Sustainable Economies, Without GrowthA Degrowth research agendaGiorgos Kallis,ICREA Professor, ICTA-UABERG ColloquiumMarch...
This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Eco...
My perspective: Ecological(macro)economics• Inter- and pluri-disciplinary.• Energy and theenvironment matter ineconomic gr...
This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Eco...
We cannot both grow and avoid climate change020040060080010001200World carbon intensity in CO2-eq/$(data from Jackson, 200...
Jevons’ paradox: we consume morebecause we become more efficient
Bet on a carbon revolution or aprecautionary downscaling instead?• 37 years till2050, compared to 125years for the industr...
Growth damages communities at theworld’s commodity frontiers• Growing socialmetabolism destroysecosystems andindigenous cu...
Growth does not increase well-beingin the long-term.• Life satisfaction decreaseswith contractions andincreases withexpans...
Growth cannot not satisfy the desirefor positional goods• Positional goods areinherently socially scarce.• Inferior access...
This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Eco...
Growth in the West has slowed downSource of data: World Bank-6-4-202461985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015US (% growthchange...
High oil prices preceded the crisisCrude Oil Prices and U.S. GDP growth(graph from IbisWorld)
Peak-oil?
The end of cheap net energy• Diminishingenergy returnsto energyinvestment(EROI) for newsources.
The limits of innovation• Urbanization, masseducation and the entry ofwomen into the labor forcewere one-off processes.The...
Limits to to growing capital• 0.15 trillion $ looking forinvestment in 1950, 0.42trillion in 1973, 1.6 trillion $in 2010 a...
This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Eco...
Why are we growth addicted?• Growth as ideology andquasi religion.Latouche, S., 2010. Farewell toGrowth.Norgaard, R., 2010...
Negative growth can have dramaticconsequences-10-5051015201998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012Greece GDPgrowth rate(%)G...
Negative growth does not have to besocially catastrophic-6-4-202461998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012Japan GDP growthr...
This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Eco...
Money without growth• Community currencies– Time banks.– HOUR currencies.– Parallel currencies.– LETS• Monetary reforms– 1...
Social security without growth• A single, guaranteed-for-life, entitlementtransfer.• Financed by an energytax.• Incentives...
Employment without growth• Short-term employmentboost from reducedworking hours.• Productivity gainstranslated to liberate...
This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Eco...
Local economies without wage-labour• Proliferating culture ofvoluntary and forced“nowtopians”.• Expanding cultures ofcoope...
Why do young people move to thecountryside?• New forms of living inthe countryside (neo-rural experiences).• Politicized m...
This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Eco...
How and by whom?• The prefigurative politics ofthe Occupy Movement andtheir relation to degrowthideals.• The institutional...
This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Eco...
My messages1. Economic growth is unsustainable;environmentally, socially and economically.2. Time to ask new questions and...
Thank you!giorgoskallis@gmail.com
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Us degrowth powerpoint

  1. 1. Sustainable Economies, Without GrowthA Degrowth research agendaGiorgos Kallis,ICREA Professor, ICTA-UABERG ColloquiumMarch 13, 2013
  2. 2. This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Economies without growth3. Why are we growth addicted?4. Institutions for Economies without growth.5. Exiting the economy.6. The politics of transition.• Conclusion
  3. 3. My perspective: Ecological(macro)economics• Inter- and pluri-disciplinary.• Energy and theenvironment matter ineconomic growth.
  4. 4. This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Economies without growth3. Why are we growth addicted?4. Institutions for Economies without growth.5. Exiting the economy.6. The politics of transition.• Conclusion
  5. 5. We cannot both grow and avoid climate change020040060080010001200World carbon intensity in CO2-eq/$(data from Jackson, 2008)ActualConvergence scenarioBusiness as usual scenario
  6. 6. Jevons’ paradox: we consume morebecause we become more efficient
  7. 7. Bet on a carbon revolution or aprecautionary downscaling instead?• 37 years till2050, compared to 125years for the industrialrevolution.• Productivity improvedbecause of using moreenergy, not less.
  8. 8. Growth damages communities at theworld’s commodity frontiers• Growing socialmetabolism destroysecosystems andindigenous cultures atcommodity frontiers.• Local communities inconflict with States andcorporations.www.ejolt.orgMartinez-Alier. J., Kallis, G. et al, 2010.Social metabolism, ecological distributionconflicts and valuationlanguages, Ecological Economics
  9. 9. Growth does not increase well-beingin the long-term.• Life satisfaction decreaseswith contractions andincreases withexpansions, but in the long-term it stays the same.From Easterlin, R., et al, 2010. TheHappiness-income paradoxrevisited, PNAS
  10. 10. Growth cannot not satisfy the desirefor positional goods• Positional goods areinherently socially scarce.• Inferior access topositional goods leads toeconomic insecurity andpoverty.• Poverty in wealthycountries cannot be curedby growth, only byredistribution.
