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Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
Unnatural amino acids market research report
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Unnatural amino acids market research report

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Market research report on Unnatural Amino Acids gives an insight into the different types of Unnatural Amino Acids (ß-Amino Acids, ß-Amino Acid Derivatives, Cyclic Amino Acids & Derivatives, D-Amino …

Market research report on Unnatural Amino Acids gives an insight into the different types of Unnatural Amino Acids (ß-Amino Acids, ß-Amino Acid Derivatives, Cyclic Amino Acids & Derivatives, D-Amino Acids, D-Amino Acid Derivatives, DL-Amino Acids, DL-Amino Acid Derivatives, L-Amino Acid Derivatives and Other ) and their application areas such as R&D, Pharmaceutical, Food & Feed, Agrochemicals and Other. The study includes estimations and predictions for 2005 -2020 for the global Unnatural Amino Acids market by type and applications. Regional Analysis is covered separately for North America (United States and Canada); Europe (UK, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, The Netherlands, and Rest of Europe); Asia Pacific (China, Japan, India, South Korea, Australia, and Rest of Asia Pacific); and Rest of World. The text is complemented with graphical representations of 318 exhibits. Business profiles of 62 major companies are discussed in the report. The report serves as a guide to global Unnatural Amino Acids industry covering more than 1100 companies that are engaged in Unnatural Amino Acids R&D, synthesis, discovery, testing and supply of derivatives, products and services. Compilation of Worldwide Patents and Research related to Unnatural Amino Acids is also provided. Information related to industrial activity, corporate developments, research trends, product releases, product developments, partnerships, collaborations, and mergers and acquisitions is also covered in the report.

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  • 1. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 1 UNNATURAL AMINO ACIDS MARKET SIZE Scope of the Study Unnatural amino acids are increasingly growing in research stature for pharmaceuticals, food and feed additives, agrochemicals, and other industrial applications. Some amino acids such as isoleucine, threonine, and hydroxyproline, exhibit second center of asymmetry and hence can exist in four sterioisomeric forms. The growing importance as pharmaceutical intermediates has led to various methods of enantiomerically pure preparation. Currently the pharmaceutical industry has more than 40 peptides and there are more than 100 in a number of clinical phases. Earlier on the pharmaceutical markets did not have too much interest in peptide research but lately they have developed the interesting peptides which are a result of the modern day latest technological developments, strategic growth, progress in the areas of formulation and improved drug delivery technology of peptides. More and more peptide molecules are now being innovated, and developed by researchers, and studied for their therapeutic properties. These drug candidates are being clinically investigated for different types of ailments. Based on the present trends, it may be safely assumed that many biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies will now give more attention to peptide drugs and research on them. This trend is partly due to the fact that both patients and physicians are now accepting and acknowledging the benefits from proteinaceous therapeutics. Scientists have also come up with solutions to the shelf life period of peptide drugs, and delivery problems related to them. Though synthetic peptides formed of natural amino acids dominate applications in a wide variety of fields, it is largely felt that sooner the trend will favor peptides formed of unnatural amino acids. This is because peptides with novel characteristics are possible only by incorporating unnatural amino acids. The novel peptides made of unnatural amino acids open the avenue for designing not only small molecule drugs, but also artificial sweeteners and agrochemicals apart from other applications. Artificial sweeteners are in demand as alternative to sugar [sucrose] especially by people suffering from diabetes or obesity. Alitame is an example of artificial sweetener developed from unnatural amino acid (D-alanine). The pyrethroid insecticide Fluvalinate contains D-valine as a key building block. D-p-Hydroxyphenylglycine is an Important intermediate for the synthesis of penicillin, cephalosporin-type antibiotics including amoxycillin, celadroxil and