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Cover Crops in Missouri

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A presentation about using cover crops in Missouri

A presentation about using cover crops in Missouri

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  • 1.  A lot of biomass-2-3 tons/acre Winter Hardy High Nitrogen Fixation- 100 plus lbs/acre Wide window of planting  August-mid October  March  Hard Seed, late maturing  Problem When Wheat is in the Rotation
  • 2.  Adapted from Gallagher, Penn State 2007 Hairy Vetch Corn Yield-0 N Time lbs/acre %N N lbs/acre Early (May 4) 1,400 3.82 55 113 Middle (May 15) 4,300 4.43 190 132 Late (May 31) 6,600 4.15 274 140 2008 Early (May 1) 3,204 2.49 80 92 Middle (May 14) 4,005 2.92 117 121 Late (May 29) 4,361 4.55 197 79
  • 3. Early May Late May
  • 4.  Large Biomass High N fixation-80- 120 lbs/acre Plant fall or early spring Not as winter hardy  Seedling Disease problems
  • 5.  Plant August- September Early spring maturity Not as much biomass as Hairy Vetch or Peas Can reseed themselves
  • 6.  Some New Varieties are 7-14 days earlierCrimson Clover Days to 50% flowering Dry Matter yield From February 1 lb/acreSunrise 51 1471Robin 58 1587Tibbee 67 1946Chief 65 1921Dixie 66 1872 Courtesy of Auburn University
  • 7.  Following Wheat  Summer Annual Legumes  Sunn Hemp  Sesbania  Cowpea Cowpea
  • 8. Sesbania Sunn Hemp
  • 9.  Summer Cover Crops lb/acre %N lb N/acre Sesbania 4051 1.97 79 Sunn Hemp 5097 1.87 83 Cowpea 3325 2.47 81 From MU Bradford Research Center 2012
  • 10.  Each Species of Legume has a Different Species of Bacteria You must match them together.
  • 11.  Very Short Growing season-60 days Some Weed Control- Allelopathy Inexpensive Seed- much like wheat or rye Attract Beneficial Insects Many uses for Vegetable production Nutrient Cycling
  • 12.  Inexpensive Seed Rye is very winter hardy Spring Oats is not winter hardy and will winter kill-can be used to our advantage Rye tremendous dry matter Suppress weeds  Allelopathy or Blocking Light Good to mix with legumes
  • 13.  Plant in Fall Overwinter-most of the time Deep Roots-5-6 ft Scavenge Nitrogen Dense matt controls weeds Can become a weed!  Herbicide resistance problem
  • 14.  Late Summer Planted Sequester Nitrogen Loosen Soil Weed Control?
  • 15. 5.75 lbs0.75 lbs
  • 16. Fall Spring
  • 17. Nutrient Scavenge, Loosen Soil, Weed Control
  • 18. Tillage Radish Root dug out-32”Courtesy of Steve Groff-Pennsylvania
  • 19. Ohio State Loosen Soil- University Courtesy of Increase root Steve Groff growth and Open water field infiltration?TillageRadish®field Soil compaction decreased by >40%
  • 20. Depth pHs OM P Ca Mg K CEC MnInches % lb/acre lb/acre lb/acre lb/acre meq/100g ppm0-3 5.6 4.2 16 3393 279 170 12.4 25.23-9 6.0 3.2 8 4211 318 85 14 25.09-12 6.0 2.5 7 3513 480 136 13.5 4.312-18 5.4 2.4 3 5459 1262 285 23.8 0.118-24 4.8 2.2 1 4598 1393 340 23.7 0.724-29 5.1 1.6 16 5101 1525 308 24 16.229-36 5.4 0.9 28 3728 906 267 16.4 35.436-48 5.7 0.9 32 4102 1244 244 17.8 26.0 From MU Bradford-2012
