemployed or Father looks after house• Not so hierarchal ordered, all haveequal status even children.• Role of Grandparents: Look aftergrandchildren when parents at work• Power and money in marriage moreequally split, often woman in charge.• Children appreciated and families are‘child centred’.2
  3. 3. • Low ‘face to face’ contact due toliving far away from family membersso no close supportWhat are the changing patterns ofmarriage?What are the changing patterns ofdivorce?• Decline in marriage rate• Increase in civil partnerships (samesex)• People getting married at a later age• Increase in cohabitation• Increase in births outside of marriageRising divorce rates due to below:• Changing social attitudes and values• Changes in law (easier and quicker)• Changes in social position of women• Secularisation (decline of religion)• Media influenceEducation :Discuss how far a pupil’s educational success is dependent on their home background.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this• Money can buy success: lack of thisknown as material deprivation• If have a wealthier home backgroundmay buy private tutor• More room to revise and concentrateat home• More money to go on school trips andsuffer fewer self esteem issues due tolack of money• Private School – Eton• Good diet at home improvesconcentration at school• Parents who spend time with pupils athome help prepare them for school• Parents who support children such asattending school meetings can helpchild progress• Home background major factor tosuccess!• Middleclass families have essentialnetworks of contacts such as bankmanagers and solicitors which giveschildren experience of dealing with• In side of school factors also veryimportant such as..• Labelling/Teachers expectations• Positive role models• Quality of teaching• Pupil subcultures• Gender• Ethnicity3
  4. 4. professional persons as well asrespect for authorityDiscuss what is the purpose or function of schools.Positive view Negative view• Education provides essential functionof secondary socialisation, inparticular a place to learn about ourhistory and culture.• Education seen as a positive systemallocating people fairly to the mostsuitable jobs based upon achievementin examinations.• Social control – teaches pupilsacceptance of rules and authority• Political role – teaching pupils to beeffective CITIZENS and create socialcohesion by learning about Britishculture and laws• Marxist view: Hidden curriculum islearnt, working class are controlledvia acceptance of following:• Hierarchy: Schools reflect hierarchyin society, making pupils more likelyto be obedient of people in charge atwork• Competition: Schools reflect theimportance of competition as in widersociety• Boredom: Pupils learn to deal withboredom at schools so as to cope withthis in mundane dull jobs later in lifeDiscuss how far the current structure of the education system is a fair one for allpupils to achieve their highest attainment.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this• Current system based uponEducation Reform Act 1988 whichimposed...• National Curriculum, was good asmade everyone study same topics,• Sats Tests for ages 7 onwards, goodto get early indication of pupils ability• League Tables, good for parents toknow how a school compares toothers in performance• Ofsted etc. – Good to know thestandard e.g. Outstanding orunsatisfactory status of a school• National curriculum chosen byGovernment departments, ethnocentric.• Testing pupils too early/labelling• League tables not fair on poor areas• Ofsted inspections only once every 5/6years is not regular enough, and if aschool labelled as unsatisfactory then itwould be doomed! Good teachers leaveand parents keep children away fromschool so school could close• Middle class pupils always do better dueto home background reasons• Other barriers such as gender/ethnicityare relevant anyway for achievementDiscuss what changes have happened in Britain’s education system over last 150years.4
  5. 5. Law made Changes to Education system• 1870: Education Act –• 1944 Butler Education Act (Tri-partite Act)• 1965: Comprehensive Act• 1988 Education Reform Act• basic education for 5-11 olds• Introduced Grammar Schools,Secondary Modern & TechnicalModern Schools• Banned Grammar Schools• Every pupil went to same school• Beginning of National Curriculum• Ofsted inspections• Sats from age 6• Academies/Free Schools• League TablesDiscuss how far internal school factors are important in educational success.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this• In school factors such as labellingimportant – self fulfilling prophecy• Racism/Sexism in schools• Setting/Streaming in schools• Pupil subculture/ peer pressure inschools• Teacher role models• School organisation – were schoolsare organised well pupils will do well• Social class important• Gender important• Ethnicity important• Material deprivation• Cultural deprivation – lacking correctlanguage skills or values of educationat home• Parental attitudes essentialDiscus how far girls improved attainment is a result of external factors alone.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this and sees inside school factors as important• Feminist movement improved girlsgrades by making them work harderto achieve independence• Changing job opportunities• Legal changes: Sex DiscriminationAct, Equal Pay Act• Primary socialisation – girls morelikely to be read at home when youngthan boys and more closely• Introduction of National Curriculumallowed girls to choose science andother subjects typically seen as boyssubjects• Female role models – lots of womenteachers• Coursework – favours girls as theyare generally neater and moreorganised5
