D09.06.03.presentation

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D09.06.03.presentation

  1. 1. International Workshop on high temperature water electrolysis limiting factors Specifications for Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks to be coupled with Wind Turbines or Nuclear Power Thomas Nietsch / Helion John Boegild Hansen / Haldor Topsoe Karlsruhe/Germany, 9&10 June 2009 HELION
  2. 2. Overview 1. Introduction Areva – Helion Haldor Topsoe 2. Introduction High temperature steam electrolysis 3. The wind case 4. The nuclear case 5. Summary 3 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 3
  3. 3. Introduction Areva – Helion Haldor Topsoe HELION
  4. 4. An integrated offer serving energy professionals 5 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 5
  5. 5. HELION – an AREVA R Subsidiary Wind power Bioenergies Hydrogen power Biomass power plant Fuel cell & electrolyser Offshore wind energy design & integration business based systems MULTIBRID KOBLITZ HELION 6 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 6
  6. 6. HELION Hydrogen Power – Key figures A R&D oriented company specialized in hydrogen energy and fuel cells moving towards an industrial company, profitable on its early niche markets Founded in 2001, HELION designs, manufactures and integrates PEM fuel cell and electrolysis solutions A strong R&D backbone in electrochemistry and engineering Headcount: more than 50 employees 75% engineers Headquarter : Aix-en-Provence (France) ( Environment dedicated high-tech facilities complex ) 7 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 7
  7. 7. HELION Hydrogen Power HELION develops PEM Fuel Cell and Electrolyser for: Backup power applications Niche transport applications Hydrogen production Air-independent applications Energy storage 8 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 8
  8. 8. Briefly on Topsoe Fuel Cell Development, manufacturing, marketing and sales of SOFC technology Founded in 2004 Subsidiary of Haldor Topsøe A/S (wholly owned) SOFC research & development since 1989 Employees: 100+ Strategic research partnership with Risø DTU (National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy) >50 empl. engaged in SOFC 9 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 9
  9. 9. Introduction High temperature steam electrolysis HELION
  10. 10. SOEC more efficient than present Electrolysers 5,0 theoretical and real energy imput to electrolyser 4,5 real PEM E 4,0 system "real" SOEC theoretical stack total enery demand system 3,5 = heat demand + electrical energy demand: Δhr H2 3 Energy E/kwh/m 3,0 2,5 theoretical stack electrical energy demand: Δgr 2,0 steam 1,5 liquid water 1,0 theoretical stack heat demand: TΔsr 0,5 p = 1 bar 0,0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Temperature T/°C 11 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 11
  11. 11. Results from Hi2H2 project, a pre assessor of RelHy 12 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 12
  12. 12. RelHY Project – 2.9 M€ Support from EU 7th framework program Goals Participants 1 A/cm2 CEA, F Steam utilsation > 60 % DTU Risø, DK 800 °C ECN, NL System efficiency = 80 % Imperial College, UK Degradation < 1 %/1000 h Topsoe Fuel Cell, DK Availability = 99 % Eiffer (EDF), F Helion (Arreva), F 13 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 13
  13. 13. RelHy Project Overview RelHy Integration of 25-cell stack optimised materials and prototype, innovative design in a operated at reliable and efficient 800°C laboratory electrolyser prototype d te en um 5-cell tr I ns Stacks Design innovations Thermo mechanics, Tightness, SRUs Water management State of the Art • Good cells Cells Materials optimisation • No compromise Durable electrodes/electrolyte, Sealing, Material compatibility and stability, in stacks nor SRUs Cost effective materials and processes between durability and efficiency 14 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 14
  14. 14. Technical challenges: generic roadmap From electrolysis »Cell efficiency + durability technology… (electrolyte conductivity, catalysts efficiency, stability vs corrosion) Material knowledge »Stack efficiency (fluids, heat, mass transfer management, Mechanical assembly, Gas tight conception) Thermomechanical, thermohydraulic, gasketing and assembly knowledge »Module architecture (stack association, process management ) Electrochemical and thermodynamical processes knowledge »Plant definition (module association, process management ) … to H2 production plant Plant process, regulation and safety knowledge 15 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 15
  15. 15. The wind case HELION
  16. 16. Wind Power Production - West Denmark As percent of consumption and production Averages 26 and 24 % 140% % of Production % of Consumption 120% 100% W ind power % 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 Hours of 2007 17 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 17
  17. 17. Electricity spot price – West Denmark Diurnal Variations - 2007 200 180 160 140 120 €/MWh 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Hours no 2007 18 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 18
  18. 18. Average spot COE price as function of operating hours West Denmark 2007 35 30 25 20 €/MWh 15 10 5 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 Operating Hours 19 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 19
  19. 19. Depreciation cost vs operating hours/yr 750 €/kW – 10 years depreciation 100 90 80 70 60 €/MWh 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 Hours no 2007 20 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 20