cefatrizin and other semi-synthetic antibiotics. D-Phenylalanine is used in drugs for depression, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Parkinson's disease, chronic pain, alcohol withdrawal symptoms, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The market for Unnatural amino acid based cancer pharmaceuticals is increasing at the fastest CAGR of 16.44%, to reach US$ 6.41billion from an estimated US$ 2.2 billion in 2012. Though, enormous progress has been achieved in amino acid research, the analytical techniques for determining a more definite and accurate unnatural amino acids have not been achieved. The development of successful analytical methods for free and binding unnatural amino acids will show the way to clarifications in their occurrence and metabolism. The elucidation of physiological roles of unnatural amino acids will unlock a new field in bioscience and biotechnology. This report gives a market insight into the different types of Unnatural Amino Acids (β-Amino Acids, β-
  • 2. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 2 Amino Acid Derivatives, Cyclic Amino Acids & Derivatives, D-Amino Acids, D-Amino Acid Derivatives, DL- Amino Acids, DL-Amino Acid Derivatives, L-Amino Acid Derivatives and Other ) and their application areas such as R&D, Pharmaceutical, Food & Feed, Agrochemicals and Other applications. The study includes estimates and projections for the global Unnatural Amino Acids by type and applications. Regional Analysis is covered separately for North America (United States and Canada); Europe (UK, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, The Netherlands, and Rest of Europe; Asia Pacific (China, Japan, India, South Korea, Australia, and Rest of Asia Pacific); and Rest of World. Business profiles of 62 major companies are discussed in the report. The report serves as a guide to global Unnatural Amino Acids industry covering more than 1100 companies that are engaged in Unnatural Amino Acids R&D, synthesis, discovery, testing and supply of derivatives, products and services. Information related to industrial activity, corporate developments, research trends, product releases, product developments, partnerships, collaborations, and mergers and acquisitions is also covered in the report. Unnatural Amino Acids report is an ideal research tool providing strategic business intelligence to the corporate sector. This report may help strategists, investors, laboratories, pharmaceutical companies, contract research organizations, biotechnology companies and drug approval authorities in--  Gauging Competitive Intelligence  Identifying Key Growth Areas and Opportunities  Understanding Geographic Relevance to Product  Knowing Regional Market Sizes and Growth Opportunities and Restraints  Keeping Tab on Emerging Technologies  Equity Analysis  Tapping New Markets Analytics and data presented in this report pertain to several parameters such as –  Global And Regional Market Sizes, Market Shares, Market Trends  Product (Global And Regional) Market Sizes, Market Shares, Market Trends  Technology Trends  Corporate Intelligence  Key Competitors  Consumer Behavioral Patterns  Other Strategic Business Affecting Data Research Methodology RI Technologies publishes business intelligence reports by going through a cycle of diligent research and analysis activity. Research is done using both online and offline resources. The study outline of this report is sketched on the following lines – global market analysis, regional market analysis, product segmentation, global and regional market analysis by product segment, market trends, M&A, R&D, competitive landscape,
  • 3. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 3 technology trends, and other key drivers. Current data helps in analyzing the future of the industry and is also helpful for doing market evaluations, and estimating the market size for the future. This report is uniquely researched and the methodology includes:  Need and Scope of Study  Product Definitions  Segmental Analysis  Regional Analysis  Exclusive Data Analytics  Corporate Intelligence  Feedback Right from concept to final compilation of this report, both primary and secondary research methods are applied. We have provided exclusive feedback forms/pre-release questionnaires for this report to use the information for authentication of our own findings. Secondary research includes government publications, investment research reports, web based surveys, website information of both companies and markets, and other offline resources such as print publications and CDs. Our compilation of easy to navigate PDF reports are essential value addition resources for leading and growing companies.
