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    • P S Y C H O D Y N A M I C , B I O L O G I C A L A N DL E A R N I N G A P P R O A C H E S …AS Level Psychologypaper 2 29 may 2012
    • Psychodynamic
    • Defining the Approach Assumption 1: the influence of unconsciousprocesses on behaviour Assumption 2: the importance of early childhood
    • Defining the approach: key terms: Id - The id is the unorganized part of the personalitystructure which contains the basic drives. The id containsthe libido, which is the primary source of instinctualforce that is unresponsive to the demands of reality Ego - The ego acts according to the reality principle; i.e.it seeks to please the id’s drive in realistic ways that willbenefit in the long term rather than bringing grief Superego - Freud developed his concept of the super-egofrom an earlier combination of the ego ideal and the"special psychical agency which performs the task ofseeing that narcissistic satisfaction from the ego ideal isensured...what we call our conscience‘.
    • Key Terms Oral stage – This is the first psychosexual stage. When allpleasure is gained through the mouth, chewing etc (from birthto 21 months. Anal stage - The anal stage is the second stage in SigmundFreud’s theory of psychosexual development, lasting from age18 months to three years. According to Freud, the anus is theprimary erogenous zone and pleasure is derived fromcontrolling bladder and bowl movement. Phallic stage - In the Phallic stage of psychosexualdevelopment a boy’s decisive experience is the Oedipuscomplex describing his son–father competition for sexualpossession of mother (3 Y to ? )
    • Key terms Latency stage - Because the latency stage is less of astage and more of period between stages, it maybegin at any time between the ages of 3 and 7(whenever the child goes to school) and maycontinue until puberty , anywhere from the ages of 8to 15 . Genital stage - The genital stage in psychoanalysis isthe term used by Sigmund Freud to describe thefinal stage of human psychosexual development .This stage begins at the start of puberty when sexualurges are once again awakened.
    • Key Terms Repression – the psychological attempt by an individual torepel ones own desires and impulses towards pleasurableinstincts by excluding the desire from ones consciousness andholding or subduing it in the unconscious Oedipus complex - denotes the emotions and ideas that themind keeps in the unconscious, via dynamic repression, thatconcentrate upon a boy’s desire to sexually possess hismother, and kill his father defence mechanisms – are unconscious psychologicalstrategies brought into play by various entities to cope withreality and to maintain self-image
    • Key Terms Conscious – includes everything that we are aware of. This is theaspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk aboutrationally. A part of this includes our memory, which is not alwayspart of consciousness but can be retrieved easily at any time andbrought into our awareness. Freud called this ordinary memory thepreconscious. preconscious mind – See above Unconscious - is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, andmemories that outside of our conscious awareness. Most of thecontents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such asfeelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to Freud, theunconscious continues to influence our behavior and experience,even though we are unaware of these underlying influences.
    • How Science Works Research methods: Case studies in general and inpsychodynamic approach, longitudinal studies, crosssectional studies, correlational studies (includingstrength (correlation coefficients) anddirection(positive/negative) Types of Data: Qualitative data (reliability,validity, subjectivity, objectivity and generalisability)
    • How Science Works Credibility: Freud’s theory (Masson, 1989)(handout) Ethics: Using personal data as in case studies Sampling: random, stratified, volunteer/self-selected and opportunity sampling
    • Content Psychosexual development: five stages, Oedipus complex, links todevelopment of personality, development of gender identity in third stage; Defence mechanisms: repression and one other; The process of attempting to repel desires towards pleasurable instincts, causedby a threat of suffering if the desire is satisfied; the desire is moved to theunconscious in the attempt to prevent it from entering consciousness;seemingly unexplainable naivety, memory lapse or lack of awareness of onesown situation and condition; the emotion is conscious, but the idea behind it isabsent. and one other; Dissociation: Temporary drastic modification of ones personal identity or character to avoidemotional distress; separation or postponement of a feeling that normallywould accompany a situation or thought
    •  Freud’s theory of gender Oedipus and Electra….basically!
    • Key Studies Little Hans (Freud, 1909) Dibs, (Axline, 1964/1990)
    • Key Issues Do Dreams have a meaning? False memory and repression Early Childhood and sexual orientation.
    • Evidence of practice The relationship between parental strictness ininfancy and orderliness in adolescence: Design a correlational study using rating scales andself-report data; draw a scattergram; carry out aSpearman’s; write a short report (procedure, sample,apparatus and results)
    • Biological Approach Defining the Approach Assumption 1: the influence and impact of geneson individual differences; Assumption 2: the influence and impact of thenervous system on individual differences
    • Key Terms Central nervous system (CNS), is the part of the nervoussystem that integrates the information that it receivesfrom, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the body synapse, In the nervous system, a synapse is a structurethat permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemicalsignal to another cell receptor, a sensory receptor is a structure that recognizesa stimulus in the internal or external environment of anorganism neurone, A neuron ; (also known as a neurone or nervecell) is an electrically excitable cell that processes andtransmits information by electrical and chemicalsignaling
    • Key Terms neurotransmitter, Neurotransmitters areendogenous chemicals that transmit signals from aneuron to a target cell across a synapse. genes, A gene is a molecular unit of heredity of aliving organism. hormones, chemicals released by a cell or a gland inone part of the body that sends out messages thataffect cells in other parts of the organism
    • Brain lateralisation A longitudinal fissure separates the human braininto two distinct cerebral hemispheres, connected bythe corpus callosum. The sides resemble each otherand each hemispheres structure is generallymirrored by the other side. Yet despite the stronganatomical similarities, the functions of each corticalhemisphere are managed differently. For example,the lateral sulcus generally is longer in the lefthemisphere than in the right hemisphere.
