Lecture By: Robert Rennie(Graduate Teaching Assistant: The University of Tennessee)
The U.S. Before The Great War: 1900-1914 U.S. as Industrial PowerUnited States manufactures 1/3 of world’s Era of Interventiongoods. U.S. increasingly involved in internationalThe United States is on the verge of affairs.becoming a World Power. U.S. Marines land in Caribbean countriesRoosevelt Corollary twenty times between 1900-1920. United States has a right to exercise “International Police Powers.” Dollar Diplomacy and Moral Imperialism Ignores Monroe Doctrine. Use of trade and investment to further diplomatic aims. Groundwork for U.S. Foreign Policy to this day. Democracy = Capitalism and Trade for American companies.
The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand ignites underlyingtensions created by…An entangling “Alliance System.”Austro-Hungarian aggression.Colonial Expansion and a Military Arms Race.Franco-Russian Alliance.German-Austro-Hungarian Alliance.Exacting, Inflexible Military Planning: The Schlieffen Plan / Plan XVII.Overpowering Currents of Nationalism and Ethnic Identity.
American “Neutrality…”President Wilson re-elected onplatform of “He kept us out of the Unrestricted Germanwar.” Submarine Warfare.The United States loans money to Sinking of the Lusitania.England and France during the war. Interception of theAmerican civilians divided. Zimmerman Note.Lusitania and Zimmerman Note. United States Declares War: April 2, 1917.
Russian Collapse•Combat is more fluid in the Revolution of 1917East – Trenches never truly Russian Economy neardevelop collapse.•High causalities: Russian Bolshevik agitators fuelDead: 682,213 German Dead: unrest at home.1,150,000 November 29, 1917:•War wears down Russian Communist Bolsheviksmorale. take power.•Unrest with Czarist Russia withdraws fromGovernment increases. war: March 1918 (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk).
Wilson’s Fourteen Points…Wilson’s idea of a new Self-Determinationinternational order. Freedom of the SeasStrictly an American Idea. Not Open Diplomacyendorsed by the Allies. Free Trade Colonial ReadjustmentProgressive Ideals. League of NationsUnited States fails to ratify theFourteen Points.
The Treaty of Versailles…•The Treaty of Versailles officially Germany Assignedended World War I… “War Guilt.” (Ar.231)•Wilson’s Fourteen Points Not FullyRealized. German War•Establishes the League of Reparations.Nations: The forerunner to the German Military PowerUnited Nations. Destroyed.•Self-Determination “Stillborn.” “Stab in the Back.”•Reshapes European Continent.•Creates Seething Discontent that A Second World War inwill Spark World War II. a Generation.
Why World War I Matters…World War I signaled the end of the 37,000,000 Military andVictorian Era and the Old Order. Civilian Causalities.It creates the world we now live in. 16,000,000 Deaths.International Trouble In… Iraq, 21,000,000 WoundedAfghanistan, the Balkans, theMiddle East. 9 in 10 French Soldiers killed or maimed.Even the Cold War finds its roots inThe Great War. 100,000 U.S. Casualties in 10 months.
Let’s Not Forget the Spanish Flu: Kills 50-100 Million People!Worldwide!
A Destructive Decade… Germany virtually 40,000,000 Dead or destroyed. Wounded in The Great War. European Monarchies Extinct. 50 – 100,000,000 Die in Spanish Flu Pandemic of 1918.
A Tumultuous Decade… Repression of Liberty. Eugenics. Americanization. Racial and Ethnic Discrimination.
A Transformative Decade… European World Order The United States: Transformed. World Power. European economy in Victorious in The Great turmoil. War.