  • 4. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 4 2. REPORT SYNOPSIS Unnatural amino acids are increasingly growing in research stature for pharmaceuticals, food and feed additives, agrochemicals, and other industrial applications. Some amino acids such as isoleucine, threonine, and hydroxyproline, exhibit second center of asymmetry and hence can exist in four sterioisomeric forms. The growing importance as pharmaceutical intermediates has led to various methods of enantiomerically pure preparation. Currently the pharmaceutical industry has more than 40 peptides and there are more than 100 in a number of clinical phases. Earlier on the pharmaceutical markets did not have too much interest in peptide research but lately they have developed the interesting peptides which are a result of the modern day latest technological developments, strategic growth, progress in the areas of formulation and improved drug delivery technology of peptides. More and more peptide molecules are now being innovated, and developed by researchers, and studied for their therapeutic properties. These drug candidates are being clinically investigated for different types of ailments. Based on the present trends, it may be safely assumed that many biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies will now give more attention to peptide drugs and research on them. This trend is partly due to the fact that both patients and physicians are now accepting and acknowledging the benefits from proteinaceous therapeutics. Scientists have also come up with solutions to the shelf life period of peptide drugs, and delivery problems related to them. This report gives a market insight into the different types of Unnatural Amino Acids (β-Amino Acids, β- Amino Acid Derivatives, Cyclic Amino Acids & Derivatives, D-Amino Acids, D-Amino Acid Derivatives, DL- Amino Acids, DL-Amino Acid Derivatives, L-Amino Acid Derivatives and Other ) and their application areas such as R&D, Pharmaceutical, Food & Feed, Agrochemicals and Other applications. Segmentation of Unnatural Amino Acids Market Exhibit 1. Segmentation of Unnatural Amino Acids Market by Type and Application Type Application β-Amino Acids Research & Development β-Amino Acid Derivatives Pharmaceutical Cyclic Amino Acids & Derivatives Food & Feed D-Amino Acids Agrochemicals D-Amino Acid Derivatives Other (Biomarkers, Biosensors, Biocatalysts, Cosmetics, etc.) DL-Amino Acids DL-Amino Acid Derivatives L-Amino Acid Derivatives Other Unnatural amino acids and derivatives -Amino Acids & Derivatives, Boc protected Amino Acids, Fmoc Protected Amino Acids, etc.) © RIT, 2013 Global Unnatural Amino Acids market is projected to reach about US$ XX billion by 2020, from an estimated US$ XX billion in 2012, growing at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14.48%, during the analysis period 2011-2020.
  • 5. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 5 Many amino acid derivatives are looked upon as effective drugs for the treatment of disorders such as ulcers, inflammation, liver problems etc. For instance, 4-hydroxyproline is found to be effective in the prevention of cirrhosis of the liver. Similarly, N-acetyl cysteine methyl ester hydrochloride is found to be effective in the treatment of bronchitis. Long chain 2-amino alcohols exhibit cytotoxic, immunosuppressive, and anti-inflammatory properties. Unnatural amino acids also form components of a variety of substances, of which the bulk is constituted by antibiotics. An antibiotic may accommodate unnatural amino acid in its side chain, or it can be a peptide containing one or more unnatural amino acids along with the natural ones. Both β-amino acids and D-amino acids are constituents of several antibiotics. (3S)-β3-lysine is a β-amino acid that forms an important constituent of the antibiotics Streptocrocyn and Streptomycin F. β2-tyrosine is a component of Edeines, which constitute a group of antibiotic peptides. ADDA, chemically known as (2S,3S,4E,6E,8S,9S)-3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4,6-dienoic acid, is a β-amino acid that forms part of the antibiotics such as microcystin, nodularin, and cyanovinfin. D-amino acids form important components of several semi-synthetic antibiotics. D-lysine and D-cysteine are found in some of the ß-lactam antibiotics. D-aspartic acid, D-glutamine, D-ornithine, and D- phenylglycine are unnatural amino acid constituents of the antibiotic Bacitracin-A. D-serine is found in the antibiotic cycloserine meant for the treatment of tuberculosis. D-valine is a constituent of the antibacterial compounds Actinomycin D and Valinomycin. D-phenylalanine is a component of Polymyxin, Gramicidin S, and Tyrocidin A, which are all antibacterial peptides. Exhibit 2. Unnatural Amino Acids - Global Volume Market Estimations & Predictions (2005-2010) in Million Metric Tons Year Volume 2005 XX 2006 XX 2007 XX 2008 XX 2009 XX 2010 XX CAGR% 11.10 © RIT Figures, 2013 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 US$ Million