  6. 6. supervised which prepares thembetter for school• Less sexism tolerated in society• Changing job market – more servicesector than manufacturing jobs• Schools now less sexist• Girls less likely to form anti schoolsubcultures like boys and messaround• Teachers nicer to girls than boys andhave higher expectations• Girls better behaved at school thanboys• Boys have lower self esteem in schoolthan girlsYear 11Media:Discuss how far the hypodermic syringe model of the mass media is a valid one.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this• Hypodermic Syringe approach• Use and Gratification Approach:Needs which television satisfied where:- Information- Personal Identity- Personal Relationships- Entertainment• Decoding ApproachThis approach suggests that thecontent of T.V has several possiblemeanings and can be decoded or6
  7. 7. interpreted in a number of ways.Discuss how far the mass media is the most important role in the socialisationprocess.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this• Hypodermic Syringe approach• Mass media as an agency ofsocialisation• Identity and mass media e.g.Lifestyles/genderstereotypes/purchasing influences• Political socialisation and voting• Use and Gratification Approach:• Decoding ApproachThis approach suggests that thecontent of T.V has several possiblemeanings and can be decoded orinterpreted in a number of ways.• Family more important – primarysocialisation• Peers more important – secondarysocialisation• Religion more important – secondarysocialisationDiscuss how far ownership of the mass media reflects control over content of themass media.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this• Conflict view sees press giants suchas Murdoch as able to control allcontent of media by methods such as:• Agenda setting:• Role of media gatekeepers:• Pluralist view – so many differentmedia companies and influences thanno one company dominates. No reallink between press ownership andcontent• Not possible for owners to controleverything that goes on in their largecompany7
  8. 8. • Norm referencing:• Global monopoly empires – NewsInternational• Owners could not dictate content ofpress because people would seethrough this and not buy theirproducts/papers etc.• News values: media operate by a setof values about what is considered‘newsworthy’, if they move from thispeople will not buy their products• Profit motive – if papers don’t runstories that attract peoples intereststhey will lose profits and go out ofbusiness• Advertisers – major influences onnewspapers, if paper annoysadvertisers by giving one sidedmessage they may take away theirrevenue• State and Legal Constraints – youcannot say what you want as the lawstops this happening so OFCOM,High Court would intervene if anyirregularities occurred from owners –recent Phone Hacking Scandaldemonstrates this.Discuss how far the pluralist approach to press ownership is a valid one.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with thisPluralist approachDecoding approachUses and gratificationConflict/Marxist approachRupert Murdoch as owner of newscorporation8
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  10. 10. Discuss how far gender identities in the media have changed over the last 50 years.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this• Up to 1970’s television very sexist,women in typical secondary rolesrarely playing main parts• Women up to 70’s often portrayedjust as sexual objects in magazinesand stereotypical roles as housewivesand secretaries in employment• Even up to 90’s Cumberbatch found:- Men dominated advertisements- Voice overs in adverts mostly male- Women in adverts typically blond andyoung- Males usually only showed asprofessionals- Women usually seen with malepartner• Women in sports news today stilloften sexist and focus is often on theirappearance and not performance• Men’s magazines still have too muchobsession with female body andsexualise women in a negativemanner e.g. Nuts/Loaded• Women and men shown in sexualmanner nowadays• Television not as sexist, women playdominant roles though still have to bepretty.. Lara Croft (Tomb Raider)• Women portrayed in much moredifferent and varied roles and not sostereotypical• Media for women much more typical,such as magazines now deal withsexism and are written by women asEditors• Anti-sexism laws stop blatant sexismin media so situation not as bad• Men also shown in domestic roles andnot just women e.g. Mr MuscleDiscuss how far ethnic groups are presented in a fairer light than in the past.