ethanol for gas| ethanol in blood | Market research

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This report on Ethanol gives a market insight into the ever progressing and debatable market of Ethanol segmented by application and source. Applications of ethanol include Fuel, Alcoholic Beverages Industrial and Other; by Source into Sugarcane, Corn and Other. Both value and volume projections and estimations are graphically illustrated by geographic regions encompassing North America, Brazil, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World. Business profiles of 20+ major companies are discussed in the report. The report serves as a guide to global Ethanol industry covering more than 250 companies that are engaged in ethanol production, processing, distribution, and research & development. Major Contract Research Organizations and Universities serving the industry are also covered in the Corporate Directory section of this report. Information related to recent product releases, product developments, partnerships, collaborations, mergers and acquisitions, ethical issues, regulatory affairs, and other areas of concern is also covered in the report. Compilation of Worldwide Patents and Research related to Ethanol is also provided.

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ethanol for gas| ethanol in blood | Market research

  1. 1. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 1 ETHANOL MARKET SIZE Scope of the Study This report on Ethanol gives a market insight into the market of Ethanol segmented by application and source. Applications of ethanol include Fuel, Alcoholic Beverages, Industrial and Other; by Source into Sugarcane, Corn and Other. Both value and volume projections and estimations are graphically illustrated by geographic regions encompassing North America, Brazil, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World. Business profiles of 20+ major companies are discussed in the report. The report serves as a guide to global Ethanol industry covering more than 250 companies that are engaged in ethanol production, processing, distribution, and research & development. Major Contract Research Organizations and Universities serving the industry are also covered in the Corporate Directory section of this report. Information related to recent product releases, product developments, partnerships, collaborations, mergers and acquisitions, ethical issues, regulatory affairs, and other areas of concern is also covered in the report. Compilation of Worldwide Patents and Research related to Ethanol is also provided. Ethanol report is an ideal research tool providing strategic business intelligence to the corporate sector. This report may help strategists, investors, laboratories, pharmaceutical companies, contract research organizations, biotechnology companies and drug approval authorities in--  Gauging Competitive Intelligence  Identifying Key Growth Areas and Opportunities  Understanding Geographic Relevance to Product  Knowing Regional Market Sizes and Growth Opportunities and Restraints  Keeping Tab on Emerging Technologies  Equity Analysis  Tapping New Markets Analytics and data presented in this report pertain to several parameters such as –  Global and Regional Market Sizes, Market Shares, Market Trends  Product (Global and Regional) Market Sizes, Market Shares, Market Trends  Technology Trends  Corporate Intelligence  Key Companies by Sales, Brands, Products  Consumer Behavioral Patterns  Other Strategic Business Affecting Data
  2. 2. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 2 Research Methodology RI Technologies publishes business intelligence reports by going through a cycle of diligent research and analysis activity. Research is done using both online and offline resources. The study outline of this report is sketched on the following lines – global market analysis, regional market analysis, product segmentation, global and regional market analysis by product segment, market trends, M&A, R&D, competitive landscape, technology trends, and other key drivers. Current data helps in analyzing the future of the industry and is also helpful for doing market evaluations, and estimating the market size for the future. This report is uniquely researched and the methodology includes:  Need and Scope of Study  Product Definitions  Segmental Analysis  Regional Analysis  Exclusive Data Analytics  Corporate Intelligence  Feedback Right from concept to final compilation of this report, both primary and secondary research methods are applied. We have provided exclusive feedback forms/pre-release questionnaires for this report to use the information for authentication of our own findings. Secondary research includes government publications, investment research reports, web based surveys, website information of both companies and markets, and other offline resources such as print publications and CDs. Our compilation of easy to navigate PDF reports are essential value addition resources for leading and growing companies.
