Tim Reinbott


Loss of Organic
Matter



Soil structure
Soil microbial
biomass



Release of CO2



Soil Erosion



Why Till?


...
LONG TERM NO-TILL

TILLED IN A
CORN/SOYBEAN/WHEAT
ROTATION
U.S. Nitrous Oxide Emissions

Agriculture is the main source of
nitrous oxide in the U.S., due in large
part to nitrogen-b...


Anerobic Conditions




Nitrogen Fertilization






wet
1.5% of all N is lost as
N20

Animal
Manures/Compost
N fr...




This is what separates us
(Missouri) from Central Iowa,
Illinois, Minnesota, Indiana,
etc
In these areas climatic
co...


Nutrient Cycling






Water Dynamics





Nutrient Holding
Capacity
Pool of Nutrients
Food for soil organisms
I...
12








Bacteria-100
million-1 Billion!
Fungal FilamentsSeveral Yards
Protoza-Several
Thousand
Nematodes-10-20
Nodules-Symbiotic Relationship Between the Plant and the Bacteria.
Atmospheric Nitrogen is Fixed by the Bacteria For Use b...




Each Species of
Legume has a
Different Species of
Bacteria

You must match them
together.






A lot of biomass-2-3
tons/acre
Winter Hardy
High Nitrogen Fixation100 plus lbs/acre
Wide window of
planting
Augu...
Early May

Late May


Adapted from Gallagher, Penn State
2007
Time
Early (May 4)
Middle (May 15)
Late (May 31)
2008
Early (May 1)
Middle (May...







Large Biomass
High N fixation-80120 lbs/acre
Plant fall or early
spring
Not as winter hardy


Seedling Disease...







Plant AugustSeptember
Early spring maturity
Not as much biomass
as Hairy Vetch or Peas
Can reseed
themselves












Very Short Growing
season-60 days
Some Weed ControlAllelopathy
Inexpensive Seed-much
like wheat or rye
A...







Inexpensive Seed
Rye is very winter
hardy
Rye tremendous dry
matter
Suppress weeds




Allelopathy or
Blockin...


Spring or Winter






Spring planted in the
fall will winter kill

Quick Growth in the
Fall
Great Companion
Crop








Cross between wheat
and cereal rye
Hardiness of cereal
rye
Good forage potential
Does not have the
allelopathi...









Plant in Fall
Overwinter-most of
the time
Deep Roots-5-6 ft
Scavenge Nitrogen
Dense matt controls
weeds
Can...


Late Summer Planted



Sequester Nitrogen



Loosen Soil



Weed Control?
Fall

Spring


Following Wheat


Summer Annual
Legumes
 Sunn Hemp
 Sesbania
 Cowpea

Cowpea
Sesbania

Sunn Hemp
Brief









Hairy Vetch-$2.0/lb or $40-60/acre
Austrian Winter Pea-$0.73/lb or $29-44/acre
Crimson Clover-$1.2/lb or ...







Hairy Vetch-$40@ 100 lb N/acre=$0.40/lb
Austrian Winter Pea-$29@80 lb
N/acre=$0.36/lb
Crimson Clover-$24@75 lb...








Bacteria-100
million-1 Billion!
Fungal FilamentsSeveral Yards
Protoza-Several
Thousand
Nematodes-10-20






Divide monoculture
seeding by number of
species:
Ex) Hairy Vetch-30
lb/acre, Cereal Rye-90
lb/acre, Austrian
Wint...
DAY OF DESICCATION
Flailed

Rolled

5 DAYS LATER
Rolled

Flailed
PLANT PERPENDICULAR TO
THE WAY IT WAS ROLLED

SEED TO SOIL CONTACT
CAN BE A CHALLENGE
Cover Crop on the Left Has No
Marestail (left)

After Tillage Radish-No Winter Annuals
27,427
25,606
















Corn Yield 2013
Cover Crops Overseeded into Soybean September 2012
Corn
Treatment
Yield
Bu/a...















