Classification of fruits


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Classification of fruits

  1. 1. Language III, Fruits FRUITS In botany, a fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, one or more ovaries, and in some cases accessory tissues. Fruits are the means by which these plants disseminate seeds. There are seven types of fruits: Squashes Pome Berries Stone Tropical Dry Citrus SQUASHES Squashes generally refer to four species of the genus Cucurbita, some varieties of which are also called marrows (mainly in English). These species include C. maxima (hubbard squash, buttercup squash, some varieties of prize pumpkins, such as Big Max), C. mixta (cushaw squash),C. moschata (butternut squash), and C. pepo (most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash, courgette). In North America, squash is loosely grouped into summer squash or winter squash, depending on whether they are harvested as immature fruit (summer squash) or mature fruit (autumn squash or winter squash). C. MAXIMA Hubbard squash Buttercup squash Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez1
  2. 2. Language III, Fruits Prize pumpkin C. MIXTA Cushaw squash C. MOSCHATA Butternut squash C. PEPO Pumpkins Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez2
  3. 3. Language III, Fruits Acorn squash Courgette Summer squash Winter squash Gourds Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez3
  4. 4. Language III, Fruits POME It is a type of family Rosaceae. fruit produced byflowering plants in the subtribe Malinae of the A pome is an accessory fruit composed of one or more carpels surrounded by accessory tissue. The accessory tissue is interpreted by some specialists as "fruit cortex". The carpels of a pome are fused within the "core".Although the exocarp, mesocarp, andendocarp of some other fruit types look very much like the skin, flesh, and core respectively of a pome, they are parts of the carpel. The exocarp and mesocarp of a pome may be fleshy and difficult to distinguish from one another and from the hypanthial tissue. The endocarp forms a leathery or stony case around the seed, and corresponds to what is commonly called the core. The shriveled remains of the sepals, style and stamens can sometimes be seen at the end of a pome opposite the stem, and the ovary is therefore often described as inferior in these flowers. The origin of pome came from the Middle English, fruit, from Anglo-French pume, pomme apple, fruit, ultimately from Late Latin pomum. Apple Cotoneaster Hawthorn Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez4
  5. 5. Language III, Fruits Loquat Medlar Pear Pyracantha Toyon Quince Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez5
  6. 6. Language III, Fruits Rowan Whitebeam BERRIES The botanical definition of a berry is a fleshy fruit produced from a single ovary. Grapes are an example. The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire ovary wall ripens into an edible pericarp. They may have one or more carpels with a thin covering and fleshy interiors. The seeds are usually embedded in the flesh of the ovary (there are some non-fleshy exceptions, such as peppers). A plant that bears berries is said to be bacciferous or baccate (a fruit that resembles a berry, whether it actually is a berry or not, can also be called "baccate"). In everyday English, "berry" is a term for any small edible fruit. These "berries" are usually juicy, round or semi-oblong, brightly coloured, sweet or sour, and do not have a stone or pit, although many seeds may be present. Avocado or alligator pear refers to the fruit, botanically a large berry that contains a single seed. Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with indigo-colored the section Cyanococcus within the genus Vaccinium (a genus includes cranberries and bilberries). berries in that also Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez6
  7. 7. Language III, Fruits Coffea is a genus of flowering plants whose seeds, called coffee beans, are used to make coffee. Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium. shrubs or trailing vines in Empetrumnigrum, crowberry or black crowberry, is a species of Empetrum which is native to most northern areas of the northern hemisphere. A grape is a fruiting berry of the deciduous woody vines of the botanical genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or they can be used for making wine,jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters. Persimon Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez7