  • 6. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 6 Exhibit 3. Unnatural Amino Acids - Global Volume Market Estimations & Predictions (2011-2020) in Million Metric Tons Year Volume 2011 XX 2012 XX 2013 XX 2014 XX 2015 XX 2016 XX 2017 XX 2018 XX 2019 XX 2020 XX CAGR% 11.10 © RIT Figures, 2013 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 US$ Million
  • 7. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 7 Exhibit 4. Unnatural Amino Acids - Global Value Market Shares (2008, 2012 & 2020) by Type for D-Amino Acid Derivatives, L-Amino Acid Derivatives, Cyclic Amino Acid & Derivatives, β-Amino Acid Derivatives, D- Amino Acids, β-Amino Acids, DL-Amino Acids, DL-Amino Acid Derivatives and Other Year/ Type D-Amino Acid Derivatives L-Amino Acid Derivatives Cyclic Amino Acid & Derivatives β-Amino Acid Derivatives D-Amino Acids β-Amino Acids DL-Amino Acids DL-Amino Acid Derivatives Other Total 2008 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 100.00 2012 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 100.00 2020 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 100.00 © RIT Figures, 2013 Modern drug discovery research is increasingly experimenting with unnatural amino acids, the non- proteinogenic amino acids, either natural or chemically synthesized. Their unlimited structural diversity and versatile applications are being used as chiral building blocks and molecular scaffolds in building combinatorial libraries. These molecules are powerful ingredients in therapeutic peptidomimetics and are used as molecular probes which can assimilate the biological systems better. They show improved in vivo stability, better potency, oral absorption, tissue distribution, and better and selective responses. Unnatural amino acids are increasingly being used to alter the peptide’s tertiary structure. Drug candidates with side chain modifications meet and match their biological targets. The pharmaceutical industry accounts for almost 80% of chiral market revenues.
  • 8. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 8 3. MARKET DYNAMICS Exhibit 5. Unnatural Amino Acids - Global Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005-2010) by Geographic Region for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in US$ Million Year/Region North America Europe Asia - Pacific Rest of World Total 2005 XX XX XX XX XX 2006 XX XX XX XX XX 2007 XX XX XX XX XX 2008 XX XX XX XX XX 2009 XX XX XX XX XX 2010 XX XX XX XX XX CAGR% XX XX XX XX 14.48 © RIT Figures, 2013 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 US$ Million North America Europe Asia - Pacific Rest of World
  • 9. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 9 Exhibit 6. Unnatural Amino Acids - Global Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2011-2020) by Geographic Region for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in US$ Million Year/Region North America Europe Asia - Pacific Rest of World Total 2011 XX XX XX XX XX 2012 XX XX XX XX XX 2013 XX XX XX XX XX 2014 XX XX XX XX XX 2015 XX XX XX XX XX 2016 XX XX XX XX XX 2017 XX XX XX XX XX 2018 XX XX XX XX XX 2019 XX XX XX XX XX 2020 XX XX XX XX XX CAGR% XX XX XX XX 14.48 © RIT Figures, 2013 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 US$ Million North America Europe Asia - Pacific Rest of World
  • 10. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 10 Exhibit 7. Unnatural Amino Acids - Global Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 - 2010) by Application for R&D, Pharmaceuticals, Food & Feed, Agrochemicals and Other in US$ Million Year/Application Research & Development Pharmaceuticals Food & Feed Agrochemical Other Total 2005 XX XX XX XX XX XX 2006 XX XX XX XX XX XX 2007 XX XX XX XX XX XX 2008 XX XX XX XX XX XX 2009 XX XX XX XX XX XX 2010 XX XX XX XX XX XX CAGR% XX XX XX XX XX 14.48 © RIT Figures, 2013 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 US$ Million Research& Development Pharmaceuticals Food & Feed Agrochemical Other
  • 11. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 11 Exhibit 8. Unnatural Amino Acids - Global Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2011 - 2020) by Application for R&D, Pharmaceuticals, Food & Feed, Agrochemicals and Other in US$ Million Year/Application Research & Development Pharmaceutical Food & Feed Agrochemical Other Total 2011 XX XX XX XX XX XX 2012 XX XX XX XX XX XX 2013 XX XX XX XX XX XX 2014 XX XX XX XX XX XX 2015 XX XX XX XX XX XX 2016 XX XX XX XX XX XX 2017 XX XX XX XX XX XX 2018 XX XX XX XX XX XX 2019 XX XX XX XX XX XX 2020 XX XX XX XX XX XX CAGR% XX XX XX XX XX 14.48 © RIT Figures, 2013 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 US$ Million Research& Development Pharmaceutical Food & Feed Agrochemical Other
  • 12. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 12 Exhibit 9. Unnatural Amino Acids by Disease Treatment - Global Value Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2010) in US$ Million for Neurological Disorders, Cardiovascular, Diabetes, Arthritis, Cancer and Other Year/Disease Neurological Disorders Cardiovascular Diabetes Arthritis Cancer Other Total 2005 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 2006 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 2007 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 2008 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 2009 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 2010 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX CAGR% XX XX XX XX XX XX 15.54 © RIT Figures, 2013 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 US$ Million NeurologicalDisorders Cardiovascular Diabetes Arthritis Cancer Other