  3. 3. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 3 II. REPORT SYNOPSIS Ethanol or ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol is physically a clear substance with an odor and a taste. Ethanol is volatile i.e., evaporates quickly and is inflammable. It is miscible in water and other organic substances. Generally ethanol available on a commercial scale has 95 percent ethanol and about 5 percent water. The conversion of this and similar solutions to pure ethanol could be brought about by using dehydrating substances. The simple alcohols such as ethanol and methanol bring about denaturation and also make a compound inert. So these could be used as anti-microbial agents in pharmacy, medicines and in industry. They are employed in explosives, perfume manufacturing industries, medicines and also form an essential ingredient of liquor. The ethanol manufactured is not entirely used for consumption. Some parts of ethanol are denatured. The denatured ethanol is not fit for human consumption as it may contain poisonous substances. Generally, denaturation is done to avoid excise duty. Alcoholic beverages, alcohol fit for human consumption, is taxed hence ethanol is denatured to avoid tax. Denatured alcohol is used as a raw material in the manufacture of rubber, varnishes, automotive fuel or as an additive in automotive fuels. When automotive fuel is made from crops such as sugarcane or corn, the fuel is termed as a bio-fuel. The consumption of ethanol is harmful for the human body. The alcohol consumed enters into the blood stream and then to the brain to bring about its affect. The body reacts by removing ethanol through liver by converting to acetaldehyde. The manufacture of ethanol is time consuming and complicated and takes as much time for the body to eliminate. There is a definite limit to the amount of alcohol that could be eliminated by the body and if a person keeps on consuming, the body would not be able to eliminate fast enough, thereby making the effect noticeable in the person’s behavior. Segmentation of Ethanol Market Exhibit 1. Segmentation of Global Ethanol Market by Source and Application Source Application Sugarcane Fuel Corn Alcoholic Beverages Other Industrial Other © RIT, 2013 The fermentation of sugar into ethanol is among the first biotechnologies developed by mankind and the inebriating effects of drinking ethanol have been familiar to humans since primeval period. Ethanol was used by people of bygone era as part of alcoholic drinks for causing intoxication. Dried-up remnants in 9000 year old pottery discovered in China suggest that Neolithic people drank alcoholic liquors. The first account relating to the production of alcohol by distillation of wine was documented by the School of Salerno alchemists in the 12th century, though distillation process was quite familiar to the ancient
  4. 4. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 4 Greeks and Arabs. Raymond Lull was the first to report about ‘absolute alcohol’ as opposed to alcohol- water blend. Ethanol has been in existence as Moonshine Whiskey since 15th Century not only as a drink but also as a fuel. In 1796, Johann Tobias Lowitz got pure ethanol by filtering purified ethanol through activated charcoal. Antoine Lavoisier explained ethanol as a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and in 1808 Nicolas- Théodore de Saussure established the chemical formula of ethanol. After five decades, Archibald Scott Couper circulated the formula explaining the structure of ethanol that was among the first structural formulae to be established. In 1826, Henry Hennel in Great Britain and S.G Sérullas in France individually produced ethanol artificially. Michael Faraday produced ethanol in 1828 through ‘acid-catalyzed hydration’ method, comparable with the present production of ethanol on industrial-scale. Ethanol was utilized as fuel for lighting lamps in the United States as far back as 1840. However, as a tax was imposed on industrial alcohol during the Civil war, this usage was not found practical. This tax was however abolished in 1906. Ford Motor Company was the first one to use ‘ethanol corn alcohol gasoline’ as fuel to power its first car, The Model I. However, this continued only up to 1908. With the introduction of Prohibition in 1920, vendors of ethanol fuel were charged of being in league with ‘Moonshiners’ and ethanol as a fuel was abandoned until late 20th century.