  8. 8. Language III, Fruits The genus Ribes includes the edible currants (blackcurrant, redcurrant, whitecurrant), gooseberry, and several hybrid varieties. It should not be confused with the dried currant used in cakes and puddings, which is a species of grape. Mahoniaaquifolium (Oregon-grape or Oregon grape) is a species of flowering plant in the family Berberidaceae, native to western North America. Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree, occasionally cane apple) is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the family Ericaceae, native to theMediterranean region and western Europe north to western France and Ireland. Due to its presence in South West Ireland, it is known as either "Irish strawberry tree" or "Killarney strawberry tree". A tomato is the edible, often red fruit from the the plant Solanumlycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant. Both the species and its use as a food originated in Mexico, and spread around the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Its many varieties are now widely grown, sometimes in greenhouses in cooler climates. Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez8
  9. 9. Language III, Fruits Watermelon (Citrulluslanatus (Thunb.), family Cucurbitaceae) is a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originally from southern Africa. Its fruit, which is also called watermelon, is a special kind referred to by botanists as a pepo, a berry which has a thick rind (exocarp) and fleshy center (mesocarp and endocarp). Pepos are derived from an inferior ovary, and are characteristic of the Cucurbitaceae. The watermelon fruit, loosely considered a type of melon – although not in the genus Cucumis – has a smooth exterior rind (green, yellow and sometimes white) and a juicy, sweet interior flesh (usually deep red to pink, but sometimes orange, yellow and even green if not ripe). STONES Stone fruits (or stonefruits or stonefruit), in botany, refers to drupe, fruits in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp, or skin; and mesocarp, or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardenedendocarp with a seed inside. These fruits develop from a single carpel, most often from flowers with superior ovaries. The definitive characteristic of a drupe is that the hard, lignified stone (or pit) is derived from the ovary wall of the flower. More specifically, "stone fruit" refers to members of the genus Prunus, which includes plums, cherries, peaches, apricots and almonds. It is traditionally placed within the rose family Rosaceaeas a subfamily, the Prunoideae (or Amygdaloideae), but sometimes placed in its own family, the Prunaceae (or Amygdalaceae). Peaches, nectarines, plums, apricots, and cherries are all members of the Prunus genus and are therefore closely related. They commonly are referred to as "stone fruits" because the seed is very large and hard. Although stone fruit crops can provide delicious fruit from June through September, most stone fruits are native to warmer climates of the world and therefore are very susceptible to injury from low winter temperatures. In addition, because they bloom early in the spring, the flowers frequently suffer damage from spring frosts. Because of this, the backyard culture of stone fruits is more difficult than that of apples or pears. Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez9
  10. 10. Language III, Fruits A plum is a drupe fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches,cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having a terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit). Mature plum fruit may have a dusty-white coating that gives them a glaucous appearance. This is an epicuticular wax coating and is known as "wax bloom". Dried plum fruits are called dried plums or prunes, although prunes are a distinct type of plum, and may have antedated the fruits now commonly known as plums. The cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit). The cherry fruits of commerce are usually obtained from a limited number of species, including especially cultivars of the sweet cherry, Prunusavium. The name 'cherry' also refers to the cherry tree, and is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry", "cherry blossom", etc. Wild cherry may refer to any of the cherry species growing outside of cultivation, although Prunusavium is often referred to specifically by the name "wild cherry" in the British Isles. The peach, Prunuspersica, is a deciduous tree, native to China and South Asia, where it was first cultivated. It bears an edible juicy fruit also called apeach. The species name persica refers to its widespread cultivation in Persia, whence it was transplanted to Europe. It belongs to the genus Prunuswhich includes the cherry and plum, in the family Rosaceae. The peach is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez10
