Types of question Open- ended Task 1 Closed-ended • Write 2 open-ended questions in relation to researching ‘no’, ‘don’t know’ • No fixed answer • ‘Yes’, gender and education• Write 2 closed-ended questions in relation to researching gender andchoice • Respondent answers in own words •Multiple education (1 yes/no and 1 multiple choice) Task 2 • For each of the following would you choose open or closed-ended questions? a) To collect information quickly b) Respondents to answer in their own words c) To discover the reasons behind a respondent’s behaviour d) The answer to be easily quantified e) To maximise validity f) To maximise reliability
Preparing to conduct a survey Conduct survey Operationalise concepts Select sample Analyse dataChoose topic Conduct pilot study Aim/Hypothesis Decide whether f2f, postal etc
Choosing a topicSurveys are the most commonly used research method and are suitable for a variety of topics. Q. Can you think of any topics that this method might not be suitable for?
Formulating an aim or hypothesisFamily size and achievement = Differences in educational achievement are the result of family sizeChange the following ideas into a hypothesis:1) Educational achievement and social class2) Gender and labelling3) Ethnicity and attendance4) Parental support and social class
Formulating a hypothesis A lot of previous research has Even if religion turnsin terms of focused on gender out to have no impact on achievement at educational achievement. least I canseems to have been Religion move on to another largely ignored so Ion that. area and focus might look into that.
Operationalising conceptsThis involves taking the abstract ideas six major the I will only use the from religions and will class someone hypothesis and making them measurable. at as religious if they go to church least once a week. Task Operationalise the following concepts 1) Social class 2) Homelessness 3) Disability 4) Achievement 5) Poverty Q. What problems might you encounter when operationalising them?
The pilot study If I iron out these problems while it’s still wet, it will save me time and money in the long run, plus the overall result will be A small scale version of the better. study designed to find any issues Q. What sort of problems might there be? •Type/style of questions •Wording may not be clear •Interviewer may need practice •Length of the questionnaire/interview For example, Young and Willmott (1962) conducted 100 Problems pilot interviews to improve theProblems design and wording of their study
SamplingThe best method would be to taste one of Task each colour. This is because it isresearch onto You need to conduct safe the assume that all of the restriction isjar sweets are yellowtimesweets.only have flavour of this of as you The biggestone flavour as are all of the about 15sweets etc. red minutes. This would save time How would you ensure thatayour Q. and produce research is as comprehensive as representative sample (the istime conductedyou possible but sample within the still frame? tasted represent the jar as a whole).
Sampling The sampling frame is the list of all of the members Research of the population we are studying for example Samplingpopulation the frame census which is an accurate representation of the research population. Q. What would the sampling frame be in each of these studies?1) The effects of ethnicity on educational achievement in the UK A list of all UK students within the education system2) Gender and GCSE results in 2013 at John Cabot Academy School records of this years year 11s at JCA The respondents The sample
Making sure that the sample is representative Task 1) Why was this sample unrepresentative of the research population? 2) How could this be improved?
Sampling techniquesRead the section ‘sampling techniques’ on page 184.1) What is random sampling? Why might it not be representative?2) What is quasi-random sampling?3) What is stratified random sampling? Why might this be more representative?4) What is quota sampling?Feedback as a class
What type of sampling? Random sampling Names of all year 11 students
What type of sampling? Stratified random samplingYear 11 boys Year 11 girls
What type of sampling? Quota sampling300 year 11 boys 323 year 11 girls You would use this method if you wanted an accurate percentage of each group e.g. If there was a higher percentage of girls than boys in year 11.
Non-representative sampling• Snowball sampling: The researcher contacts key individuals who are asked to suggest others who might be willing to be interviewed.• Opportunity sampling: Choosing those who are easiest to access e.g. Passers by or a class of children. Read page 1851) Why are these methods not representative of the research population?2) What goups would you be most likely to research using these methods? 3) Give 3 practical reasons why you might use these methods. 4) Why would interpretivists not create a representative sample?