  5. 5. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 5 Global Market Analysis Value Market Global value market for Ethanol is projected to reach about US$ XX.XX billion by 2020, from an estimated value of US$ XX.XX billion in 2012, growing at a moderate compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of XX.XX % during the analysis period 2005-2020. Exhibit 2. Ethanol – Global Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 -2020) in US$ Billion Year Value 2005 XX.XX 2006 XX.XX 2007 XX.XX 2008 XX.XX 2009 XX.XX 2010 XX.XX 2011 XX.XX 2012 XX.XX 2013 XX.XX 2014 XX.XX 2015 XX.XX 2016 XX.XX 2017 XX.XX 2018 XX.XX 2019 XX.XX 2020 XX.XX CAGR% XX.XX © RIT Figures, 2013 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 US$ Billion
  6. 6. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 6 Volume market Global volume market for Ethanol is projected to reach about XX.XX billion liters by 2020, from an estimated volume of XX.XX billion liters in 2012, growing at a moderate compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of XX.XX % during the analysis period 2005-2020. Exhibit 3. Ethanol – Global Volume Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 -2020) in Billion Liters Year Volume 2005 XX.XX 2006 XX.XX 2007 XX.XX 2008 XX.XX 2009 XX.XX 2010 XX.XX 2011 XX.XX 2012 XX.XX 2013 XX.XX 2014 XX.XX 2015 XX.XX 2016 XX.XX 2017 XX.XX 2018 XX.XX 2019 XX.XX 2020 XX.XX CAGR% XX.XX © RIT Figures, 2013 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 US$ Billion
  7. 7. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 7 III. MARKET DYNAMICS Global Ethanol Market The Global Ethanol market is estimated at US$ XX.XX million in 2012. Registering a CAGR of XX.XX % during the analysis period, the market is projected to be worth US$ XX.XX million by 2020. With an estimated market share of XX.XX % in 2012, the North America represents the largest market for Ethanol with market worth US$ XX.XX million. The North America is projected to reach US$ XX.XX million by 2020 by growing at a CAGR of XX.XX % during 2005-2020 to retain the leadership. Exhibit 4. Ethanol - Global Value Market Estimations and Predictions (2005 -2020) by Geographic Region for North America, Brazil, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in US$ Million Year/Region North America Brazil Europe Asia-Pacific RoW Total 2005 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2006 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2007 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2008 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2009 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2010 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2011 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2012 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2013 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2014 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2015 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2016 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2017 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2018 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2019 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2020 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX CAGR% XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX © RIT Figures, 2013 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 US$ Million North America Brazil Europe Asia-Pacific RoW
  8. 8. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 8 Exhibit 5. Ethanol - Global Value Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Geographic Region for North America, Brazil, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in US$ Million Year/Region North America Brazil Europe Asia-Pacific RoW Total 2010 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2015 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2020 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX CAGR% XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX © RIT Figures, 2013
  9. 9. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 9 Global Fuel Ethanol Market Value Market Worldwide market for Ethanol as fuel was reported at US$ XX.XX billion in 2012 and is forecast to touch US$ XX.XX billion in 2020. The market is expected to grow at a CAGR of XX.XX % during the period 2005- 2020. North America is projected to be the largest market with a value of US$ XX.XX billion in 2020, while Brazil takes the second place with a market worth US$ XX.XX billion. Asia – Pacific is projected to register the fastest growth rate during the analysis period with a CAGR of XX.XX % of total fuel ethanol market by 2020. Exhibit 6. Ethanol as Fuel - Global Value Market Estimations and Predictions (2005 -2020) by Geographic Region for North America, Brazil, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in US$ Million Year/Region North America Brazil Europe Asia-Pacific RoW Total 2005 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2006 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2007 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2008 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2009 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2010 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2011 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2012 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2013 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2014 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2015 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2016 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2017 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2018 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2019 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2020 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX CAGR% XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX © RIT Figures, 2013
  10. 10. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 10 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 US$ Million North America Brazil Europe Asia-Pacific RoW