  11. 11. Language III, Fruits The apricot, Prunusarmeniaca, is a species of Prunus, classified with the plum in the subgenus Prunus. The native range is somewhat uncertain due to its extensive prehistoric cultivation. The almond (Prunusamygdalus, syn. Prunusdulcis, Amygdaluscommunis, Amygda lusdulcis), is a species of tree native to the Middle East and South Asia. "Almond" is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated shell (endocarp) surrounding the seed. The fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed (which is not a true nut) inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are sold shelled (i.e., after the shells are removed), or unshelled (i.e., with the shells still attached).Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat, which is then removed to reveal the whiteembryo. TROPICAL Tropical fruits are cultivated mostly in countries with warm climates. The only character that they share in common is frost intolerance. Tropical zones on earth are areas where the sun is at head top once a year and only have two seasons namely wet and dry. Avocado : Avocadoes have a leather-like appearance with a smooth, creamy, greenish-yellow flesh. Avocados vary in weight from 8 ounces to 3 pounds depending upon the variety. They are known to originate from Mexico. Avocados are rich in potassium and consist of nutrients such as dietary fiber, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin E, potassium, magnesium and folate. This fruit is an outstanding source of monounsaturated fat. Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez11
  12. 12. Language III, Fruits Sapodilla : The sapodilla Fruit is a chewing gum component and also the source of chicle. Fruit may be round to oval-shaped or conical, and 2 to 4 inches in diameter. Small brown downy fruit with orange flesh which has a caramel. The plant was used as the base for chewing gum from Sapodilla. The flesh with soft brown of the sapodilla tastes a bit like a sweet mix of brown sugar and root beer. Acai : Is a small, round, blackish purple fruit, looks alike in appearance but smaller than a grape with lesser pulp and a single big seed at the center. They are known to originate from Amazon rainforest in Brazil. Has an amazing antioxidant quality. It is very rich in antioxidants such as Vitamin C and polyphenols. Acai also haves an ample amount of iron, calcium and vitamin A with amino acid. Fatty acid helps in the movement and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins like A, D, E and K. Acai has high caloric values and fats when compared with other berries and fruits. Banana : Bananas have their origin in tropical South-East Asia but are now found in almost all tropical regions of the world. Important banana producing countries include India, Philippines, China, Ecuador, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Costa Rica, Columbia and Thailand. Giant Granadilla : Giant granadilla fruit appears to be in round or ovoid shape. The fruit has a tough peel with a waxy nature; the peel ranges in shade from dark purple to light yellow or pumpkin color. They are known to originate from Tropical America. Is a good source of Vitamin A, protein and carbohydrates. Other than the contents given in the table the fruit also consists of Calories 228, Protein 5.2g, Carbohydrates 55g, Fat 1.6g, Dietary fibre 24.5g per 100 g of Giant Granadilla. Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez12
  13. 13. Language III, Fruits Breadfruit : Breadfruit looks green in color, when matured little sap will be leaked out which makes the fruit to appear more yellow in color when ripe. The fruit has a starchy texture and fragrance that tends to remain about the fresh baked bread. The nutritious fruit and the seeds are edible. A fully ripe breadfruit is usually soft and fragrant and its flesh is creamy yellow like coloured and pasty with irregular oval seeds. In the centre of this seedless fruit, there found a cylindrical core, in some species which is fully covered with hairs and small seeds. The breadfruit's flesh will be sweet and the fruit haves a nice fragrant smell. They are known to originate from Mexico. Breadfruit is low in Saturated Fat, Cholesterol and Sodium and very high in Vitamin C, Dietary Fiber and Potassium. The nutritional value of breadfruit helps you to maintain optimum health. Breadfruit has been considered as a nutritionally beneficial fruit. A large amount of nutrients and useful calories can be obtained by eating breadfruit. Other than the contents given in the table, the fruit also consists of 70.9 g of water content and 1.2 g of Protein content in it. Bilimbi : The fruit is very crunchy when unripe and it turns from brightgreen to yellowish-green, when it is ripe. Once it got ripe it falls on the ground. The outer skin is shiny, very thin and gentle, and the flesh will be greenish-white in color which will be very juicy and extremely sour. It has a few flattened seeds which is brown in color. Burmese Grapes : Burmese grape is an egg-shaped, yellowish colored, pinkish to bright red or purple fruit. This is a small and a juicy fruit with good taste. The fruit grows up to 2.5-3.5 cm in diameter with white aril. The fruit consists of 2-4 large purple-red seed. This is a small and a juicy fruit with good flavor. It is found throughout Asia, most commonly cultivated in India and Malaysia. Calabashtree : Calabash Tree is a small evergreen tropical tree which can grow up to a height of 25 feet and produce fruits up to 25 cm in diameter. It has simple leaves and the bark of the tree is rough. The fruit is large, hard and green in Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez13