  • 13. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 13 Exhibit 10. Unnatural Amino Acids by Disease Treatment - Global Value Market Estimations and Predictions (2011-2020) in US$ Million for Neurological Disorders, Cardiovascular, Diabetes, Arthritis, Cancer and Other Year/Disease Neurological Disorders Cardiovascular Diabetes Arthritis Cancer Other Total 2011 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 2012 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 2013 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 2014 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 2015 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 2016 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 2017 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 2018 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 2019 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 2020 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX CAGR% XX XX XX XX XX XX 15.54 © RIT Figures, 2013 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 US$ Million NeurologicalDisorders Cardiovascular Diabetes Arthritis Cancer Other
  • 14. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 14 Currently the pharmaceutical industry has more than 40 peptides and there are more than 100 in a number of clinical phases. Earlier on the pharmaceutical markets did not have too much interest in peptide research but lately they have developed the interesting peptides which are a result of the modern day latest technological developments, strategic growth, progress in the areas of formulation and improved drug delivery technology of peptides. So there are eight new peptide drugs which have been introduced into the pharmaceutical industry of late. These eight new drugs would have been previously portrayed as being difficult to produce on a large-scale that is required by the pharmaceutical industry. It is because of the latest technological progress that the production of these drugs has been possible. Conventional as well as contemporary methods have been used for the production of these new peptide drugs. The latest achievements along with the conventional advantages of the peptides like high biological activity, low toxicity and high specificity have made the pharmaceutical companies to focus more on peptide based substances. In this way these potential next generation of peptide drugs could help treat a number of grave diseases. Pharmaceutical Intermediates Market Driven by Drug Development and Consolidations Unlike the chemical industry, the Pharmaceutical Intermediates industry is influenced by customer requirements and products for specific applications. Major challenging area in the intermediates market is drug development, which is the major driving force. Once the intermediate is developed it has huge potential applications. Pharmaceutical Intermediate companies are expected to be well equipped with latest technology and sophisticated equipment for the production, in order for pharmaceutical companies to concentrate on drug development and marketing. With the ongoing consolidations in the global pharma industry, pharmaceutical intermediate manufacturers have to rethink about their production strategies due to significant shrinking customer base. Mergers and acquisitions are common strategies for growing companies and this is set to have an indirect impact on the pharmaceutical intermediates market. Overview of Peptide Therapeutics Market Most of the major pharmaceutical companies have gradually expanded their peptide drug base thus contributing to the robust growth of peptide drugs specifically due to enormous progress in synthesis technology, availability of firm support materials, purification techniques, and drug delivery methodologies. The Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) peptide market continued to expand in spite of worldwide economic slowdown as fresh peptide drug candidates emerged from researches and instituted therapeutic peptide projects progressed. The requirement of peptides for research however arose at a slightly slower rate, specifically for peptide libraries that have applications in screening drugs, validating targets, epitope mapping and study of structure-activities. Manufacturers of research-grade peptides in the Western countries are facing stiff competition from the emergent Eastern country manufacturers as the latter are able to offer peptides at lower rates on account of low operating costs. Specifically, Indian and Chinese producers are in advantageous position to provide research peptides in the fast emerging Asian market. Some manufacturers based in Western countries are also installing satellite facilities in Eastern regions to compete.