  11. 11. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 11 Exhibit 7. Ethanol as Fuel - Global Value Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Geographic Region for North America, Brazil, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in US$ Million Year/Region North America Brazil Europe Asia-Pacific RoW Total 2010 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2015 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2020 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX CAGR% XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX © RIT Figures, 2013
  12. 12. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 12 Volume Market Worldwide market for Ethanol as fuel was reported at XX.XX billion liters in 2012 and is forecast to touch XX.XX billion liters in 2020. The market is expected to grow at a CAGR of XX.XX % during the period 2005- 2020. North America is projected to be the largest market with a volume of XX.XX billion liters, while Brazil takes the second place with a market worth XX.XX billion liters in 2020. Asia – Pacific is projected to register the fastest growth rate during the analysis period with a CAGR of XX.XX % of total fuel ethanol market by 2020. Exhibit 8. Ethanol as Fuel - Global Volume Market Estimations and Predictions (2005 -2020) by Geographic Region for North America, Brazil, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in Million Liters Year/Region North America Brazil Europe Asia-Pacific RoW Total 2005 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2006 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2007 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2008 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2009 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2010 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2011 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2012 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2013 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2014 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2015 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2016 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2017 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2018 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2019 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2020 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX CAGR% XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX © RIT Figures, 2013
  13. 13. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 13 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 US$ Million North America Brazil Europe Asia-Pacific RoW
  14. 14. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 14 Exhibit 9. Ethanol as Fuel - Global Volume Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Geographic Region for North America, Brazil, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in Million Liters Year/Region North America Brazil Europe Asia-Pacific RoW Total 2010 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2015 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX 2020 XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX CAGR% XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX XX.XX © RIT Figures, 2013 Exhibit 10. List of Global Major Companies S. No Company Region Website 1 Chemtex Group USA www.chemtex.com 2 Ace Ethanol LLC USA www.aceethanol.com 3 Adkins Energy LLC USA www.adkinsenergy.com 4 Abengoa Bioenergy Corporation USA www.abengoabioenergy.com 5 Glacial Lakes Energy, LLC USA www.glaciallakesenergy.com 6 Cargill, Inc. USA www.cargill.com 7 Iogen Corporation Canada www.iogen.ca 8 KL Energy Brazil ---- More… © RIT, 2013 ETHANOL – THE OUTLOOK During the last decade, the global ethanol market witnessed an important development mainly due to its fuel sector supported by the majority of the national governments (as an important substitute to gasoline used in transport). Ban on gasoline, increase in crude oil prices, and increased green house gas emissions are boosting the demand in the end-usage market. Being considered as a renewable fuel, demand for ethanol is expected to further increase in the coming years. The United Sates and Brazil together hold about 90% of the global ethanol market…..
  15. 15. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 15 IV. PRODUCT/TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH Ethanol is extensively used as gasoline these days as fuel and can effectively decrease reliance on imports of petroleum products, besides contributing to a significant drop in greenhouse gas emissions. It is an alcohol-derived fuel produced through fermentation and distillation of starch-based crops such as corn. ‘Cellulosic biomass’, namely trees and grass can also be used as raw materials for producing ethanol. Ethanol is marketed as E85, a gasoline and ethanol mix in proportions of ethanol ranging from 51% to 83% on the basis of geographical location and season. E85 is deemed as a substitute fuel under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and can be utilized in vehicles that run on different types of fuel. The terminology, ethanol is the precise definition given by the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) for a classification in the organic chemistry of a molecule with two atoms of carbon, consisting only one link between them that is OH group. Ethanol (ethyl alcohol, ‘grain alcohol’) is a transparent, pale fluid with a typical, pleasant smell in thin ‘aqueous solution’. Although it has rather a sweet taste, concentrated liquids, however, taste very strong. Ethanol was produced even in prehistoric periods by the fermentation of sugars. The total ethanol drink and over half of industrial ethanol are still produced by this method with plain sugars as the basic raw material. Zymase, an enzyme derived from yeast converts the sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Physical Properties Ethanol is an inflammable, colorless fluid and has a mild smell. It ignites with a smokeless blue flame, which is not ordinarily noticeable in usual light. A unit of hydroxyl is present in ethanol. In addition, ethanol has a smaller length of carbon chain. These features broadly explain its physical attributes. The hydroxyl element of