  14. 14. Language III, Fruits color and takes about six months to ripen. They cannot be eaten but can be used for various ornamental purposes. The fruits are pollinated by bats and they develop from the trunk of the tree. The seeds of the fruit are flat, small and are embedded in the pulp. It belongs to the family of Bignoniaceae (Bignonia family) and also it is known to originate from Central America. CanistelFruit : The fruit has a color of orange to yellow thin skin, and the flesh is dry like a boiled egg yolk. They are usually eaten fresh, used for cooking, pies, and they have a excellent taste in ice cream. In milk shakes they taste like eggnog. They are very related in taste to the Lucuma from Andean countries. It has a sweet taste and is a raw edible fruit to eat. The outside of the fruit having a different taste when compare to inside the seed film. Cape Gooseberry : Cape Gooseberry is a berry which looks like a marble with a small round shape. The fruit consists of numerous small yellow seeds. The fruit looks orange or yellowish in color and becomes bright yellow and sweet when ripe. The fruit is covered by wrinkled leaves, which form a Chinese lantern. They are known to originate from Brazil. Cempedak : Cempedak is a sausage-shaped fruit, smaller in size when compared to that of a jack fruit. It has a green color and turns slightly yellowish as it ripes. The fruit contains a bright yellow pulp covering the large brown seeds. The surface of the Cempedak flesh is very soft, sweet which haves a strong aroma. Cacao : Cacao fruit grows up to 5-11 inches in length and 2-3 inches in diameter. The fruit haves a hard shell which will be very smooth, elongated or rounded. The fruit is obtained in red, yellow and orange color. This encloses around Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez14
  15. 15. Language III, Fruits 20-50 seeds which are surrounded by a cream colored aromatic pulp. The pulp haves a sweet-sour taste. Ceylon Gooseberry : Its tree is small shrubby and spiny which is about 6m tall. The fruit is orange initially but turns to dark purple color when it ripens. It is 2-3 cm in diameter and is surrounded with short, grayish green, velvety hairs. Pulp of the fruit is purple-red in color. The seeds are long and hairy. It is believed to be a native of Srilanka and India. The fruit is also cultivated in South Africa. Cupuacu : Cupuacu fruit is oblong, fluffy and brown in color which is about 8 inches long and weighs between 1 to 2 kg. It is covered with a hard exocarp which is 4 to 7 mm thick. The pulp of the fruit is very fragrant and smells like banana. It belongs to the family of Sterculiaceae which grows wild in the Amazon rainforest and known to be cultivated in the jungles of Colombia and Peru. Damson : The fruit is identified by its oval shape and it has a yellow flesh with its skin looks in blue or indigo. Some fruits have purple or red skin. The fruit has a sour or sweet taste. Custard Apple : The fruit is generally looks like a round in shape, a little pine cone-like 2.4-3.9 in diameter. There are variations in shape and size. The fleshy fruit is very sweet to taste, white to light yellow, and resembles and tastes like custard. The edible portion coats of the seeds of this fruit generously like a gooey portion of a tomato seeds. Sugar-apple has a very discrete, sweet-smelling fragrance. It is a little grainy, a bit oily, very sweet and very soft. Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez15
  16. 16. Language III, Fruits Golden Apple : The fruit is just the same size as a plum and it grows in clusters at the branch tips of June plum trees. It looks hard and green and turns into yellow with a soft flesh and skin when it ripens. Its taste and smell are similar to that of pineapple. Lablab : These are Domesticated types and are mostly summer growing annuals or occasionally short-lived perennials. They are vigorously trailing, twining herbaceous plant. Stems are robust and trailing to upright to 3-6 m in length and leaves were trifoliate; leaflets broad ovate-rhomboid and are 7.5-15 cm long, thin, acute at apex, almost smooth above and short haired underneath. Petioles were long and slender. They are known to originate in Africa, India and Indonesia. Elephant