Soybean Yield 2013
Cover Crops Overseeded into Corn Sept. 2012
Treatment
Yield
Bu/acre
Control...
100
90
80

lbs/acre

70
60
50

Rye

40

Crimson Clover

30

Hairy Vetch

20
10
0
2

4

8

Weeks

12

16

From Wagger, 1989...
Nutrient Scavenge, Loosen Soil, Weed
Control
Tillage Radish Root dug out-32”
Courtesy of Steve Groff-Pennsylvania
Ohio State
University
Courtesy of
Steve Groff
Open
field

Tillage
Radish®
field

Soil compaction
decreased by >40%

Loosen...
Gruver, et al, 2012
Williams and Weil, 2004
1.25 inch

2 inches

White and Weil, 2011
From Steve Groff

No Cover Crop
Cover Crop
Tilled

No-Tilled

No-Till Cover Crop


Cover Crops Attract
Butterflies, Bee
(including Bumble
Bees and other Native
Bees), beneficial
beetles, lacewings, etc.
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
An Overview of Cover Crops
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An Overview of Cover Crops

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An overview of cover crops selection, planting, termination, and benefits,

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  • SOM is NOT just from crop residues! Plant roots are very important to SOM production. Living plants (i.e, cover crops) help retain and PRODUCE SOM.
  • An Overview of Cover Crops

