Digital Media & Consumer Behavior

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Behavior of consumers using digital media to research about food products, discussing their perceptions, purchase behavior, brand awareness and brand loyalty

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Digital Media & Consumer Behavior

  1. 1. HOW DO CONSUMERS USE DIGITAL MEDIA TO RESEARCH FOOD PRODUCTS? REHMAN ASLAM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 2013
  2. 2. COURSE : MBA MODULE CODE : MKTM021 SUPERVISING TUTOR : DAVID ALCOCK STUDENT NO. : 11429586 STUDENT NAME : REHMAN ASLAM SUBMISSION DATE : JANUARY 28, 2013 WORD COUNT : 15,957 MKTM021 ~ 2~ REHMAN ASLAM
  3. 3. Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................................. i 1. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................... 6 1.1 1.2 UNDERSTANDING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ........................................................................... 8 1.3 IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH .................................................................................................10 1.4 PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH ........................................................................12 1.5 LIMITATION OF RESEARCH ....................................................................................................12 1.6 2. BACKGROUND .......................................................................................................... 8 ORGANIZATION / STRUCTURE OF RESEARCH ..................................................................14 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................... 16 2.1 2.2 BRAND AWARENESS OF CONSUMERS TOWARDS FOOD PRODUCTS ...........................22 2.3 DIGITAL MEDIA AND ITS USES ..............................................................................................25 2.4 PURCHASE BEHAVIOR OF CONSUMERS ..............................................................................28 2.5 CONSUMER SATISFACTION ...................................................................................................32 2.6 BRAND LOYALTY .....................................................................................................................33 2.7 3. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR SPECIFIC TO FOOD PRODUCTS ......................................... 18 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................34 RESEARCH METHODOLGY ...................................................................................... 38 3.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................40 3.2 RESEARCH APPROACH AND DESIGN ...................................................................................41 3.3 METHOD OF SAMPLING .........................................................................................................42 3.4 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION .........................................................................................43 3.5 THE QUESTIONNAIRE AND SURVEY PERIOD .....................................................................44 3.6 THE MEASUREMENT MODEL – LIKERT SCALE ...................................................................45 3.7 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS .............................................................................................45 MKTM021 ~ 3~ REHMAN ASLAM
  4. 4. 3.7.1 RELIABILTY OF DATA .............................................................................. 46 3.7.2 VALIDITY OF DATA .................................................................................................47 3.8 3.9 4. ETHICAL CONSIDERATION ....................................................................................................47 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ........................................................................48 RESEARCH FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS ................................................................. 49 4.1 PILOT TEST ............................................................................................................ 51 4.2 ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SAMPLE ........................................................................... 51 4.3 RELIABILITY TEST ....................................................................................................................52 4.4 COLLATING AND PRESENTING THE RESULTS ...................................................................53 4.4.1 HOW AWARE ARE THE CONSUMERS ABOUT BRANDED FOOD PRODUCTS? CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND BRAND AWARENESS ................ 54 4.4.1.1. CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS .....................................................................56 A. PERCEIVED QUALITY ..............................................................................57 B. PERCEIVED VALUE ...................................................................................59 C. PERCEIVED PRICE .....................................................................................60 D. PERCEIVED RISK .......................................................................................62 4.4.1.2. BRAND AWARENESS ................................................................................63 4.4.2 WHICH MEDIA(S) DO THEY USE TO RESEARCH AND WHAT INFORMATION DO THEY LOOK FOR ONLINE ON FOOD PRODUCTS? DIGITAL MEDIA AND ITS USES ................................................................. 64 A. B. 4.4.3 USE OF DIGITAL MEDIA ...............................................................................66 INFORMATION SEARCH ...............................................................................68 WHAT IS THE BEHAVIOR OF CONSUMERS AFTER THEY RESEARCH ABOUT FOOD PRODUCTS? PURCHASE BEHAVIOR OF CONSUMERS, CONSUMER SATISFACTION, BRAND LOYALTY ......................................... 69 A. PURCHASE BEHAVIOR OF CONSUMERS ...................................................71 MKTM021 ~ 4~ REHMAN ASLAM