Apple : The fruit is round to oval, 2 to 5 in (5-12.5 cm) wide, with a hard, woody, grayish-white, scurfy rind about 1/4 in (6 mm) thick. The pulp is brown, mealy, odorous, resinous, astringent, acid or sweetish, with numerous small, white seeds scattered through it. Guarana : It is a mountaineering plant in the maple and Sapindaceae family, that belongs to the native Amazon basin and especially in Brazil. Guarana is an effective energy booster for all child and Adult person, it also contains about twice the caffeine found in coffee beans. A teaspoon of powder is mixed on the cup of cold water. As the powder become the reddish-brown solution is the time to drink in every morning. The taste is extremely pleasant when mixed with sugar and in any sugar substance, but quite bitter when consumed alone. It shows an unique delicious taste of the guarana fruit. In Brazil, Guarana fruit is seems second like a cola drinks. Babaco : Babaco is an attractive torpedo shaped fruit with an effervescent flesh hence it is also called thechampagne fruit . When sliced crosswise, the facets of Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez16
  17. 17. Language III, Fruits this fruit gives a pentagonal outline which gives it the scientific name of Caricapentagona. The texture of this golden fruit is very light and refreshing. The babaco fruit is just like a papaw with a single, knobbly stem dividing into two or more branches at the top. It bears a few large, sparse flowers and lobed leaves which forms on the trunk and branches. The babaco is known to have originated in the central south highlands of Ecuador. Horned Melon : Horned Melon is a member of the cucumber family with different taste. Looks like an oval melon with horns and is very decorative fruit. Picked green, the kiwano horned melon tastes like a mix of lemon and banana. The spiky, orange colored shells of Kiwano Melons cover a soft, juicy bright green flesh. Kiwano Melons are mild in flavor and similar in taste to juicy, seed-filled cucumbers. Indian Gooseberry : Indian gooseberry fruits are of small size and light green in color. They have 6 vertical grooves on them. The taste of the fruit can be described as strong, harsh, and rough. This fruit is round shaped with vertical stripes and has a hard seed inside. The Indian gooseberry plant is native to India. Indian Prune : The size of the fruit ranges from 20 to 15 cm. Its tip is blunt which may be sticky sometimes. Prunes are used for cooking both sweet and savory dishes and also desserts. Prunes also contain dietary fiber (about 6%, or 0.06 g per gram of prune). Prunes and prune juice are common home remedies for constipation. Vainilla : Thick, fleshy, shiny, dark brown pod. In addition to the content given in the table below the fruit also contains 9 mg of Sodium, 148 mg of Potassium, 288 kcal of energy, 12.65 g of Carbohydrates, 0.06 g of fats and protein. Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez17
  18. 18. Language III, Fruits Sweet Orange : Depending on the variety, oranges will be yellow or spotted with red in appearance. Its size varies from being as large as a football to as small as a cherry. This fruit flavors ranges from sweet to intensely sour. They are known to originate from Asia, through which they spread to India. Papaya : is called as Paw Paw, Papaw, Tree Melon normally greenish yellow, yellow or orange color. This kind of fruits comes from tropical places with higher humidity, native to Mexico, countries of Central America, Thailand, Africa and Asia and growing well in Australia.Papayas are a large, pear-shaped which are all high in vitamin A, C and folate.Due to the tropical appearance and abundant fruit of papaya, it is considered as the demand to protect the landscape settings throughout coastal and southern Texas. The latex is obtained by making a cut on the surface of green fruits early morning and repeating four to five days until latex ceases to flow. The latex contains two proteolytic enzymes, papain and chymo papain. Abiu : It’s a creamy sweet caramel/vanilla flavour.A real taste treat when eaten slightly chilled. The skin can be hard to chew in texture, 3-5 mm thick and produce a sticky latex. The translucent and white fleshy tissue inside has a caramel flavour adjoining 1-5 seeds. Red Mombin : The fruit grows up to a length of 5cm in which its breadth may vary from 2-3.5 cm. The fruit appears to be red when it is ripe. A single large seed will be there in the center of the fruit. Red Mombin is native to tropical America. Rose Apple : The rose apple tree may be merely a shrub but is generally a tree reaching 25 or even 40 ft (7.5-12 m) in height, and has a dense crown of slender, wide-spreading branches, often the overall width exceeding the height. The flowers are creamy-white or greenish-white, 2 to 4 in (5-10 cm) wide, consisting mostly of about 300 conspicuous stamens to 1 1/2 in (4 cm) long, a 4-lobed calyx, and 4 greenish-white, concave petals. There are usually 4 or 5 flowers together in terminal cluster. Thefruit is nearly round, oval, or slightly pear-shaped, 1 1/2 to 2 in (4-5 cm) long, with smooth, thin, pale-yellow or whitish skin, sometimes pinkblushed, covering a crisp, mealy, dry to juicy layer of yellowish flesh, sweet and resembling the scent of a rose in flavor. It is also cultivated and naturalized in many parts of India, Ceylon, former Indochina and the Pacific Islands. Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez18