  11. 11. This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Economies without growth3. Why are we growth addicted?4. Institutions for Economies without growth.5. Exiting the economy.6. The politics of transition.• Conclusion
  12. 12. Growth in the West has slowed downSource of data: World Bank-6-4-202461985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015US (% growthchange)EU (% growthchange)Linear (EU (%growth change))
  13. 13. High oil prices preceded the crisisCrude Oil Prices and U.S. GDP growth(graph from IbisWorld)
  14. 14. Peak-oil?
  15. 15. The end of cheap net energy• Diminishingenergy returnsto energyinvestment(EROI) for newsources.
  16. 16. The limits of innovation• Urbanization, masseducation and the entry ofwomen into the labor forcewere one-off processes.They now have marginalreturns.• The internet paradox:where is the growth fromthe internet?• It is energy productivityinnovations thatmatter, communicationalone is not enough.
  17. 17. Limits to to growing capital• 0.15 trillion $ looking forinvestment in 1950, 0.42trillion in 1973, 1.6 trillion $in 2010 and 3 trillions by2030.• Inequality exacerbates over-accumulation.• Capital over-accumulation isa source of instability andbooms and busts.
  18. 18. This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Economies without growth3. Why are we growth addicted?4. Institutions for Economies without growth.5. Exiting the economy.6. The politics of transition.• Conclusion
  19. 19. Why are we growth addicted?• Growth as ideology andquasi religion.Latouche, S., 2010. Farewell toGrowth.Norgaard, R., 2010. Theenvironmental case for acollective assessment ofeconomism.
  20. 20. Negative growth can have dramaticconsequences-10-5051015201998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012Greece GDPgrowth rate(%)GreeceUnemploymentrate (%)Source of data: CIA World Factbook
  21. 21. Negative growth does not have to besocially catastrophic-6-4-202461998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012Japan GDP growthrate(%)Japan Unemploymentrate (%)Linear (Japan GDPgrowth rate(%))Linear (JapanUnemployment rate(%))Source: CIA World FactbookWhy Greece, and not Japan?
  22. 22. This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Economies without growth3. Why are we growth addicted?4. Institutions for Economies without growth.5. Exiting the economy.6. The politics of transition.• Conclusion
  23. 23. Money without growth• Community currencies– Time banks.– HOUR currencies.– Parallel currencies.– LETS• Monetary reforms– 100% reserverequirements.– Public money.
  24. 24. Social security without growth• A single, guaranteed-for-life, entitlementtransfer.• Financed by an energytax.• Incentives to workmaintained.
  25. 25. Employment without growth• Short-term employmentboost from reducedworking hours.• Productivity gainstranslated to liberatedtime, not capitalaccumulation.• Environmental benefitsdepend on complementarypolicies.
  26. 26. This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Economies without growth3. Why are we growth addicted?4. Institutions for Economies without growth.5. Exiting the economy.6. The politics of transition.• Conclusion
  27. 27. Local economies without wage-labour• Proliferating culture ofvoluntary and forced“nowtopians”.• Expanding cultures ofcooperating and sharingin Europe as a result ofthe crisis.
  28. 28. Why do young people move to thecountryside?• New forms of living inthe countryside (neo-rural experiences).• Politicized moves and“life projects”, not merelife-style changes.
  29. 29. This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Economies without growth3. Why are we growth addicted?4. Institutions for Economies without growth.5. Exiting the economy.6. The politics of transition.• Conclusion
  30. 30. How and by whom?• The prefigurative politics ofthe Occupy Movement andtheir relation to degrowthideals.• The institutionalization ofdegrowth objectives inEcuador.• Conservative variants ofdegrowth.
  31. 31. This presentation• Part I: Growth is not the answer1. The un-sustainability of growth.2. The end of growth ?• Part II: Economies without growth3. Why are we growth addicted?4. Institutions for Economies without growth.5. Exiting the economy.6. The politics of transition.• Conclusion
  32. 32. My messages1. Economic growth is unsustainable;environmentally, socially and economically.2. Time to ask new questions and think outsidethe box of growth.
  33. 33. Thank you!giorgoskallis@gmail.com
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