  • 21. K content ppmCrop 0-3 inch 3-6 inch 6-12 inchnone 105 b 100 ab 109 aRye 97 b 89 c 96 abCrimson Clover 96 b 72 d 71 cHairy Vetch 127 a 108 a 86 bcFrom Hargrove, 1986. Agronomy Journal
  • 22.  Rye and Radish can capture 100 or more lbs/acre of N Shoot Dry wt Root Dry Wt Shoot N Content Root N Content Shoot N Root NAfter Corn lbs lbs % % lbs lbsRadish 2165 2599 1.86 1.15 39.3 30Rye 1757 2.39 37.9After SoybeanRadish 3345 1989 3.93 3.12 132 62Rye 2545 3.94 100 From Dean and Weil, 2009 Journal of Environmental Quality
  • 23. Brief
  • 24.  Hairy Vetch-$2.0/lb or $40-60/acre Austrian Winter Pea-$0.73/lb or $29-44/acre Crimson Clover-$1.2/lb or $24/acre Radish-$4 lb or $32/acre Cereal Rye-$0.23 or $14-21/acre Annual Rye-$0.80 or $16/acre Sunn Hemp-$2.5/lb or $50-75/acre Sesbania-$2.4/lb or $48/acre
  • 25.  Hairy Vetch-$40@ 100 lb N/acre=$0.40/lb Austrian Winter Pea-$29@80 lb N/acre=$0.36/lb Crimson Clover-$24@75 lb N/acre=$0.32/lb Sunn Hemp-$50@80 lb N/acre=$0.62/lb Sesbania-$48@80 N/acre=$0.60/lb
  • 26.  Divide monoculture seeding by number of species: Ex) Hairy Vetch-30 lb/acre, Cereal Rye-90 lb/acre, Austrian Winter Pea-60 lb/acre in monoculture When mixed: Hairy Vetch-10 lb/acre, Cereal Rye 30 lb/acre, and Austrian Winter Pea-20 lb/acre
  • 27. Table 1. Typical herbicide rates, sensitive species, half- life, and potential for carryover injury tosensitive crops (carryover potential based on half lives and soil availability). Herbicide half-lifeestimates derived from the WSSA Herbicide Handbook, 2007 or other scientific literature. Herbicide Typical rate/acre Sensitive species Half life (days) Carryover potentialAccent 2/3 oz brdlfs+grass 21 LowAssure/Targa 8 oz grass 60 LowAtrazine 1 lb brdlfs+grass 60 ModerateAuthority 4 oz brdlfs 32-302 ModerateBalance Pro 2 fl oz brdlfs+grass 50-120 ModerateCallisto 6 fl oz brdlfs 5-32 ModerateClassic 2 oz brdlfs 40 ModerateDual II Mag 1.67 pt brdlfs+grass 15-50 LowFirstRate 0.33 oz brdlfs 8-33 LowHarmony 1/8 oz brdlfs 12 LowHarness 2 pt brdlfs+grass 10-20 LowImpact 0.75 fl oz brdlfs+grass 14 LowLaudis 3 fl oz brdlfs+grass 14 LowOutlook 16 fl oz brdlfs+grass 20 LowPeak 1 oz brdlfs 9-152 ModeratePermit 2/3 oz brdlfs 9-27 LowProwl H2O 3 pt brdlfs+grass 44 LowPursuit 4 fl oz brdlfs+grass 60-90 ModerateRaptor 5 fl oz brdlfs+grass 20-30 LowReflex 1.5 pt brdlfs 100 ModerateResolve 2 oz brdlfs+grass 2-4 LowSelect 10 oz grass 3 NoneSencor 0.33 lb brdlfs+grass 14-60 LowSharpen 3 fl oz brdlfs 7-35 LowSimazine 1 lb brdlfs+grass 60 ModerateStinger 5 oz brdlfs 40 ModerateValor 2.5 oz brdlfs 12-20 Low
  • 28. 8/25/12 10 lbs./ac. Ryegrass broadcast 8/27/12 5 lbs./ac. Radish planted 10/19/21 PhotosEllis and Hoorman, 2012
  • 29. Bio Strip-tillSpring, Steve Groff
  • 30. Plant Into the Radish andThen Kill the Ryegrass
  • 31. Cereal Rye and Hairy Vetch Oats and Hairy Vetch OverseededOverseeded into Corn on September Into Corn on September 6th 20116th 2011