  19. 19. Language III, Fruits Strawberry Guava : Strawberry Guava appears to be dark red in color which tastes similar to strawberry. The pulp of the fruit will be juicy with a semitransparent texture. Strawberry Guava is native to coastal areas of Eastern Brazil. Riberry : Riberry is a pear shaped fruit with a light red color with a single seed in the center. Riberry is native to Oceania or of Oceanian Origin. Melon Pear : he melon pear fruit is a small shrub that can be reaching 3 ft tall in height. It has been evergreen plants.Flowers of the melon pear fruits are white and purple, and that are similar to other plants from the Solanacae family, like the potato vegetable flowers. The melon pear, or pepino is another name, is a fruit with a variable in shape and size. It is more or less rounded or rectangle, and can be up to about 6 in long. When the fruit get ripe, the melon pear has a yellow-cream skin, with dark purple stripes. The flesh is succulent and moderately sweet, and has the same texture as a melon pear. Taste of fruit is quite similar to a cantaloupe. The fruit quality is changeable and that are depends on the variety. The flesh of Melon pear has a similar flavor, smell and texture to a melon, with a slightly harsh after the taste. Flesh colors are pale pink, like many small melons varieties.The flowers of the fruit are extremely similar in color and shape to that of a potato structure of nature purple petals are with yellow centre. There are it seems that two types of pepino some are shaped like a coveted, others are like a beefsteak tomato.The melon pear not very frost hardy. However, it can be withstand that negative temperatures are down to about 28°F in the room temperature. In colder climates are, it can be grown in containers of the place. DRY Chestnut : Richly flavored, starchy, chestnuts are popular cool season edible nuts of the northern hemisphere. The nuts are native to hilly forest of China, Japan, Europe, and North America. Chestnuts, unlike other nuts and seeds, are relatively low in calories; contain less fat but are rich in minerals, vitamins and phyto-nutrients that benefit health. They are a good source of dietary fiber; provide 8.1 g (about 21% of RDI) per 100 g. Fiber diet helps lower blood cholesterol levels by limiting excess cholesterol absorption in the intestines. Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez19
  20. 20. Language III, Fruits Almonds : The fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed (which is not a true nut) inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almond nuts are rich in dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals and packed with numerous health promoting phytochemicals; the kind of well-balanced food ensuring protection against diseases and cancers. Cashews : Cashew nuts are actually the kidney-shaped seeds that adhere to the bottom of the cashew apple, the fruit of the cashew tree, which is native to the coastal areas of northeastern Brazil. While cashew apples are not appreciated in the United States, they are regarded as delicacies in Brazil and the Caribbean. Cashews are always sold shelled because the interior of the shells contains a caustic resin, known as cashew balm, which must be carefully removed before the nuts are fit for consumption. This caustic resin is actually used in industry to make varnishes and insecticides. The delicately flavored cashew nut is a favorite between meal snack that can be readily found in your local market year round. It also makes wonderful nut butter and a special addition to salads and stir-fry dishes. Walnuts : nut of any of various walnut trees having a wrinkled two-lobed seed with a hard Shell. Pistachio or yellow kernel. : The nutlike fruit of this tree, having an edible, oily, green Peanuts : the pod or the enclosed edible seed of the plant, Arachis hypogaea, of the legume fa mily: the pod isforced underground in growing, where it ripens. Pecans : the smooth oblong thin-shelled nut of the pecan tree. Pecans are a good source of protein and unsaturated fats. Like walnuts (which pecans resemble), pecans are rich in omega-6 fatty acids, although pecans contain about half as much omega-6 as walnuts. Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez20
