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Bio-metrics Authentication Technique



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  • Biometric is a combination of two Greek words Bio(Life) and Metric(To Measure).
    It actually measures and analyzes the biological traits of a human being.
  • Universality: Every person should have the characteristic.
    People who are mute or without a fingerprint will need to be
    accommodated in some way.
    Uniqueness: Generally, no two people have identical
    characteristics. However, identical twins are hard to distinguish.
    Permanence: The characteristics should not vary with time. A
    person's face, for example, may change with age.
    Collectability: The characteristics must be easily collectible and
    Performance: The method must deliver accurate results under
    varied environmental circumstances.
    Acceptability: The general public must accept the sample
    collection routines. Nonintrusive methods are more acceptable
  • Enrollment Mode:
    A sample of the biometric trait is captured,
    processed by a computer, and stored for later
    Verification Mode:
    In this mode biometric system authenticates a
    person’s claimed identity from their previously
    enrolled pattern.
  • Fingerprint Recognition is the identification by using patterns of friction ridges and valleys on an individual's fingertips which are unique to that individual.
    A light-sensitive device, either a scanner or camera, takes an analogue image of the fingertip. The image is then digitized and compared with template records that were created during the enrolment process. At the most basic level, these systems work by matching relationships amongst minutiae—the points on fingertips where print ridges end or divide. More complex scanning systems also examine other major features, such as the arch, loop and whorl that appear on the finger.
    The advantages include:
    Ease of use—Very little time is required for enrolment with a fingerprint scanning system compared to other biometric devices, such as retina scanners, fingerprint scanners.
    Uniqueness—As noted previously, fingerprints are a unique identifier specific to the individual. Security—Fingerprints cannot be lost or stolen, and are difficult to reproduce.
    The disadvantages include:
    Injury—Injury, whether temporary or permanent, can interfere with the scanning process.
  • Face recognition uses the visible physical structure of the face and analyses the spatial geometry of distinguishing features in it to identify an individual.
    Scanner starts reading the geometry of the face & then plot features on a grid. Then points are transferred as algorithm of numbers . Then comparisons can be quickly made using computer software. Once a match is found an identity can be quickly verified.
  • The iris is the colored ring of textured tissue that surrounds the pupil of the eye.
  • the first step is for the user to speak a word or phrase into a microphone. The electrical signal from the microphone is digitized by an "analog-to-digital (A/D) converter", and is stored in memory. To determine the "meaning" of this voice input, the computer attempts to match the input with a digitized voice sample, or template, that has a known meaning. This technique is a close analogy to the traditional command inputs from a keyboard. The program contains the input template, and attempts to match this template with the actual input using a simple conditional statement.
  • Biometrics directly authenticates the person, not indirectly through a password or token.
    Biometrics features are difficult to steal; thereby making biometrics authentication very strong.
    The Biometrics feature is eminently portable, and is unlikely to be lost.
    Another advantage of biometrics authentication systems is user cannot share or forget his retina or fingerprint, while a password and username are easily forgotten.


  • 1. Biometric Authentication Technique Presented By Rekha Yadav M.Sc.(Maths with Computer Application)
  • 2. What is Authentication? Authentication is the act of confirming something what it claims to be. It is the process of giving someone identity so that he or she can access that particular application or data. For e.g.: giving identity-card to a student of an institute.
  • 3. Three main types of Authentication available today are: • something you know, like a password, PIN, or code. • Can be easily forgotten • something you have, like a swipe card, smart card, token, or key. • Can be easily stolen • something you are, which is biometrics. • Secure, convenient & unique
  • 4. What is Biometrics? BIO ► Life METRIC ► To Measure Biometric is the automated process of identifying or verifying an individual based upon his or her behavioral or physical characteristics. Biometric based authentication systems are able to provide high security against confidential financial transactions and personal data privacy. “something that you are”
  • 5. Biometric Characteristics The common Physical characteristics are:  Fingerprint  Face  Iris  Vein pattern, and  Hand and finger geometry Behavioral characteristics are:  Keystroke dynamics  Voice  Gait, and  Signature dynamics
  • 6. Principle & Standards Of Biometrics “Everyone in the world is unique, and this uniqueness can be used for identity verification.” Uniqueness : Distinction between individuals Permanence : Resistance to ageing Collectability : Ease to obtain a biometric for measurement. Performance : Accuracy, speed, robustness of the biometric system. Acceptability :Degree of approval of a technology. Circumvention : Anomalies in the authentication system.