  • 32. Crimson Clover overseeded into Crimson Clover drilled into soybeanCorn on September 6th 2011 Residue on October 12
  • 33. 1200-1500 lbs/acre 2,000 lbs/acre
  • 34. 2-5,000 lb/are depending upon the year
  • 35. Courtesy of Penn State Extension, 2012
  • 36. 100 Corn germination when planted into rye cover crop 90 80 70Plant count per 10 feet 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 chop roll chop roll chop roll chop roll before cc destroyed same day cc destroyed 1 week after cc destroyed 2 weeks after cc destroyedFrom MU Bradford Research Center, 212
  • 37. DAY OF DESICCATION 5 DAYS LATER Flailed Rolled Rolled Flailed
  • 38. PLANT PERPENDICULAR TO SEED TO SOIL CONTACTTHE WAY IT WAS ROLLED CAN BE A CHALLENGE
  • 39. From Wagger, 1989. Agronomy Journal 100 90 80 70 60lbs/acre 50 Rye 40 Crimson Clover 30 Hairy Vetch 20 10 0 2 4 8 12 16 Weeks
  • 40. From Wagger, 1989, Agronomy Journal
  • 41. Cover Crop Harvest Time Dry Wt N Concentration N C:N Total lbs/acre % lbs/acreRye Early 6355 1.49 94 27:1Rye Late 8144 1.25 101 32:1Crimson Clover Early 3827 2.76 106 14:1Crimson Clover Late 5260 2.48 131 16:1Hairy Vetch Early 3720 3.69 131 11:1Hairy Vetch Late 6337 3.22 204 12:1 From Wagger, 1989. Agronomy Journal
  • 42. May Corn Grain SorghumMissouri 1997-1999Cover Crop Cover Crop Fertilizer N Fertilizer NCover Crop Seeding rate Dry Matter Equivalent Equivalent lb/acre lb/acre lb/acreHairy Vetch 30 1744 37.3 54.8Hairy Vetch 20 1451 40.2 46.5Austrian Winter Pea 60 712 26.4 35.1Austrian Winter Pea 40 757 33.6 6.5HV+Oat 30+90 1197 28.5 40.9HV+Oat 20+90 1059 18.6 21.7AWP+Oat 60+90 990 -24.2 15AWP+Oat 40+90 481 -16.8 -3.6Oat 90 0 -24.5 -4.2 From Reinbott, et al, 2004. Agronomy Journal
  • 43.  Weed Control  Smothering or Allelopathy Soil Health -soil microbes If no-till: soil and water conservation
  • 44. From Steve GroffCover Crop No Cover Crop
  • 45. 1991-2003CORN-SOYBEAN MULCH-TILL 2003-2012 NO-TILL + COVER CROP Soybean-Wheat Soybean-Corn
  • 46. Centralia 88-Acre Research Field
  • 47.  Better Water Infiltration Nutrient Cycling Root Development
  • 48.  Bacteria-100 million-1 Billion! Fungal Filaments- Several Yards Protoza-Several Thousand Nematodes-10-20
  • 49.  Tillage Cereal Time No Cover Radish Rye % Late Fall 96 0 0 Late March 99 3 1 Late April 75 37 0From Lawley, et al, 2011. Agronomy Journal
  • 50.  Cover Crop Broad Grasses Peren. Total 2007 Number/ft2 Hairy Vetch 1.2 2.1 6.8 10.4 None 1.8 8.0 9.9 20.1 2008 Hairy Vetch 0.7 0.7 0.6 2.0 None 5.1 6.3 0.9 12.3 From Mischler, et al 2010 Agronomy Journal
  • 51.  Corn/Soybean  Corn/rye/Soybean/radish+oats  Corn/rye+legume/Soybean/polyculture including legumes Corn/Corn-plant early  Overseed oats+radish or oats+radish+crimson clover Corn/Soybean/Wheat  Similar to above except after wheat follow a tropical legume such as sunn hemp, cowpea, and then other cover crops in the fall

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