    • How Science Works Research Methods: twin and adoption studies,PET and MRI scanning, laboratory experiments Hypotheses: alternative, experimental and nullhypothesis, one or two tailed Checking statistical significance: Mann-Whitney U, critical value and observed values, levelsof significance, e.g. p≤ 0.01, 0.05
    • How Science Works ii Experimental design: dependent variable (DV)and independent variable (IV), control groups,allocation of Pps to conditions Sampling: random, stratified, volunteer/self-selected and opportunity sampling The use of animals: in laboratory experiments inthe biological approach; credibility, ethical andpractical issues.
    • Content Central nervous system and neurotransmitters; genes and behaviour (nature/nurture debate). Gender development: genes, hormones, brainlateralisation.
    • Key Studies Ablatio penis (Money, 1975) Raine Et Al 1997 Murderers brains Schizophrenic twins (Gottesmann and Shields,1966)
    • Key Issues Are transgender operations ethical? Safe use of drugs during pregnancy Autism.is it an extreme male brain condition?
    • Evidence Of Practice Gender differences in verbal ability: Design a quasi-experiment to test whether there is a differencebetween males and females (independentmeasures/groups) in their ability to perform a taskinvolving language skills; Collect ordinal/intervaldata; Carry out a Mann-Whitney U test; Write upshort report including hypothesis, results (includingsummary table and graph), brief conclusions,analysis which considers validity, reliability,credibility and generalisability.
    •  Learning Approach
    • Defining the Approach Assumption 1: the importance of the environmentin shaping behaviour (tabula rasa); Assumption 2: effects of conditioning,reinforcement and social learning on the organism; Assumption 3: humans and animals are onlyquantitatively different and therefore animals are agood model for human behaviour
    • Key Terms Classical conditioning, is a form of learning in which onestimulus, the conditioned stimulus or CS, comes to signal theoccurrence of a second stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus or US. operant conditioning, is a form of learning in which anindividuals behavior is modified by its consequences; the behaviormay change in form, frequency, or strength. social learning, a theory of life that asserts that humans learndeviant behavior from their peers extinction, is the conditioning phenomenon in which a previouslylearned response to a cue is eliminated when the cue is presented inthe absence of the previously paired aversive (unpleasant) orappetitive (pleasant) stimulus.
    • Key Terms spontaneous recovery is a phenomenon whichwas first seen in classical conditioning and laterdiscovered in memory functioning. The general patternof spontaneous memory recovery found in Pavlovianconditioning in animals essentially encompasses twovarying habits learned by the animal. Where there isan initial predominance of habit A over habit B, overtime habit B predominates over habit A; this parallelslearning in the human memory process.
    • Key Terms stimulus, are energy patterns (e.g. light or sound) which are registered by the senses response, D’oh! positive reinforcement, the adding of an appetitive stimulus to increase a certainbehavior or response.Example: Father gives sweets to his daughter when she picks up her toys. If the frequencyof picking up the toys increases or stays the same, the sweets are a positive reinforcer negative reinforcement, the taking away of an aversive stimulus to increase certainbehavior or response.Example: Turning off distracting music when trying to work. If the work increases whenthe music is turned off, turning off the music is a negative reinforcer primary reinforcement, is a stimulus that does not require pairing to function as areinforcer and most likely has obtained this function through the evolution and its role inspecies survival. Examples of primary reinforcers include sleep, food, air, water, and sex.
    • How Science Works Research methods: observation (participant, non-participant,overt, covert, naturalistic), laboratory experiment method: humanand animal Experimental design: IV and DV, repeated measures, matchedpairs and independent groups design, order effects, participant andsituational variables, counterbalancing, randomisation,experimenter effects, demand characteristics. Experimental hypotheses: directional (one tailed) and non-directional (two tailed), operationalisation of variables Inferential statistics: levels of measurement, reasons forchoosing chi-squared, Spearman’s or Mann-Whitney; comparingobserved and critical value(s) Ethical guidelines: human participants, informed consent,deception, protection from harm, right to withdraw, debriefing ofparticipants and competence. Evaluating research studies: validity, reliability,generalisability, credibility
    • Content Classical conditioning: UCS, UCR, CS, CR,extinction, spontaneous recovery; Operantconditioning: positive and negative reinforcement,punishment, primary and secondary reinforcement; One treatment or therapy: systematicdesensitisation; Social learning theory: observation, imitation,modelling, vicarious reinforcement; Learningexplanation of gender: modelling, reinforcement andbehaviour shaping.
    • Key Studies The Bo-Bo doll, (Bandura, Ross and Ross, 1961) Little Albert, (Watson and Rayner, 1920)
    • Key Issues Anorexia rising prevalence Influence of advertising on peoples behaviour The increase of female violence
    • Evidence An observation of reinforcement of physical andverbal aggression in male and female children;Design an observational study to assess the degree ofreinforcement of aggressive behaviours in males andfemales; Collect quantitative data using a tally chart;Carry out a chi-squared (χ2) Analyse study in termsof validity, reliability, generalisability and credibilityof results