Chemistry to life

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  • 1. Unit I Part II: From Chemistry to Life A. Atomic Theory
    • Atoms are building blocks of elements
  • 2. 1. Subatomic Particles Particle Symbol Charge Relative Mass Electron e - 1- 0 Proton p + + 1 Neutron n 0 1 a. Atomic Number
    • Counts the number of protons in an atom
  • 3. b. Periodic Table
    • Represents physical and chemical behavior of elements
    • Arranges elements by increasing atomic number
    • Repeats similar properties in columns known as chemical families or groups
  • 4. Atomic Number on the Periodic Table
    • 11
    • Na
    Atomic Number Symbol All atoms of an element have the same number of protons 11 protons
  • 5. c. Number of Electrons
    • An atom is neutral
    • The net charge is zero
    • Number of protons = Number of electrons
    • Atomic number = Number of electrons
    d. Mass Number Counts the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
  • 6.  
  • 7. e. Isotopes
    • Atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons.
    • Atoms of the same element (same atomic number) with different mass numbers
    • Isotopes of chlorine
    • 35 Cl 37 Cl
    • 17 17
    • chlorine - 35 chlorine - 37
  • 8. f. Radioactive (decay) Isotopes
    • They change their chemical identity as they shed particles and emit high-energy radiation.
    • They decay until they become lighter and stable.
    • This rate they decay at is the half-life
  • 9.
    • Electrically charged atoms made by gaining or losing electrons
    g. Ions h. Molecules
    • Combination of 2 or more atoms O 2
    i. Compound
    • A molecule composed of atoms of 2 or more different elements H 2 O, Co 2
  • 10.
    • Atoms share electrons
    j. Covalent Bond k. Polar Covalent Bonds l. Ionic Bonds
    • (Water) 1 attracts the electrons more than the other (Oxygen)
    • When electron is transferred from one atom to another
    • Creates ionic compounds (salts)
  • 11.
    • Homogeneous mixtures (don’t chemically combine)
    • Usually associated with liquids but also happens in the air
    m. Solutions n. Water Molecules
    • Able to support life because of it’s chemical properties
    • Strong cohesion
    • High specific heat
    • Expands when freezing
    • Bond well with polar molecules
  • 12.
    • Determine acidity, a small amount of water molecules separate forming a hydrogen (H + ) ion and a hydroxide (OH - ) ion.
    • Pure water contains equal numbers of each making it neutral (10 -7 )
    • Greater H + is acidic and greater OH - is basic
    • pH less than 7 = acidic
    • pH greater than 7 = basic
    1) Hydrogen Ions
  • 13.
    • An organic compound is one that has carbon as the principal element. Carbon’s ability to build big molecules results in millions of different organic compounds.
    • An inorganic element is any compound that is not an organic compound.
    • a. Hydrocarbons- consist of only hydrogen and carbon (crude oil and petroleum)
    • 1) Methane = simplest hydrocarbon and is the key component of natural gas.
    • 2) smallest = gas, Larger = liquids, largest = solids
    B. Matter
  • 14. C. Macromolecules
    • Proteins- some provide structure, produce tissues, store energy, defend organisms, and some transport substances, and also serve as enzymes.
    • Nucleic Acids- DNA and RNA- carry hereditary information.
    • Carbohydrates- sugars (monosaccharide) provides energy that fuels plant and animal cells
    • Lipids- do not dissolve in water.
      • Fats and oils- store energy and release it when burned
      • Phospholipids- one side attracted to water other side is not so forms cell membranes
      • Waxes- structural roles (bee’s wax)
      • Steroids- produce hormones
  • 15. D. Synthetic Polymers
    • Human made polymers are plastics
      • They resist chemical breakdown
      • Products make our lives easier because of this but also have long term effects on the environment.
  • 16. EUKARYOTIC CELL
  • 17. E. Energy Fundamentals
    • Energy- intangible, can change the position, physical composition, or temperature of matter.
    • Types: Potential, Kinetic
      • a. Chemical energy – potential energy held in the bonds between atoms.
  • 18. 3. Laws of thermodynamics
    • First law- energy can change form but not be created or destroyed
    • Second law- the nature of energy will change from a more-ordered state to a less-ordered state if no force intervenes.
    4. Light Energy
    • Sun is primary energy source for all life
    • Autotrophs are primary producers
      • Photosynthesis produces food for plants and animals
      • Cellular respiration occurs because organisms use the chemical energy created by photosynthesis.
  • 19. 5. Geothermal Energy
    • Powered by radiation from radioisotopes deep inside the planet.
    • (drives the plates to move, volcanoes, warms groundwater and causes geysers)
    • Hydrothermal vents deep in the oceans produce enourmous amounts of heat energy.
      • Chemosynthesis occurs here – process where inorganic carbon is turned into organic compounds