  21. 21. Language III, Fruits A diet rich in seeds can lower the risk of gallstones in women. The antioxidants and plant sterols found in pecans reduce high cholesterol by reducing the "bad" LDL cholesterol levels. Acorns : The fruit of an oak, consisting of a single-seeded, thick-walled nut set in a woody, cuplike base. Red Nut : a dry fruit that grows inside a hard shell on some types of tree and bush. Manykinds of nut can be eaten. CITRUS Citrus fruits have much in common. All are acid and rich in vitamin C. This makes it a good antioxidant and anti-toxins door. They add a little spark for most meals and keep bananas, apples and other fruit go brown when cut. Grapefruit: Spicy Grapefruit is a citrus fruit is often eaten at breakfast, of course. The flesh is white to red depending on variety. The red varieties are sweeter than the white variety. Grapefruit can be used in any other citrus fruit used to be the judge. Kumquats:The edible fruit closely resembles that of the orange (Citrus sinensis), but it is much smaller and ovular, being approximately the size and shape of a large olive. The fruit of these plants, having an acid pulp and a thin, edible rind. It is the smallest of the citrus fruits. Kumquat is a small citrus fruit with edible skin. They are generally eaten whole in salads and side dishes. It is also used in jams and jellies. Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez21
  22. 22. Language III, Fruits Lemon: Lemon is one of the most popular items in the list of citrus. This is a small oval fruit with a slightly spicy flavor. Ok beverages, meats, baked goods, and is essential for the fish. Meyer lemons are less acidic become very popular in recent years. Lime: Limes are often used in Mexican cuisine and South America for its unique taste. Key Lime Lemon is a very small selection, which grows in the Florida Keys. E "is only for a short period each year. Even if the lemon juice instead of lime will be different than most of the finished product. Minneola: The Minneola is a cross between a grapefruit and tangerine. Oranges: Orange is one of the most popular of all citrus. Sweet and sour orange is a great snack or an ingredient at any time. Orange and orange when it's cold. In warm climates, green, yellow to orange. Oranges are a type of blood orange, which is purple. They are sweet and a little more acidic than other oranges. Blood Oranges in the U.S. are grown in Texas and California. Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez22
  23. 23. Language III, Fruits Tangerine: The tangerine is a relative of sweet oranges. Clementine, particularly prized for its sweet flesh and intense flavor of tangerine. Tangerines are very easy to peel and can be used where there is a sweet, fresh citrus fruit on each plate. IDIOMS WITH FRUITS To compare “apples and oranges” is to uselessly compare unlike things. The “apple of (one’s) eye” is a favorite or well-like person. To say that “the apple never falls far from the tree” is to suggest that a person’s personality traits are close to those of the person’s parents. “As American as apple pie” means that something is quintessentially representative of American culture or values. “(As) sure as God made little green apples” suggests certainty. To be a “bad apple” or a “rotten apple” is to be a bad person. Meanwhile, to say that “one bad (or rotten) apple spoils the whole bunch (or barrel)” implies that one flawed element or person can undermine an effort or a group, and to be “rotten to the core” is to be thoroughly bad or worthless. “How do you like them apples?” (or “How about them apples?”) is a neutral or taunting comment, depending on the context, that refers to an undesirable state or situation. To “polish (one’s) apple” is to flatter someone; a flatterer is an “apple polisher.” To “upset the apple cart” is to ruin plans. A “banana republic” is a weak or corrupt country. A “second banana” is a subordinate, and the “top banana” is the leader. To “go bananas” is to become excited or crazed, and “to drive (someone) bananas” is to annoy or irritate someone. Something in “cherry condition” is excellently maintained or restored. To “cherry-pick” is to select carefully. “Life is a bowl of cherries” means that life is easy. To “not give a fig” is to be unconcerned. A “lemon” is a flawed or worthless item; the idiom often refers to a vehicle. “Melon” is sometimes used as slang for head or, vulgarly, for large breasts. To say that someone or something is a “peach” means that they are beautiful, excellent, or sweet. When everything is “peaches and cream,” life is going well. A “plum” assignment or job is a highly coveted one. One is said to have “sour grapes” when one belittles something one covets but cannot obtain. Melina Cerilo, Natalia Machuca Zárate & Lucía Martinez23