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electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
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electrophoresis

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  • 1. Agarose and Polyacrylamine Gel Electrophoresis
  • 2. WHAT IS GEL ELECTROPHORESIS Electrophoresis is the term used for the procedure where under the influence of voltage, a charged particle moves. It is a standard method for separation, identification, analysis and purification of: DNA molecules protein molecules
  • 3. Electrophoresis consists of the migration of a charged molecules under the influence of electric field (from negative to positive). A buffer solution is use to conduct electricity through the whole setup of the gel electrophoresis. The molecule will migrate through the gel depending upon the size and shape.
  • 4. Gel electrophoresis is used: Forensics Molecular biology Genetics Microbiology Biochemistry The results can be analyzed quantitatively by visualizing the gel with UV light and a gel imaging device; analyzing the intensity of the band or the measure of the spot of interest.
  • 5. TYPES OF GELS: 1. Agarose* 2. Polyacrylamide* 3. Starch
  • 6. AGAROSE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS Agarose is a linear polymer extracted from seaweed that forms a gel matrix by hydrogen- bonding when heated in a buffer and allowed to cool. The agarose gel is used to separate DNA and RNA fragments. Agarose gels separate DNA fragments differing by a hundred or more base pairs.
  • 7. DNA has negative charge so it migrates towards the positive end. This is due to its double helical physical structure, which contains a phosphate backbone.
  • 8. The density and porosity of the gel matrix is determined by the concentration of agarose used. The grater the agarose concentration, the smaller the pores created in the gel matrix, the more difficult it is for larger DNA molecules to move through. Agarose % Optimum Resolution for DNA 0.5 1,000-30,000bp 0.7 800-12,000bp 1.0 500-10,000bp 1.2 400-7,000bp 1.5 200-3,000bp 2.0 50-2,000bp
  • 9. POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS Like Agarose Gels, Polyacrylamide gels are used to separate protein molecules by shape, size and charge. Polyacrylamide is a polymer of acrylamide monomers.
  • 10. Polyacrylamide is specifically used for proteins because it provides the protein with an environment where it will not become denatured. Allowing different sized proteins to move at different rates.
  • 11. Since we are trying to separate many different protein molecules of a variety of shapes and sizes, we first want to get them to be linear so that the proteins no longer have any secondary, tertiary or quaternary structure.
  • 12. To have proteins with linear structures we use sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS is a detergent that can dissolve hydrophobic molecules, resulting in proteins with linear structures.
  • 13. Another problem we face with proteins is that they do not have a specific charge. This is another reason why SDS is important. SDS has a negative charge and by dissolving the protein in it, the protein becomes negatively charged. Allowing it to run properly through the gel (from negative to positive).
  • 14. Get your sample obtained from previous purifying technique (i.e. PCR) Set up gel, remove comb Load Buffer Load Sample Run Gel Stain and look at with UV light
  • 15. APPLICATIONS OF GELS: Estimation of the size of DNA and protein molecules. Analysis of PCR products, i.e. in molecular genetic diagnosis or genetic fingerprinting Separation of restricted genomic DNA or of RNA.

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