  5. 5. B. 4.5 5. CONSUMER SATISFACTION AND BRAND LOYALTY .............................72 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS ......................................................73 DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................... 74 5.1 MAJOR FINDINGS THROUGH THE SURVEY ........................................................................76 5.2 HOW AWARE ARE THE CONSUMERS ABOUT BRANDED FOOD PRODUCTS?7CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND BRAND AWARENES .............................. 77 5.2.1 5.2.2 PERCEIVED VALUE ...................................................................................................78 5.2.3 PERCEIVED PRICE .....................................................................................................78 5.2.4 PERCEIVED RISK .......................................................................................................79 5.2.5 5.3 PERCEIVED QUALITY ............................................................................... 78 BRAND AWARENESS ................................................................................................79 WHICH MEDIA(S) DO THEY USE TO RESEARCH AND WHAT INFORMATION DO THEY LOOK FOR ONLINE ON FOOD PRODUCTS? – DIGITAL MEDIA AND ITS USE .................................................................................................................. 79 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.4 USE OF DIGITAL MEDIA ..........................................................................................80 INFORMATION SEARCH ..........................................................................................80 WHAT IS THE BEHAVIOR OF CONSUMERS AFTER THEY RESEARCH ABOUT FOOD PRODUCTS? – PURCHASE BEHAVIOR OF CONSUMERS, CONSUMER SATISFACTION, BRAND LOYALTY ......................................................................... 80 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.5 PURCHASE BEHAVIOR OF CONSUMERS ..............................................................81 CONSUMER SATISFACTION AND BRAND LOYALTY ........................................81 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION ......................................... 82 6. CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 83 7. REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 86 8. APPENDICES ............................................................................................................... 96 APPENDIX – A: QUESTIONNAIRE ............................................................................ 97 APPENDIX – B: LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................... 101 APPENDIX – C: LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................ 102 MKTM021 ~ 5~ REHMAN ASLAM
  6. 6. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION MKTM021 ~ 6~ REHMAN ASLAM
  7. 7. 1. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this research being undertaken is to find the best possible answer to the following question which roots into the consumer behavior: “HOW DO CONSUMERS USE DIGITAL MEDIA TO RESEARCH FOOD PRODUCTS?” Consumer behavior is an ongoing process and does not only happen at the time of transaction between consumer and seller. It is said that understanding consumer behavior is good business (Solomon, et al., 2010). Marketers understand the consumer needs and try to satisfy their needs to the extent they come to know about these. The use of digital media has changed the way consumers used to search for food products and interact with the business (Lin & Hsieh, 2007). It engages the consumer in an interactive manner while providing their required information with various alternatives as well. A good example of the use of digital media for providing information related to food products and simultaneously engaging the consumers with the product is the launch of Magnum’s facebook page in twenty countries in February 2011 by Unilever. It gained more than one million fans within five months only. It invites fans to share their views and experiences on Magnum along with their ideas about the variety of decadent delights and providing them information about the products at the same time. The fans share their indulgences and get information about the upcoming ones. The launch of Magnum’s online game in early 2011 took internet by storm. The fans can play through the luxurious brands’ websites making the character move across these (Anon., 2011). The study of consumer behavior in this era of contemporary digital media is the subject of this research. The growing use of smart phones and other digital media for search of information online has become popular and consumers prefer using these new digital media over the traditional ones including television and radio (Kiljander, et al., 2003). This emergent trend has affected MKTM021 ~ 7~ REHMAN ASLAM
  8. 8. the consumer behavior towards food products and their perceptions towards the same which has attracted the researcher to undertake this research. This research would be useful for companies as to what should be their focus while making strategies for online shoppers. 1.1 BACKGROUND From the late nineteenth century to approximately 1970s, various mass media had developed, labeled as traditional media from today’s perspective (Kung, et al., 2008). The technological changes after 1970s provided opportunities for the new media to emerge. Lievrouw & Livingstone (2002) discussed that the key concept behind new media is of ‘convergence’ boundaries because between the technological previously changes have independent areas. blurred the Broadcasting, communications, electronics, computing and publishing technologies have merged. Gorman & McLean (2003) opined that collectively these technologies can be categorized as content, platforms and distribution. These have converged to provide information to the consumers at a single source. This convenience of getting information at one place has triggered the use of digital media tremendously over the past few years and has affected the consumer behavior. The use of traditional marketing mediums including print, television and out-of-home advertising has its own importance but it has been less effective in today’s market as compared to the contemporary digital mediums including internet and mobile marketing. 1.2 UNDERSTANDING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Consumer behavior is the set of processes involved when the individuals or groups select, purchase, use or dispose products or services to satisfy their needs or desires (Solomon, et al., 2010). It includes search for information related to the products and services as well. MKTM021 ~ 8~ REHMAN ASLAM
