ResearchTalks Vol. 2 - Neural stimulation, challenges and success

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optic nerve prosthesis

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ResearchTalks Vol. 2 - Neural stimulation, challenges and success

  1. 1. ResearchTalks Université catholique de LouvainNeural stimulation, challenges and success Stimulation neurale, succès et défis Jean DELBEKE, MD, PhD 10/10/2011 Louvain-la-Neuve
  2. 2. From Prometheus to Cyborg fiction• The pacemaker has opened the gate towards functional electrical stimulation.• Cochlear prosthesis, sphincter control, drop foot system, pain stimulators, vagus nerve stimulation, the visual prosthesis and many others including deep brain stimulation
  3. 3. Apprentissage de la reconnaissance de patterns 100 80 Score (%) 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Evaluation 57 s
  4. 4. Virtual perception experiment Frequency (Hz) 9 pmA 0 100 200 300 400-0,5 9 p; 106.5 µs-0,4 F Model 100 µs pulse trains-0,3 80 Hz;106.5 µs N Model-0,2-0,10,0 0 10 20 30 40 Number of pulses (N) 80 Hz
  5. 5. Rhéobase for the perception of pulse trains µA1998 2008 N F F (Hz) 1 10 2 20 4 40 8 80 16 N 160 32 320
  6. 6. Wrong assumptions are still the rule And yet results are being obtained The visual prosthesis
  7. 7. Moi, personne consciente,libre de penser, vouloir et créer
  8. 8. Phosphene position 90° 180° Optic nerve 0° 270° Axons: 0.6 µm 0.9 µm 1.2 µmVisual field
  9. 9. Empedocles (490-430 BC) put forward the idea that we see objects because lightstreams out of our eyes and touches them. (Wikipedia) ControlCNS of eye movements Extraocular muscles Efference Copy Motor Command Extraocular proprioception Retinal signal Eye Visuallocalization Optic nerve Comparator
  10. 10. Perception threshold of optic nerve stimuli at different phases of the hearth beat350.00 Threshold (µA)300.00250.00200.00150.00 0° 90°100.00 180° 50.00 270° % ECG cycle 0.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95
  11. 11. Sensors Microfluidics NEUROPROBES
  12. 12. Biofilm Cell migration Growth Differentiation Matrix secretion seconds minutes hours days weeks Platelets, Implant Protein Monocytes Neovascularisation Adsorption GranulocytesGold, Co, Cr, Ni NO, VEGFsilver Fibrin clotting erythrocytes Complement Acute inflammation Toxicity pathway Bacteria TNFα, Fibroblasts, Infection, TGFβ Macrophages biofouling Allergy, Large particles, Wound healing, scar Prosthesis integration anaphylaxis Granuloma frustrated phagocytosis Fibrous capsule
  13. 13. DEEP (Drug-releasing Electrode with Enhanced Properties) x+ 0 +x e- A- + x A- x N -x e- N n n H H PPy oxidized form PPy neutral (reduced) form Conducting form Insulating form Stores anions Releases anions
  14. 14. Typical model in bioengineeringWhen the other discipline is supposed to know why projectOr about the importance to convey the unknown Limited knowledge Users need Design & Fabrication Empiricism Basic research Applied research Economy Available device Certifiable product
  15. 15. Neurotech ADNS-300Nerve - Amp Stimulation +
  16. 16. Contributors to the optic nerve prosthesis• Nos volontaires anonymes• Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique – Laboratoire de Microélectronique (DICE) – Génie de la réhabilitation neurale (GREN) – Clinique Universitaires St Luc • Service d’ophtalmologie, de neurochirurgie, d ’ORL – Commission d ’Ethique Hospitalo-Facultaire• Matra Electronique, La Croix Saint Ouen, France• NeuroTech S.A., Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium• CEA Leti, Grenoble, France• ANCL, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA• Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, Barcelona, Spain• Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Neuchâtel, Swisse• Empirica GmbH, Bonn, Allemagne• Norton-Desmarquest S.A., Saint-Gobin, Vincennes, France• BiomeTech S.A., Lyon, France• Service d ’Ophtalmologie de l ’Université de Gand, Belgique• La Commission Européenne (Projets MIVIP et OPTIVIP), la région Wallonne de Belgique, la fondation Alexandre VISION, le Lions club et un donateur anonyme
  17. 17. And later projects …• Ecole Polytechnique de Louvain – PCPM – POLY – ICTM• Faculté de Médecine/MOEX• UCLondon• UGent• UBath• CNRS Lille• AML• It4ip

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