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this• During 50’s-70’s black people oftenunrepresented.• When represented shown instereotypical roles such as musicianor dancer.• News programmes focuses onnegatives such as Famine in Africa,poverty or war in Africa.• 1960s-70’s black people stereotypedas criminal and muggers byNewspapers and prone to rioting e.g.Tottenham riots• Obsession in soap operas with• 1990’s much better period, moreblack actors in varied roles e.g. Cosbyshow however situation still not verygood for ethnic minorities:• Mass media still represent blackpeople in criminal ways, as do manyfilms involving stereotypicalgangsters and music videos etc.• Recent riots in Summer 2011 againdemonstrated racial overtones thatethnic minorities disproportionatelyinvolved• Soap operas e.g. Coronation St. haveAsian shop keepers, arranged10
  11. 11. arranged marriage etc stereotypicaltopics of ethnicitymarriage and domestic violence asissues so nothing really changedSocial inequalityDiscuss how far class as a stratification system is no longer a useful predictor of lifechances in Britain today.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this`Discuss how far the functionalist view of stratification is a fair one.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with thisFunctionalism – Meritocracy,UK – stratificationopen systemMarxist – class inequalityFeminist – gender inequalityApartheid (ethnicity) , Caste System(Religion)Closed system11
  12. 12. Discuss how far the Marxist view of stratification is a fair one.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with thisMarxist (class) Functionalism (meritocracy)Feminists (gender)Discuss how far that gender is no longer a barrier to social mobility in Britain today.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with thisFunctionalism (talent, meritocracy) Feminists (sex discrimination, glassceiling)Discuss how far ethnicity is no longer a barrier to social mobility in Britain today.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with thisEthnicity (racism in the work, education)GenderSocial class12
  13. 13. Discuss how far Britain is an open society where achievement is based uponmeritocratic principles.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with thisSir Alan SugarFunctionalismRoyal FamilyMarxistsFeministsDiscuss how far poverty is caused by a person’s upbringing as stated by the NewRight.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with thisCulture of dependency/povertyCycle of deprivationMarxismCrimeDiscuss how far crime is the result of a person’s upbringing alone.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this• Inadequate socialisation due tonegative experiences at home leadingto delinquency life style• Home background – growing up in acriminal networks or seeing familyinvolved in criminal networks• Psychological reasons – may bedepressed• Biological explanations – may beborn criminal minded or havecriminal genes• Sub cultural explanations – people13
  14. 14. • Lack of formal parenting and passingon of society’s values• Watching parents take drugs/alcohol• Poverty – seeing family struggle withdebt or unemployment and turn tocrime so as to break cycle of poverty• Crime is more common in poorerareas so is expected if brought up in apoorer area as crime is seen as morenormal and acceptablemay join a group of friends and beinfluenced by them to turn to crime• Some people may carry out crime dueto boredom and a way to have fun• Marxist explanations – police targetthe poor and criminalise them as ameans of control, the rich are let offand as a result free to commit crimewithout anyone notice so workingclass take all the blame• Labelling/Stereotyping – poor morelikely to be labelled as criminal soleads to self fulfilling prophecy aswell as police attitudes more likely toarrest working class people e.g.hoodiesDiscuss how far the Marxist view of the causes of crime is a fair one.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with thisSee Marxist view above right and useall of the other reasons stated in adifferent manner but relate toquestion• White collar crime – businesscrime is a major problem butignored in society due to itinvolving rich peopleDiscuss how far statistics on crime provided by the government are an accuratereflection of the true figure of crime.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this14
  15. 15. Discuss how far women are treated equally with regards to crime and deviance.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with thisDiscuss how far ethnic minorities are treated equally with regards to crime anddeviance.View that agrees with this View that disagrees with this15

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