  • 15. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 15 4. PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH The Emergence of Chiral Drugs Chiral technology has made tremendous progress so much so that it can now be developed with ease. This has been made easier with the increase in chiral analytical techniques that are capable of differentiating between enantiomers either during development of the drug or while monitoring its results in the body. Despite the fact that chiral drugs have been in use much before the arrival of modern medicine, it is only now that chiral drugs in the pharmaceutical industry has gained so much attention. This is largely due to the understanding that enantiomers often show different bioactivity and metabolic fates. In addition there is also a commercial reason where pharmaceutical companies have the chance to extend patent coverage after expiry of patents on racemic drugs. This can take place through the development of the chiral switch enantiomers with suitable bioactivity. The usual protocol on drug design and development involves making the isomer mixtures first after which the preferred isomer is selected. Recently there have been many developments in medicinal chemistry that makes use of automated rapid synthesis. This is based on connecting building blocks in a particular manner and this is combined with automated bioscreening for therapeutic activity and selectivity determination. Information gathered must be exact to validate the use of single isomers. Synthesis of Unnatural Amino Acids In principle, an unnatural amino acid can be produced by procedures such as replacement of hydrogen by fluorine in a ring structure, or phenyl by another resonant ring system, or one kind of heterocyclic ring by another one, or a remnant from the framework of an amino acid by another remnant of one that is analogous in shape and size. Practically all the advantageous amino acid analogues have earlier existed as close structural isomers of amino acids that occur naturally. So far, no efficient analogs of proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, threonine, cysteine, serine or glycine have been accounted for. Probably, the biological sites that are involved in these amino acids are governed by particular size and shape of molecule when compared to amino acids of larger size. Some of the alterations that are performed for the production of anti-metabolites from the larger sized amino acids are not tenable with smaller sized amino acids. This is because the resultant compounds lack appreciable stability as in the case of fluoroglycine or substitution of sulfur for –CH2 within the molecular framework of glutamic acid or threonine. In this regard, the non-existence of proline analog is intriguing, though the occurrence of azetidine-2-carboxylic acid is worth mentioning. Most of the amino acid analogues could be conceived as anti-tumor, antiviral or antimicrobial. The amino acid analogues are regularly subjected to screening to find the possibility of anti metabolite activity to counteract bacteria. These experiments are all documented in detail and are useful for those who want to study the effect of analogues on proliferating bacteria.
  • 16. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 16 Peptide Synthesis Exhibit 11. Peptide Synthesis – Global Value Market Estimations and Predictions (2005 - 2010) in US$ Million for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Year/Region North America Europe Asia-Pacific Rest of World Total 2005 XX XX XX XX XX 2006 XX XX XX XX XX 2007 XX XX XX XX XX 2008 XX XX XX XX XX 2009 XX XX XX XX XX 2010 XX XX XX XX XX CAGR% XX XX XX XX 13.50 © RIT Figures, 2013 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 US$ Million North America Europe Asia - Pacific Rest of World
  • 17. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 17 Exhibit 12. Peptide Synthesis – Global Value Market Estimations and Predictions (2011 - 2020) in US$ Million for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Year/Region North America Europe Asia-Pacific Rest of World Total 2011 XX XX XX XX XX 2012 XX XX XX XX XX 2013 XX XX XX XX XX 2014 XX XX XX XX XX 2015 XX XX XX XX XX 2016 XX XX XX XX XX 2017 XX XX XX XX XX 2018 XX XX XX XX XX 2019 XX XX XX XX XX 2020 XX XX XX XX XX CAGR% XX XX XX XX 13.50 © RIT Figures, 2013 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 US$ Million North America Europe Asia - Pacific Rest of World
  • 18. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 18 Exhibit 13. Unnatural Amino Acids in Pharmaceutical Applications – Global Market Analysis by Region (2005--2010) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Year/Region North America Europe Asia-Pacific Rest of World Total 2005 XX XX XX XX XX 2006 XX XX XX XX XX 2007 XX XX XX XX XX 2008 XX XX XX XX XX 2009 XX XX XX XX XX 2010 XX XX XX XX XX CAGR% XX XX XX XX XX © RIT Figures, 2013 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 US$ Million North America Europe Asia - Pacific Rest of World