  9. 9. The behavior differs while dealing with products and dealing with services. The risk associated with the purchase of a service is higher than that of a product. According to Blythe (2008), a poor product can be returned or replaced but the poor service cannot be returned. For example, a faulty shaving machine can be returned to the seller for replacement but a bad haircut couldn’t be replaced with a good one. Hence the consumers have to be more cautious and have to gather more information regarding a service than a product. It is important to know what consumer behavior is because it is the major part of this research. According to Jayawardhena, et al. (2007), consumer behavior in traditional shopping and online shopping are mostly the same. Customers usually don’t use complete information about products that is available to them while shopping. Their buying decisions are sometimes habitual or automatic and sometimes influenced by emotions or behavior of others towards that product. Consumers read information only when they perceive any benefit from doing it. Schiffman & Kanuk (2004) discussed that consumers trust brands and label names that are recognized, this actually distorts their buying decisions. Their behavior is influenced by the way information is presented to them and the situation in which the choice is made. These are the shortcuts that consumers use to shorten the decision making process, which actually distort their behavior. Consumer behavior is affected by the losses they had suffered from or known from others. This repugnance behavior towards loss restricts consumers to change or avoid their decisions no matter how many benefits come with the losses. Consumers are more reluctant to suffer loss than they are motivated by the benefits of the product. The value placed to any product is inconsistent. Consumers tend to change their priorities and value placed on a product time to time. Their emotional MKTM021 ~ 9~ REHMAN ASLAM
  10. 10. attachments may restrict their behavior to replace the old products with the new and improved ones even if it is cost effective to do so. Blackwell, et al. (2001) explained that consumers’ behavior is influenced by their social circle they move in. All consumers are susceptible to social pressures as well as situational effects. Relatives, colleagues, neighbors or friends buying a product can influence the decision making of consumers towards buying the similar product. This refers to the indirect influence on consumer behavior. More direct could be the salesperson persuading to buy a certain product. A wide range of similar products can turn out to be irresistible to consumers making the process of decision making difficult. Consumers tend to research less, consider fewer choices, and evaluate available information differently as the range of choices increase. It can confuse the consumers about their prime objective expected from the product. According to Armstrong & Kotler (2012), consumers might not buy the product just for its functional need; they might make a decision to buy it to make a statement about their personality and what they would like to be. According to a report by Policy Studies Institute (2006), the above information about consumers helps us in understanding their behavior and the factors by which it is influenced and not necessarily only by the need of the product. 1.3 IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH Torkzadeh & Dhillon (2002) opined that consumers searching for variety of products and services, and purchasing these online have been acknowledged as a specialized segment of the market. Their behavior as consumers is now being regarded as significant to the businesses and marketers. MKTM021 ~ 10 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  11. 11. This research, therefore, would focus on consumer behavior towards food products and use of digital media by these consumers to search for information about food products online. This research would be helpful to marketers while preparing their marketing strategies especially for online shoppers. Consumers change their behavior with time and circumstances within which they are purchasing products and services. According to Solomon, et al. (2010), the criteria consumers use to assess products and services in a situation may differ from those in different situation. Consumers expect the advertisements and branding on digital media to be interactive and informative Emerald Group Publishing Limited (2011). It influences their decisions to buy or abstain from buying that product. Burger King launched Subservient Chicken, a viral campaign to promote its new line of sandwiches. It created a website where visitors could ask the chicken to do various actions including dancing and watching television. This was filmed by the creative team in collaboration with an actor wearing a chicken suit acting around four hundred different actions. The campaign gathered the attention of consumers and attracted them to play with the chicken. The results showed nine percent a week increase in the month following this campaign (Gillin, 2009). The increase in sales for Burger King indicated the behavior of consumers after playing with the chicken online, pushing people to buy the Subservient Chicken. Consumer behavior can be studied closely by the response of consumers to such campaigns, including consumer engagement, use of digital media and information search, impact on their purchasing behavior. Such campaigns also help companies to study consumer behavior closely and design the campaigns accordingly to engage the consumers. MKTM021 ~ 11 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  12. 12. 1.4 PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH The prime objective of this research is to find answer to the research question “how do consumers use digital media to research food products?” The research question can be dismantled in the following objectives for the purpose of specific and focused research: A. How aware are the consumers about branded food products? – Consumer behavior and Brand awareness B. Which media(s) do they use to research and what information do they look for online on food products? – Digital Media and its uses C. What is the behavior of consumers after they research about food products? – Purchase behavior of consumers, consumer satisfaction, brand loyalty This research will find out the answers to the above objectives that will collectively help in answering the research question. We have taken help from various studies and theories of consumer behavior to achieve results from this research. Theories of consumer behavior, purchasing behavior and decision, importance of consumer satisfaction and brand loyalty are discussed to carry out the research that how consumers research about food products using digital media. Literature related to digital media, its history and evolution and use has also been discussed to research why consumers use digital media to research and what digital media they use. 1.5 LIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH As mentioned above in 1.2 that consumers’ behavior tends to change with situations; there are certain variables that influence the behavior of a consumer. These are categorized MKTM021 ~ 12 ~ into demographics, REHMAN ASLAM geographic,