ethanol is capable of contributing to ‘hydrogen bonding’, making it stickier and less combustible than comparatively less ‘polar organic compounds’ of comparable molecular weight. Ethanol is a little more ‘refractive’ than water. Solvent Properties Ethanol is a multi-purpose solvent, capable of completely mixing with water and several organic compounds to form a homogenous solution (miscible), including acetic acid, acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethylene glycol, glycerol, nitromethane, pyridine and toluene. It is also miscible with soft ‘aliphatic hydrocarbons’, for example pentane and hexane and with aliphatic chlorides like trichloroethane and tetrachloroethylene. Ethanol’s property of miscibility with water is just the opposite of the immiscibility characteristic of longer-chain alcohols consisting of five or more carbon atoms and the ability to mix with water reduces drastically as the number of carbon atoms increases. The miscibility of ethanol with alkanes is restricted to undecane, combinations with dodecane and higher alkanes. This indicates its capacity to mix only below a specific temperature, for example around 13º C for dodecane. The miscibility disparity is likely to get extended with higher alkanes and consequently, the
  16. 16. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 16 temperature required for total miscibility also rises. The proportions of miscibility of ethanol and water have less volume than the total of their separate constituents at the specific divisions. When the same volumes of ethanol and water are mixed, it leads to only 1.92 volumes of the total blend. Blending of ethanol and water is exothermic; it releases energy in the form of heat. The combination of ethanol and water constitutes an ‘azeotrope’ (a mixture of two liquids in such a proportion that its composition cannot be altered by distillation) at around 89 mole % of ethanol and 11 mole % of water (20) or a blend of 96% volume of ethanol and 4 % of water at normal pressure with temperature at 351 Kelvin (K). This azeotropic structure is solidly dependent on temperature as well as pressure and disappears at temperatures less than 303 K Hydrogen attached to concentrated ethanol at -186º C results in pure ethanol to become so ’hydroscopic’ that it promptly absorbs water from the surrounding air. The polar quality of the hydroxyl unit induces ethanol to melt various ionic compounds, primarily sodium and potassium hydroxides, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, ammonium chloride, ammonium bromide and sodium bromide. Sodium and potassium chlorides are also somewhat soluble in ethanol. As ethanol molecule also consists of a non-polar element, it will also melt non-polar materials, including most critical oils and many flavoring, coloring and medicinal ingredients. Adding a small proportion of ethanol to water decreases quickly the ‘surface tension’ of water. To cite an example, when wine is whirled in a glass, ethanol disappears rapidly from the thin coating of wine on the wall of the glass. With the reduction of ethanol, wine’s surface tension goes up and the thin film converts into ‘beads’ along the walls of the glass instead of a flat layer. This occurrence is often described as the ‘tears of wine’. The blend of ethanol and water consisting of over 50% of ethanol is highly combustible and it rapidly catches fire. ‘Alcohol proof’ is an extensively used measure of how much alcohol or ethanol is contained in the liquor. This measurement of alcohol content or alcohol proof came into being in the 18th century. In order to measure the extent of alcohol, the beverage was added to gunpowder. If the gunpowder was still ablaze, it denoted ‘100 degrees proof’ and the liquor was considered a fine liquor. A mixture of ethanol and water consisting of below 50 % of ethanol may also be combustible, if the liquid is heated first. A few wine making processes require pouring of wine into a hot pan, setting it ablaze and turning into fumes, which are then lighted to burn out extra alcohol……………… About RI Technologies RI Technologies is a premier source of market research on the Biotechnology & Healthcare sector. We emphasize on factual insights and forecasts with maximum global coverage. RI Technologies is constantly monitoring the biotechnology & Healthcare industry, tracking market trends, and forecasting industry based on specialized analysis. The life sciences sector is an ever growing marketplace with emerging technologies in areas of discovery, design and development. Research – As Good as the Methodology is!  Gauging Competitive Intelligence
  17. 17. RITMIR038: Ethanol – A Market Insight Report, July 2013 © RI Technologies - www.researchimpact.com Sample Page - 17  Identifying Key Growth Areas and Opportunities  Understanding Geographic Relevance to Product  Knowing Regional Market Sizes and Growth Opportunities and Restraints  Keeping Tab on Emerging Technologies  Equity Analysis  Tapping New Markets © COPYRIGHT The copyright and publication rights to all RI Technologies' reports and other products are the property of the company. Plagiarism of any kind accounts to violation of copyright laws. Any type of reproduction of the material without express permission is not allowed. The buyer, under no circumstances, shall license, resell or repackage, or sell data without prior permission of the company. DISCLAIMER RI Technologies sells content in good faith. The company is not liable to the buyer for any implications arising out of the usage of data for any particular purpose. The company makes no representations or warranties for the accuracy or completeness of the data. While extreme caution and effort is practiced for data compilation and presentation, the company does not accept any responsibility for findings in the study which are a cumulative effort of primary and secondary research resources. The studies do not endorse or promote any product or company. RI Technologies, its affiliates, partners, distributors, and contractors are not liable for inaccuracies or incompleteness of the reports. User discretion is recommended for the usage of the data.

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