  • 19. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 19 Exhibit 14. Unnatural Amino Acids in Pharmaceutical Applications – Global Market Analysis by Region (2011--2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Year/Region North America Europe Asia-Pacific Rest of World Total 2011 XX XX XX XX XX 2012 XX XX XX XX XX 2013 XX XX XX XX XX 2014 XX XX XX XX XX 2015 XX XX XX XX XX 2016 XX XX XX XX XX 2017 XX XX XX XX XX 2018 XX XX XX XX XX 2019 XX XX XX XX XX 2020 XX XX XX XX XX CAGR% XX XX XX XX XX © RIT Figures, 2013 Beta-Lactam (β-lactam) antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics whose molecule has a β-lactam ring at the centre (nucleus). They include a wide class of antibiotics such as penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, and β-lactamase inhibitors β-lactam antibiotics are used for the prevention and the treatment of bacterial infections. 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 US$ Million North America Europe Asia - Pacific Rest of World
  • 20. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 20 Treatment of Other Disorders Fertility problems Nafarelin contains the unnatural amino acid D-2-Naphthylalanine as a constituent. This drug is a GnRH agonist. Nafarelin can be used in the treatment of estrogen-dependent conditions like endometriosis or uterine fibroids, to treat central precocious puberty, and also to control ovarian stimulation in IVF. It is normally delivered via a nasal spray. Nafarelin acetate is marketed by Searle unit of Pfizer under the brand name Synarel. Cetrorelix is another drug meant for correcting the problems of uterine fibroids and endometriosis in women. It is also useful in the treatment of hypertrophy of prostate gland in men. This drug is a decapeptide consisting of D-amino acids. Its chemical composition is acetyl-D-3-(2´-naphtyl)-alanine- D-4- chlorophenylalanine-D-3-(3´-pyridyl)- alanine-L-serine-L-tyrosine-D-citruline-L- leucine-L-arginine-L-proline- D- alanine-amide. This drug is marketed worldwide in the name of Cetrotide by Merck for using in IVF. But in Japan the market right for this drug is held by Shionogi and Nippon Kayaku in Japan. Acyline and its Potential as a Contraceptive Medicine Acyline is considered as one of the most popular and potential GnRH antagonists used as a contraceptive and reproductive drug in human beings. Acyline is a peptide and was first successfully synthesized and patented by the Salk Institute for Biological Studies financially supported by NICHD. Some of the major structural changes have been incorporated in GnRH by replacing the natural amino acids with the unnatural amino acids. The best example in this regard is the replacement of D-amino acids in the place of unnatural L-amino acids. Scientists have been involved in carrying out intensive studies using Acyline. The early clinical results on administering a dose of 300 ug / kg in male human being have indicated a reduction in testosterone levels for two weeks without any visible side effects. Exhibit 15. Therapeutic Products Containing Unnatural Amino Acids Drugs /Compound Unnatural Amino Acids Indication Trade Name(s) Nateglinide D-Phenylalanine Derivatives Type 2 diabetes Starlix L-DOPA D- Phenylalanine Parkinson's Disease and Dopamine- responsive dystonia (DRD) Levodopa; Sinemet, Parcopa, Atamet, Stalevo, Madopar, Prolopa Enalapril L-Homophenylalanine, D- serine Hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure VASOTEC, Renitec Octreotide D-Tryptophan treatment of acromegaly, the treatment of diarrhea and flushing episodes associated with carcinoid syndrome, and treatment of diarrhea in patients with vasoactive intestinal peptide- secreting tumors (VIPomas). Sandostatin Leuprolide D-Leucine Prostate & Breast Cancer Viadur, Eligard, Lupron More………
  • 21. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 21 Alitame Alitame is a food additive and an artificial strong sweeter, having 2000 times higher sweetness than sucrose. Its N- terminal end is substituted with tetramethylthietanyl-amine moiety. It is a dipeptide composed of L-aspartic acid and D-alanine. Production of alitame involves multiple steps among two intermediate substances - (S)-[2,5-dioxo- (4-thiazolidine)] acetic acid and (R)-2-amino-N- (2,2,4,4- tetramethyl-3-thietanyl) propanamide. Exhibit 16. Global Market for Alitame (2009-2020) in US$ million Year/Country China Australia RoW Total 2009 XX XX XX XX 2010 XX XX XX XX 2011 XX XX XX XX 2012 XX XX XX XX 2013 XX XX XX XX 2014 XX XX XX XX 2015 XX XX XX XX 2016 XX XX XX XX 2017 XX XX XX XX 2018 XX XX XX XX 2019 XX XX XX XX 2020 XX XX XX XX CAGR% XX XX XX XX © RIT Figures, 2013 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 US$ Million China Australia RoW
