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Visual Dictionary- Reinforcement
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Visual Dictionary- Reinforcement



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  • 1. Visual Dictionary Reinforcement
  • 2. Air Barrier Paper
    • Impermeable to airflow
    • Protects building from the effects of air leakage.
  • 3. Attic Ventilation
    • Needed to allow airflow to the attic space
    Soffit Vent
  • 4. Attic Ventilation
    • Is needed to allow air to circulate in and out of a gable roof at the ridge
    Ridge Vent
  • 5. Attic Ventilation
    • Is needed to exhaust excess heat and humidity from an attic
    Gable Vent
  • 6. Attic Ventilation
    • Is needed to replace hot air from the attic using outside wind
    Roof Turbine
  • 7. Backhoe
    • A piece of excavating equipment or digger
    • Used for digging into the ground and removing large amounts of dirt.
  • 8. Batter Boards
    • Boards erected at corners of a building
    • Assist in the accurate layout of foundation and excavation lines
    Batter boards
  • 9. Brick Arches
    • Centering- Temporarily used to support an arch until the arch becomes self-supporting
    Keystone Arch Gothic Arch Parabolic Arch
  • 10. Brick Bonds
    • English Garden Wall- every 6 th row is a stretcher /header
    • Running Bond-every row is a stretcher.
    English Garden Wall Running Header Rowlock Stretcher Soldier Sailor Shiners
  • 11. Brick Sizes Modular Brick- 3 5/8 x 2 1/4 x 7 5/8 Utility Brick-3 5/8 x 11 ½ x 3 5/8
  • 12. Bulldozer
    • Large, powerful piece of earth moving equipment equipped with tracks and a large blade used to push soil, rock, or any other kind of debris.
  • 13. Cladding EIFS Brick Wood Shakes Wood Board Stone-Random Rubble Wood shingle – sawn in squares. Wood Shakes – Split, with a rough corrugated surface Photo illustrates wood shakes
  • 14. Code Requirments Code Requirements A minimum clear opening of 5.7 square feet. If it’s on the ground floor, a minimum of 5.0 square feet. Minimum clear opening height of 24” Minimum clear opening width of 20” Bottom of clear opening not more than 44” AFF If bedroom is in the basement: Window well of 9 sq. ft. (36” min. dimension) My bedroom window passes the IBC requirements. It has 17.5 sq. ft. of window and 8.75 sq. ft. of clear opening which is more than required. The opening height is 30” which is more than required. A clear opening width of 36” which is more than required. The bottom of the clear opening is 24” AFF, which is also acceptable. IBC Requirements:
  • 15. Code Requirements
    • Code Requirements Treads- 12” Risers- 6” 2’ 7 ½” wide. 2’ 3” height. Area= 5’ 9”. 12” sill AFF. Code: Max sill height of 44” above the floor and a min net opening of 5.7 sq ft. It meets the egress requirement because the opening is larger than 5.7 sq ft. Code: Min 10” Treads and max 7 ¾” risers The stairs meet the IBC because the treads and risers are within the safety range put forth by the code.
  • 16. Concrete Joints Control Joint- An intentional, linear discontinuity in a structure or component, designed to form a plane of weakness where cracking can occur in response to various forces sp as to minimize or eliminate cracking elsewhere in the structure. Isolation Joint- A joint, such as an expansion joint, between two adjacent structures which are not in physical contact. A column is being isolated from a slab.
  • 17. Concrete Masonry Unit A block of hardened concrete, with or without hollow cores, designed to be laid in the same manner as a brick or stone; a concrete block. Nominal (Typical) CMU Dimensions- 8” X 8” X 16” They come in a variety of different sizes 24x4x8
  • 18. Concrete Masonry Unit 1 CMU = 3 Bricks
  • 19. Decorative Concrete Masonry Split Block CMU
  • 20. Doors
    • Panel
    • Stile
    • Top Rail
    • Lock Rail
    • Bottom Rail
    Flush Door Transom- A horizontal bar or crosspiece that separates a door from a window over it. Sidelight- A window or opening in or at the side of a wall, door, etc.
  • 21. Electrical Componets Power pole with transformer- An electrical device that changes the voltage of alternating current. Service Head- A fitting that is placed on the service drop end of service entrance cable and is designed to minimize the amount of moisture that can enter the cable. Meter- A device that measures the amount of electrical energy supplied to or produced by a residence, business or machine. Service Panel- Distributes electrical current to the various circuits within a home. Duplex Receptacle- Duplex receptacles usually have break-away tabs to separate the top and bottom halves so that the two outlets can be placed on separate circuits.
