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TEEB: Servicios de los ecosistemas
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TEEB: Servicios de los ecosistemas


Un resumen del enfoque del proyecto The Economics of Ecosystem and Biodiversty (TEEB) acerca de los servicios que proveen los humedales y de los beneficios que éstos nos reportan.

Un resumen del enfoque del proyecto The Economics of Ecosystem and Biodiversty (TEEB) acerca de los servicios que proveen los humedales y de los beneficios que éstos nos reportan.

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  • 1. "We use it because it's valuable, we lose it because it's free.“ Pavan Sukhdev. TEEB Study Leader Chair of the Advisory Board
  • 2. 1. What´s TEEB? 1. What´s TEEB? The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) is a global initiative focused on: • Drawing attention to the economic benefits of biodiversity • Growing cost of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation. Beginning: March 2007 Postdam G8+5. TEEB presents an approach that can help decision-makers recognize, demonstrate and capture the values of ecosystem services & biodiversity. In order to size the global problem of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation
  • 3. 1. What´s TEEB? TEEB FOR WETLANDS The importance of wetlands: • In Water cycle • Adressing water objetives (Rio+20, MDG and 2015 SDG) Main goals: Recognizing, demonstrating, and capturing the values of ecosystem services In order to… • better informed, • more efficient, • fairer decision making
  • 4. 1. What´s TEEB? What does TEEB try to answer? • Benefits and risks of loss Role of wetlands and their values • Measuring to manage Measure helps to manage • Integrating the values into decision making improve the consideration of the values and benefits • Transforming TEEB approach Scales
  • 5. 2. Ecosystem services Ecosystem Ecosystem Function Ecosystem Services (1) • Goal: Understanding and comunicating: - Economic value - Social value - Cultural value In order to foster: - Restoration, conservation and management and “wise use” of wetlands (1) Adaptado de Martínez Anguita et al. 2010
  • 6. 2. Ecosystem services What is the value of wetlands? 1. Provisioning services 2. Regulating services genetic resources, biochemical, natural medicines and pharmaceuticals erosion regulation, water purification, waste regulation, climate regulation and natural hazard regulation (e.g. droughts, floods, storms). 3. Cultural services 4. Supporting services cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences those that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services MA (2005)
  • 7. 2. Ecosystem services Data: Surface Inland wetlands cover at least 9.5 million km2 (6.5% of the Earth’s) Carbon storage Organic carbon stored per unit area of seagrass meadows is similar to that of forests Peatlands 3% sup  30% C of the land  75% CO2 atmospheric  twice carbon stock in the global forest biomass. Inactive floodplains in Germany €267 billion (nitrogen retention, carbon sequestration… (2) (2) Scholz et al., 2012)
  • 8. 2. Ecosystem services 1. Inland wetlands: services and value Inland wetlands other than rivers and lakes (floodplains, swamps/ marshes and peatlands) provisioning services 34 2 9,709 regulating services 30 321 23,018 habitat services 9 10 3,471 cultural services 13 648 8,399 Total 86 981 44,597 (Int.$/ha/year – 2007 values) TEEB (2010); de Groot et al. (2010); See also Brander et al. (2006, 2011), Ghermandi et al. (2011), Barbier 2011 and TEEB (2010)
  • 9. 2. Ecosystem services …but: - Relation between wetlands landscape Ecosystem services not synergistic Interconnectivity People Value ≠ Price
  • 10. 3. Measurement & Assesment Measurement & Assesment: Adapted from Braat and ten Brink et al (2008)
  • 11. 3. Measurement & Assessment The values of nature: • Qualitative analysis based on non-numerical information. • Quantitative data represent state, changes in the ecosystems and the services they provide using numerical units of measurement • Geospatial mapping allows the quantitative data to be linked with geographical information • Monetary valuation can build on biophysical information on the services provided by ecosystems to derive values
