2012M. ReynoldsPsychologyAS levelExam date: 10thJanuary 2013Investigation designMethods and techniquesData analysis and presentationPSYA1: Research Methods(workbook)
Name: If found please return to F48!Welcome to research methods. This is the workbook we’ll be using for this topic. Usethe books to improve your knowledge, if you don’t catch something in class look it upin your text book.Wherever you see “key words” make sure you have noted down the meaning of theword!Aims and hypotheses (p90-93)Key words:HypothesisAimExperimentVariableExperimental hypothesisAlternative hypothesisA hypothesis is......The different types of hypothesis are:1. .2. .3. .1.2.3.
Name: If found please return to F48!One tailedhypothesis.Directionalhypothesis.Hypothesis has adefinite direction – theoutcome/direction ispredicted.Ppts will recallmore trigrams inthe visualinterference group.Two tailedhypothesis.Non-directionalhypothesis.Hypothesis has nodefinite direction. Theresults could turn outeither way.There will be adifference in therecall of trigramsfor ppts in thevisual interferencegroup.Null hypothesis. Hypothesis is veryprecise stating thatnothing will happen.There will be nodifference in therecall of trigrams inthe visualinterference group.What does it mean to make variables operationalised?Internal validity VS external validity. Explain the difference.What are the three types of validity?Activity: Answer questions 2-5 on p94.
Name: If found please return to F48!Variables (p95-97)
Name: If found please return to F48!Key wordsIndependent variable______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Dependent variable______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Extraneous variable______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Define the key words shown above.What kinds of extraneous variables do we encounter?Explain the term “demand characteristics” and how it affects psychologicalexperiments.Investigator effects are......
Name: If found please return to F48!Single blind technique is when you________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Double blind technique is when you_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________SamplingName the three types of sample:Type ofsamplingDefinition Method Population validityRandomOpportunityVolunteer
Name: If found please return to F48!EthicsWhat 9 aspects of ethics does the BPS (British Psychological Society) cover?22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.9.The main ethical issues in psychology revolve around deception, informed consentand protection of participants.Explain these issues:DeceptionInformed consentProtection ofparticipants
Name: If found please return to F48!What methods can we use to try and deal with these issues?DeceptionInformed consentProtection of participantsActivity: answer questions 12-14 on p103Choosing a research method
Name: If found please return to F48!Type ofexperimentDescription Advantages DisadvantagesLaboratoryexperimentFieldexperimentNaturalexperiment
Name: If found please return to F48!What three things need to be present for an experiment to be classed as a “true”experiment?1.2.3.Activity: answer questions 1-3 p108.
Name: If found please return to F48!Design Description Whenshould it beused?Advantages Disadvantages ControlsRepeatedmeasuresIndependentgroupsdesignMatchedpairs design
Name: If found please return to F48!Explain order effects.What is counterbalancing?Observational methodsTypes of observation are naturalistic observation and controlled observation.What is the difference between the two?Activity: create a table showing the different types of observation along with theiradvantages and disadvantages. Use p114 to help you. (If you use a separate sheetmake sure you attach it to this booklet!)
Name: If found please return to F48!Correlational methodsSketch a positive correlationSketch a negative correlationGive two examples of “correlational statistical techniques”Advantages of correlation are......Disadvantages of correlation are....Surveys and interviews
Name: If found please return to F48!Key word: social desirabilityWhat is a survey?What is an interview?A question can be either open, or closed.State the strengths and weaknesses of open questions.State the strengths and weaknesses of closed questions.What key things do you need to take into account when constructing a survey orinterview?Case studies
Name: If found please return to F48!Key word: idiographicWhat is a case study?Advantages of the case study are.....Disadvantages of the case study are....Measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode)Key words: Qualitative VS quantitative• Qualitative data is data that focuses more on words/language.• Quantitative data is data that is collected numerically (using numbers).Activity: create a table that shows the three types of central tendency measures(mean, median and mode), an explanation of each and their advantages anddisadvantages.Measures of dispersion
Name: If found please return to F48!How do you calculate the range of a set of results?When should you use range?What are the advantages and disadvantages of range?Standard deviation (SD):What is it and when do you use it?How do you calculate standard deviation?What are the advantages and disadvantages of SD?Graphs
Name: If found please return to F48!Sketch a histogramWhen should you use a histogram?Sketch a bar-chartWhen should you use a bar chart?Sketch a scattergram (scattergraph)When should you use a scattergram?Qualitative analysis
Name: If found please return to F48!Key words:Content analysisCodingWhat does qualitative mean?What is content analysis?What is pure qualitative analysis?Other notes