  • 22. Framing Elements
    • Anchor Bolt
    • Sill Plate
    • Floor Joist
    • Subfloor
    • Sole Plate
    • Stud
    • Top Plate
    • Ceiling Joist
    • Rafter
    • Roof Decking
    • Sheathing
    • Stringer
  • 23. Front End Loader
    • Primarily used to load material (asphalt, demolition debris, dirt, feed, gravel, logs, raw minerals, recycled material, rock, sand, wood chips, etc.) into or onto another type of machinery.
    • Differs from a backhoe and bulldozer by only being able to “scoop” material into its bucket and dump it in another location, not dig holes or scrape off land.
  • 24. Gypsum Board
    • An interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core sandwiched between paper faces.
  • 25. Heat Pump A heat pump extracts cold or hot air from outside and moves it inside. Advantages: one of the most efficient ways to heat and cool a home quickly. Disadvantages: They are noisy and requires bulky ducting. Compressor/evaporator Air Handling Unit A usually internal unit that helps move and further heats or cools air once it is pumped through the external unit
  • 26. Insulation Batt Insulation Batt insulation is used to easily insulate walls and ceilings in a waterproof environment Loose Fill Insulation Loose fill insulation is a type insulation that is blown into large areas that are normally to remain unfinished Rigid Insulation Rigid insulation is used to insulate placed mostly on exteriors beneath the cladding.
  • 27. Lintel
    • Lintel A lintel is a piece of steel used to span an opening and support the weight of the wall above it
  • 28. Mortar Concave Mortar Joint. Tooled. Used on a house Type S mortar Joint is 3/8 in thick Flush Mortar Joint. Tooled. Used on a apartment ½ in joint Type S mortar
  • 29. Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
    • OSB is a non-veneered sheet of wood strands oriented for strength and then bound together under pressure
  • 30. Plumbing Water Closet 3 inch pipe is used to drain a water closet Drop-In Sink Plumbing vent The plumbing vent maintains a system of plumbing drains and waste lines at atmospheric pressure by connecting them to the outside air Plumbing: Lavatory 3-inch drainage pipe
  • 31. Plywood
    • Plywood A number of layers of wood veneer bounded together under pressure Veneer- a thin layer, sheet, or facing
  • 32. Radiant Barrier
  • 33. Rebar
    • Rebar ¾ in; #6 rebar The purpose of the deformations in the rebar is to hold the rebar in place once the concrete has been poured and set up around it
  • 34. Steep Roof Drainage Gutter Located on the edge of a roof. This collects runoff rainwater and show melt and directs to the downspout. Downspout Vertical pipe usually located on corners to transfer water from the roof to ground level. Splash Block Located under a downspout. It is used to block erosion from the water coming out of the downspout and to help direct the water away from the building.
  • 35. Steep Roof Materials Underlayment Layer of waterproof material between the roofing material and the roof sheathing. Clay Tile Water resistant material laid in an overlapping pattern to keep water from going underneath and into the sheathing. Wood shingles Metal Panel: Roof Metal roofs are commonly made of galvanized steel or aluminum
  • 36. Steep Roof Shapes Gable Gambrel Hip
  • 37. Steep Roof Terms Ridge- horizontal line at which the rafters of a roof meet Valley- the depression or angle formed by two inclined sides of a roof meeting Eave- the overhanging lower edge of a roof Rake- the downward sloping side of a roof Fascia- flat horizontal surface at the edge of a roofs eave Soffit Vent Soffit- the underside of an eave
  • 38. Stone Random Ashlar Coursed Ashlar Random Rubble
  • 39. Vapor retarder
    • Vapor Retarder Vapor Retarder is a treated paper that is used to prevent water vapor from moving inside the home outside and to stop the condensation of water inside of walls or ceilings It is located on the interior side of the insulation panels
  • 40. Waterproofing
    • Waterproofing is protecting the interior of the house also used for underground leakage and it is loosly laid.
  • 41. Weep Hole
    • A small hole at the base of a wall used to allow condensated water to run down the wall and out of the wall
  • 42. Welded Wire Fabric
  • 43. Windows Sliding Windows This is a sliding window because its hung so that when opened one sash stays closed and the other slides horizontally in a track. Double Hung Window This is a double hung window because when it is unlocked both the top and bottom sashes slide vertically in tracks to open the window.