    1. 1. Tim Reinbott
    2. 2.  Loss of Organic Matter   Soil structure Soil microbial biomass  Release of CO2  Soil Erosion  Why Till?  Weed Control
    3. 3. LONG TERM NO-TILL TILLED IN A CORN/SOYBEAN/WHEAT ROTATION
    4. 4. U.S. Nitrous Oxide Emissions Agriculture is the main source of nitrous oxide in the U.S., due in large part to nitrogen-based fertilizers, but residue breakdown also contributes Image created by EPA
    5. 5.  Anerobic Conditions   Nitrogen Fertilization    wet 1.5% of all N is lost as N20 Animal Manures/Compost N from Cover Crops?
    6. 6.   This is what separates us (Missouri) from Central Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, Indiana, etc In these areas climatic conditions favor the accumulation of Organic Matter  Slower breakdown, long history of deep rooted native perennial plants
    7. 7.  Nutrient Cycling     Water Dynamics    Nutrient Holding Capacity Pool of Nutrients Food for soil organisms Improves water infiltration Improves water holding capacity Structure   Reduces crusting, compaction, eros ion Encourages root development
    8. 8. 12
    9. 9.     Bacteria-100 million-1 Billion! Fungal FilamentsSeveral Yards Protoza-Several Thousand Nematodes-10-20
    10. 10. Nodules-Symbiotic Relationship Between the Plant and the Bacteria. Atmospheric Nitrogen is Fixed by the Bacteria For Use by the Plant.
    11. 11.   Each Species of Legume has a Different Species of Bacteria You must match them together.
    12. 12.     A lot of biomass-2-3 tons/acre Winter Hardy High Nitrogen Fixation100 plus lbs/acre Wide window of planting August-mid October March Hard Seed, late maturing  Problem When Wheat is in the Rotation   
    13. 13. Early May Late May
    14. 14.  Adapted from Gallagher, Penn State 2007 Time Early (May 4) Middle (May 15) Late (May 31) 2008 Early (May 1) Middle (May 14) Late (May 29) Hairy Vetch lbs/acre %N N lbs/acre 1,400 3.82 55 4,300 4.43 190 6,600 4.15 274 3,204 4,005 4,361 2.49 2.92 4.55 80 117 197 Corn Yield-0 N 113 132 140 92 121 79
    15. 15.     Large Biomass High N fixation-80120 lbs/acre Plant fall or early spring Not as winter hardy  Seedling Disease problems
    16. 16.     Plant AugustSeptember Early spring maturity Not as much biomass as Hairy Vetch or Peas Can reseed themselves
    17. 17.       Very Short Growing season-60 days Some Weed ControlAllelopathy Inexpensive Seed-much like wheat or rye Attract Beneficial Insects Many uses for Vegetable production Nutrient Cycling
    18. 18.     Inexpensive Seed Rye is very winter hardy Rye tremendous dry matter Suppress weeds   Allelopathy or Blocking Light Good to mix with legumes
    19. 19.  Spring or Winter    Spring planted in the fall will winter kill Quick Growth in the Fall Great Companion Crop
    20. 20.     Cross between wheat and cereal rye Hardiness of cereal rye Good forage potential Does not have the allelopathic potential as cereal rye
    21. 21.       Plant in Fall Overwinter-most of the time Deep Roots-5-6 ft Scavenge Nitrogen Dense matt controls weeds Can become a weed!  Herbicide resistance problem
    22. 22.  Late Summer Planted  Sequester Nitrogen  Loosen Soil  Weed Control?
    23. 23. Fall Spring
    24. 24.  Following Wheat  Summer Annual Legumes  Sunn Hemp  Sesbania  Cowpea Cowpea
    25. 25. Sesbania Sunn Hemp
    26. 26. Brief
    27. 27.         Hairy Vetch-$2.0/lb or $40-60/acre Austrian Winter Pea-$0.73/lb or $29-44/acre Crimson Clover-$1.2/lb or $24/acre Radish-$4 lb or $32/acre Cereal Rye-$0.23 or $14-21/acre Annual Rye-$0.80 or $16/acre Sunn Hemp-$2.5/lb or $50-75/acre Sesbania-$2.4/lb or $48/acre
    28. 28.      Hairy Vetch-$40@ 100 lb N/acre=$0.40/lb Austrian Winter Pea-$29@80 lb N/acre=$0.36/lb Crimson Clover-$24@75 lb N/acre=$0.32/lb Sunn Hemp-$50@80 lb N/acre=$0.62/lb Sesbania-$48@80 N/acre=$0.60/lb
    29. 29.     Bacteria-100 million-1 Billion! Fungal FilamentsSeveral Yards Protoza-Several Thousand Nematodes-10-20
    30. 30.    Divide monoculture seeding by number of species: Ex) Hairy Vetch-30 lb/acre, Cereal Rye-90 lb/acre, Austrian Winter Pea-60 lb/acre in monoculture When mixed: Hairy Vetch-10 lb/acre, Cereal Rye 30 lb/acre, and Austrian Winter Pea-20 lb/acre
    31. 31. DAY OF DESICCATION Flailed Rolled 5 DAYS LATER Rolled Flailed
    32. 32. PLANT PERPENDICULAR TO THE WAY IT WAS ROLLED SEED TO SOIL CONTACT CAN BE A CHALLENGE
    33. 33. Cover Crop on the Left Has No Marestail (left) After Tillage Radish-No Winter Annuals
    34. 34. 27,427 25,606
    35. 35.               Corn Yield 2013 Cover Crops Overseeded into Soybean September 2012 Corn Treatment Yield Bu/acre Control 175 Hairy Vetch 199 Crimson Clover 165 Radish 174 Cereal Rye 175 Hairy Vetch+Rye 187 Crimson Clv. +Rye 181 Radish + Rye 173 Rye+Radish+HV+CC 174 Reinbott, 2013
    36. 36.              Soybean Yield 2013 Cover Crops Overseeded into Corn Sept. 2012 Treatment Yield Bu/acre Control 29 Hairy Vetch 24 Crimson Clover 28 Radish 27 Cereal Rye 36 Hairy Vetch+Rye 28 Crimson Clv. +Rye 33 Radish + Rye 29 Rye+Radish+HV+CC 27 Reinbott, 2013
    37. 37. 100 90 80 lbs/acre 70 60 50 Rye 40 Crimson Clover 30 Hairy Vetch 20 10 0 2 4 8 Weeks 12 16 From Wagger, 1989. Agronomy Journal
    38. 38. Nutrient Scavenge, Loosen Soil, Weed Control
    39. 39. Tillage Radish Root dug out-32” Courtesy of Steve Groff-Pennsylvania
    40. 40. Ohio State University Courtesy of Steve Groff Open field Tillage Radish® field Soil compaction decreased by >40% Loosen SoilIncrease root growth and water infiltration?
    41. 41. Gruver, et al, 2012
    42. 42. Williams and Weil, 2004
    43. 43. 1.25 inch 2 inches White and Weil, 2011
    44. 44. From Steve Groff No Cover Crop Cover Crop
    45. 45. Tilled No-Tilled No-Till Cover Crop
    46. 46.  Cover Crops Attract Butterflies, Bee (including Bumble Bees and other Native Bees), beneficial beetles, lacewings, etc.

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