  20. 20. Cost of Hydrogen Investment 750 €/kW + average spot COE price 35 €/MWh 0,25 0,20 2 US $/kg 0,15 €/Nm3 H2 0,10 1.55 V 1.9 V 0,05 70 €/kWh => 3.x US$/kg 0,00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 Hours of operation per year 21 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 21
  21. 21. HTSE with wind power in Denmark (Cheap CO2 free) electricity from wind Heat from existing CHP plants / district heating From biomass using oxygen for increasing the efficiency and easier CO2 sequestration Complex system Energy management is crucial 22 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 22
  22. 22. Active Power Control valuable in Wind Scenario Consumer's Electrolyser’s Wind mils answer power demand answer Increases Decrease Load Increase generation Fast Response ? Only possible in special cases with prior reduction Decreases Increase Load Decrease Generation Slow Response Fast response < 5 seconds 23 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 23
  23. 23. The nuclear case HELION
  24. 24. Current density 1 000 000 200 t/day H2 The figure gives an example 3,8 kWh/m3 26 petrol stations for the number of cells vs 800 000 current density with active area as parameter. total number of cells 600 000 S_A This figure illustrates nicely 100 cm² 400 000 that a reasonable reduction 200 cm² of number of cells can be 200 000 400 cm² achieved for an active area 1 000 cm² 800 cm² 600 cm² around 600 cm² and around 0 a current density of 2 A/cm². 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 current density j A/cm² 25 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 25
  25. 25. Operating temperature The steam temperature of a Evolutionary Pressurised Nuclear Reactor (EPR) is some what near 300 °C. The sate of the art operating temperature for SOFCs is some what around 850 °C, therefore this temperature is considered as starting or reference temperature. Operating temperature reduction in the future is proposed for: Better match the nuclear reactors outlet temperature so higher efficiency Easier and more efficient heat transport Using cheaper materials and (Lower the degradation rate). (The steam temperatures of a High Temperature Nuclear Reactor (HTR) or a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) can be higher than 800 °C.) 26 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 26
  26. 26. Degradation / life time There is no definition for life time or for end of life neither for SOFC nor SOEC. A commonly proposed criterion for end of life is a loss in performance of 20 %. Assuming a life time of about 40 000 h for achieving cost targets in the SOFC case give a degradation rate of about 5 to 10 µV/h. SOFC targets are chosen as a starting point 27 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 27
  27. 27. Operating profile Coupled with nuclear Coupled with RES (wind). power. Stochastic energy Flat out production during production by RES but a long period of time, smoothened by thermal possibly a year or longer. capacity of the stack. Start up time can be one Start up time about one working shift. hour. A very few start ups, shut Some more thermal / redox downs and redox cycles cycles required. during life time are required. 28 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 28
  28. 28. Cell voltage Efficiency, energy consumption and cell voltage are closely related. Modern PEM and alkaline electrolyser systems are aiming for efficiencies of about 75 % and 80 % respectively or about 1,6 V. (Ref: fuel cells and hydrogen joint undertaking (FCH JU), annual implementation plan 2008 ) A HTSE should aim for higher efficiency to compensate for possible higher capital cost. Assuming an 85 % efficient HTSE gives a stack voltage around 1,47 V. 241 KJ/mol/2/(96500As/mol)/0,85 = 1,47 V 29 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 29
  29. 29. Example: sketch of HTSE coupled with a pressurized water reactor, heat extraction at 280 °C from the boiler Remark: the boiler could be fired by biomass 30 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 30
  30. 30. Example: sketch of HTSE coupled with a pressurized water reactor, heat extraction at 180 °C from HP turbine outlet Remark: the boiler could be fired by biomass 31 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 31
  31. 31. Deployment for HTSE plant EPRTM use in a cogeneration mode: Production targeted: 500 t/d of H2 Electrical Input: 720 MW Thermal Energy extracted: 140 MW at 240°C 32 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 32
  32. 32. 33 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 33
  33. 33. Summary HELION
  34. 34. Differences Nuclear/Wind Scenario RelHY milestone delivered in January Nuclear Wind Short Medium Short Medium Degradation (µ/h) 10 5 15 5 Lifetime (h) 10000 20000 16000 40000 Thermal cycles/year 2 5 7 14 Voltage/cell (V) 1.5 1.45 1.7 1.55 Current (A/cm2) 1.5 2.0 1.0 1.5 Pressure max (bar) 50 50 20 30 Active Area (cm2) 400 800 300 600 Start up from 600 C <4h < 4h <2 < 1h Turn down to 20 % ? ? < 2 min. < 30 sec. 35 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 35
  35. 35. HELION
  36. 36. References (1) JP Py and A. Capiyaine, Hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis of water vapor and nuclear reactors, WHEC 2006, Lyon (2) Hering, INL, NEA, 3rd IEM, 5 Oct 05 (3) Hotely 1982, US Department for Commerce, NTIS (4) M. Zahid, high efficient, high temperature hydrogen production by water electrolysis, Hi2H2, hydrogen and fuel cells review days 2007, Brussels, 10th & 11th October 37 HELION > Int Workshop on HTWE Specifications for SOE Stacks, Karlsruhe, June 09 T. Nietsch, J.B. Hansen Helion 23983 37

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