  • 22. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 22 Fluvalinate Tau-fluvalinate earlier known as “Fluvalinate,” a racemic fluvalinate range, originally included four diastereoisomers. In 1994, the product gained its name tau-fluvalinate which included only two insecticidally active diastereoisomers. Wellmark International, the manufacturer of tau-fluvalinate emphasized much on the partially resolved version instead of racemic fluvalinate registration. Fluvalinate is a type of artificial pyrethroid. This compound is made from D-Valine, a D- Amino acid. UNNATURAL AMINO ACIDS – MARKET OUTLOOK There are certain therapeutic areas that have unmet medical needs. One of them pertains to the disorders associated with CNS. Another area of interest will be the development of novel drugs and vaccines against viral diseases like AIDS, swine flu, avian flu, and so on. HIV infection is pandemic with 33.4 million people living with this disease as per the latest statistics taken in 2008. Of these South Saharan Africa alone accounts for 22.4 million, and next comes South East Asia with HIV affected people amounting to 3.8 million. Enfuvirtide [T-20] was approved by FDA for treatment of AIDS and marketed by Trimeris and Roche in the trade name of Fuzeon. This is a short peptide. Development of anti-HIV peptide drugs is one of the attractive areas open for companies keen on plunging into the pharmaceutical market. Development of selective peptide receptor ligands with orally administered drug properties has progressed rapidly in the past decade. However, the prime problem is devising of proper structure for decisive balance of optimal pharmacological (e.g. receptor binding) and optimal pharmaceutical properties (e.g. membrane permeability and metabolic stability). Non-natural amino acids are accepted major tool to prepare peptide ligand mimetics with superior biological activity and proteolytic resistance. Unnatural Amino Acids market is a rapidly growing market in the intermediates sector. Majority of the products utilizing these compounds are pharmaceutical intermediates (β-Lactam Antibiotics). Asia-Pacific region is acquiring lead position in global pharmaceuticals market with the balance gradually shifting from the US and Europe to Asia-Pacific. With high growths in China, India and Singapore, the region is becoming the largest global pharmaceuticals market. International pharmaceutical companies are setting up facilities in the region and the regional pharmaceutical companies are acquiring international market share. ………………………………………………………….. About RI Technologies RI Technologies is a premier source of market research on the Biotechnology & Healthcare sector. We
  • 23. RITMIR027: Unnatural Amino Acids – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 23 emphasize on factual insights and forecasts with maximum global coverage. RI Technologies is constantly monitoring the biotechnology & Healthcare industry, tracking market trends, and forecasting industry based on specialized analysis. The life sciences sector is an ever growing marketplace with emerging technologies in areas of discovery, design and development. Research – As Good as the Methodology is!  Gauging Competitive Intelligence  Identifying Key Growth Areas and Opportunities  Understanding Geographic Relevance to Product  Knowing Regional Market Sizes and Growth Opportunities and Restraints  Keeping Tab on Emerging Technologies  Equity Analysis  Tapping New Markets © COPYRIGHT The copyright and publication rights to all RI Technologies' reports and other products are the property of the company. Plagiarism of any kind accounts to violation of copyright laws. Any type of reproduction of the material without express permission is not allowed. The buyer, under no circumstances, shall license, resell or repackage, or sell data without prior permission of the company. DISCLAIMER RI Technologies sells content in good faith. The company is not liable to the buyer for any implications arising out of the usage of data for any particular purpose. The company makes no representations or warranties for the accuracy or completeness of the data. While extreme caution and effort is practiced for data compilation and presentation, the company does not accept any responsibility for findings in the study which are a cumulative effort of primary and secondary research resources. The studies do not endorse or promote any product or company. RI Technologies, its affiliates, partners, distributors, and contractors are not liable for inaccuracies or incompleteness of the reports. User discretion is recommended for the usage of the data.

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