  • 12. 3. Measurement & Assessment Indicators: • Natural capital information • Ecosystem services flows i.e. Cultural & social services Landscape & amenity values: amenity of the ecosystem, cultural diversity and identity, spiritual values, cultural heritage values etc. Ecotourism & recreation: hiking, camping, nature walks, jogging, skiing, recreational fishing, diving, animal watching etc. Cultural values: e.g. education, art and research Changes in the number of residents and real estate values Nº of visitors to sites per year Amount of nature tourism Total number of educational excursions at a site Nº of TV programmes, studies, books etc. featuring sites and the surrounding area Number of scientific publications and patents (TEEB Wetlands 2013)
  • 13. 3. Measurement & Assessment Indicators (SCBD 2011, MRC 2003)
  • 14. 3. Measurement & Assessment Monetary valuation: • • • • • Indication of the society preferences Easily understandable Easily communicable Help to reflect hidden cost (externalities) Provisioning services vs. other less visible ecosystem services CONTRIBUTE TO CHANGE THE WAY IN WHICH SOCIETY MANAGE WETLANDS (Zavestoski, 2004)
  • 15. 3. Measurement & Assessment Monetary valuation: • Choice of valuation methods: Sociocultural context • Methods (categories) • Based on markets. Market prices, avoided cost, mitigation o restoration options • Based on revealed preferences. Travel cost method, Hedonic Pricing method… • Based on stated preferences: Contingence Valuation (Zavestoski, 2004)
  • 16. 3. Measurement & Assessment Monetary valuation: Limitations • A range of methodologies are needed • Both biophysical and monetary approaches • Ethical values, cultural needs, ancestral rights? • Anthropocentric focus (ignores ecosystem that do not provide directs benefits to people or economy Based ) IGNORE ECONOMIC VALUE IS REDUCE THE ABILITY TO MAKE ROBUST ARGUMENTS FOR THE CHANGE
  • 17. 3. Measurement & Assessment TEEB 6-step approach (I) Step 1: Problem with stakeholders Step 2: Most relevant ecosystem services most relevant Step 3: Identify information needs: • Methods • Information
  • 18. 3. Measurement & Assessment TEEB 6-step approach (II) Step 4: Assess expected changes in ecosystem services: • availability • Distribution Step 5: Identify and appraise policy options Step 6: Assess social and environmental impacts of policy options
  • 19. 3. Measurement & Assessment Summary • Complexity of the processes Information helps to manage. Indicators for wetlands management • Interactions not well known enough. Transparent assessment What cover and what dos not cover. Appreciate hydrological function to understand benefit for people and economy • Economic value of ecosystem services when possible. Single not enough, combine • Contribution to social and economic development Identify opportunities on wetland degradation.
  • 20. 4. Tools Choice among a lot of tools that: - Let understand the value of wetlands - Multi-objetive management (ecosystem services) - Synergies (policy making) - Combination of tools - Property rights - Local people - Communication
  • 21. Tools (I): - Site management - Land planning & Regulation 4. Tools - Regulation of water discharges Regulation of products Spatial planning Liability - Property rights
  • 22. Tools (II): Market Based Instruments (MBI) - Price influencing in people - Externalities (price not always takes account 4. Tools all costs) - MBI as a way for integrating loss of value into cost - Taxes, subsidies… - Tradable permits (markets) - PES (Payment for Ecosystem Services)
  • 23. Tools (III): Market Based Instruments (MBI) - Flexibility (choice) - Effective when cause degradation is mainly economic 4. Tools - Questioned (right to pollute) - Lack of genuine incentives (ethics, culture…)
  • 24. 5. “Need for Action” Which are the main goals of the TEEB approach? (I) - Knowledge of the critical role of ecosystem services (in this case wetland ecosystem) - Multi-objetive management (do not focus in biodiversity or single ecosystem services (ES)) - Involve and engage local communities - Value of restored ES more than restoration cost
  • 25. 5. “Need for Action” Which are the main goals of the TEEB approach? (II) - Sustainability (all sustainability vectors: social, economical and natural) - Traditional knowledge and practices - Manage transition (evaluate the way for the transition among winner and losers) - Education, communication, (communication and more communication)
  • 26. Ecoacsa Reserva de Biodiversidad, S.L. Tlf: 911252203