  • 7. Working of Biometrics Biometric systems uses three steps:  Enrollment: The first time you use a biometric system, it records basic information about you, like your name or an identification number. It then captures an image or recording of your specific trait.  Storage: most of the systems don't store the complete image or recording. They instead analyze your trait and translate it into a code or graph. Some systems also record this data onto a smart card that you carry with you.  Comparison: The next time you use the system, it compares the trait you present to the information on file. Then, it either accepts or rejects that you are who you claim to be.
  • 8. Enrollment & Verification in Biometric System
  • 9. Components of Biometric System Systems uses three components:  A sensor that detects the characteristic being used for identification.  A computer that reads and stores the information.  Software that analyzes the characteristic, translates it into a graph or code and performs the actual comparisons. Biometric security systems, like the fingerprint scanner available on the IBM ThinkPad T43, is becoming more common for home use.
  • 10. Biometric Modalities Biometric Modalities 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Fingerprint Recognition Face Recognition Iris Recognition Voice Recognition Signature Recognition
  • 11. 1) Finger Printings 1) Finger Printings  Fingerprint Recognition is one of the most used and familiar biometric methods. Database
  • 12. 2) Face Recognition 2) Face Recognition Input face image Extraction of face image Extraction of face features Positive Database Negative
  • 13. 3) Iris Recognition 3) Iris Recognition Input of face image Detection of eye regions Put iris in focus Recognition of iris pattern Accept Database Reject
  • 14. 4) Voice Recognition 4) Voice Recognition It is the Identification using the acoustic features of speech that have been found to differ between individuals Construct voice reference template Database
  • 15. 4) Signature Identification 4) Signature Identification   Signature identification: is the analyses of the way a user signs his or her name. The process used by a biometric system to verify a signature is called dynamic signature verification (DSV). Biometric Traits for Signature Verification •The angle at which the pen is held •The number of times the pen is lifted, •The time it takes to write the entire signature, •The pressure exerted by the person while signing, •The variations in the speed with which different parts of the signature are written. Profile Database
  • 16. Application of Biometrics Application of Biometrics The applications of biometrics can be divided into the following three main groups.  Commercial applications  computer network login ( Fingerprint verification system)  electronic data security  e-commerce  Internet access  ATM (face recognition)  credit card  medical records management, and distance learning ( hand geometry systems)  Government applications  national ID card  driver’s license  social security  border control, and passport control.  Forensic applications  corpse identification  criminal investigation  terrorist identification  parenthood determination, and missing children.
  • 17. Advantages Of Biometric System Advantages Of Biometric System directly authenticates the person difficult to steal; thereby making biometrics authentication very strong. portable, and is unlikely to be lost. user cannot share or forget his retina or fingerprint, while a password and username are easily forgotten. User friendliness Comfort Accuracy
  • 18. Disadvantages of Biometrics  Costly  Facial imaging can also hinder accurate identifications.  Missing body part problem  False acceptances and rejections.  The scanning of eye is fearful.  Ethical issues  Personal data used for something other than its advertised purpose.  Privacy issues  Who can access data  Misuse of personal data
  • 19. Future Prospects Future Prospects Biometry is one of the most promising and life-altering technologies in existence today. It is all set to change the way we live in the future. Some of the emerging biometrics technologies in the near future are: 1. Ear shape identification. 2. Body odor identification. 3. Body salinity identification. 4. EEG Fingerprint
  • 20. Conclusion Conclusion Conclusion Not perfect yet. Successful applications. Decreasing costs and increasing convenience. Increasing both privacy and identity security. The field of biometrics is evolving. Benefit from this technology .
  • 21. Thank You!