  13. 13. psychographic and behavioral by the researchers. The variables include age, gender, social class, ethnic group, region, personality, lifestyle, brand loyalty, benefits desired of the product or service etc (Solomon, et al., 2010). This research would be limited to the consumer behavior towards two types of food products that are getting famous in recent times; these include ready-to-eat food products and organic food products. This will help the research to be focused on specific food products and consumer behavior towards these. It will also help in arriving at the findings of what digital media is being used by consumers for research. Ready-to-Eat Food Products have been described by Ramasamy, et al., (2005) as the food presented or out for sale without further cooking or preparation, which is packaged on the site where they are being sold and are ready for consumption and utilization by consumers. Canned foods, convenience foods, fast foods, frozen foods, instant products, dried foods, preserved foods, etc. all comes under ready-to-eat foods. Usually, food is prepared keeping in view various factors including the habits, tastes, social status, availability, traditions, economic factor and geographic location of the consumers. Awareness is being created about these food products specially through digital media. Organic Food Products have been defined by Lockie, et al. (2006) as produce grown using practices that enhance soil health and natural ecological processes of nutrient and energy recycling which reduces the impacts of farming using artificial fertilizers and farming products. Generally health conscious consumers buy organic food even though these are expensive than the usual food products. Another limitation of this research is the sample size which was selected on personal contacts basis stretched over ten countries with different cultures, technological infrastructures, consumer’s habits; it was restricted MKTM021 ~ 13 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  14. 14. to ten respondents per country but the people were chosen on the basis of their inclination towards and use of internet for shopping food products online. 1.6 ORGANIZATION / STRUCTURE OF RESEARCH The research paper has been organized in the following structure to achieve the objectives: A. Chapter 1: Introduction to the research being conducted with the objectives achieved. B. Chapter 2: Review of literature discussing the research objective and also the criticism about the research area. C. Chapter 3: Research methodology and design discussing the approach taken for research and data collection methods to establish the objectives. D. Chapter 4: Research findings and Analysis through the approach taken and data collected and presented including the qualitative data answering the research objectives. E. Chapter 5: Discussion on the results arrived at in chapter 4 application of theories relating to the research objectives in line with the results. F. Chapter 6: Conclusion and summary of the research findings and recommendations, if any, for improvement. MKTM021 ~ 14 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  15. 15. G. Chapter 7: Appendices including the survey questionnaire. H. Chapter 8: References from the literature supporting the research. MKTM021 ~ 15 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  16. 16. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW MKTM021 ~ 16 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  17. 17. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter focuses on finding the answers to the research question through the published research carried out in past regarding consumer behavior specific to food products, brand awareness of food products, use of digital media, purchase behavior of consumers researching about products online, and the relationship among brand awareness, use of digital media and consumer behavior regarding purchase of food products. The research question “HOW DO CONSUMERS USE DIGITAL MEDIA TO RESEARCH FOOD PRODUCTS?” is presented and reviewed under the following objectives: A. How aware are the consumers about branded food products? – Consumer behavior and Brand awareness B. Which media(s) do they use to research and what information do they look for online on food products? – Digital Media and its uses C. What is the behavior of consumers after they research about food products? – Purchase behavior of consumers, consumer satisfaction, brand loyalty These three objectives are further distributed in the following areas of study to emphasize on the research in detail: 2.1 Consumer behavior specific to food products; important to explore the behavior of consumers aiming towards the objective that how they research about food products. 2.2 Brand awareness of consumers towards food products; the study about awareness of consumers towards food products is important in answering MKTM021 ~ 17 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  18. 18. the objective and explains why consumers actually do the research about these products. 2.3 Digital media and its uses; history of digital media and its use in today’s world is essential in answering the research objective that which digital media are most commonly used by consumers to research about food products. 2.4 Purchase behavior of consumers; the behavior of consumers to buy any product is essential in finding the answer to the research carried out because the consumers usually research about products when they have an intention to buy those products. 2.5 Consumer Satisfaction; the satisfaction of consumers by the information available to them online and also their post-purchase satisfaction is necessary to help in finding answer to the research question why consumers research online. 2.6 Brand loyalty; the behavior of consumers towards a brand being loyal to it would help in the main research to answer why consumer research about any product online. The study of the above areas related to consumer behavior and digital media will assist in developing the research methodology and subsequent findings with areas of improvements related to the research. 2.1 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR SPECIFIC TO FOOD PRODUCTS This objective relates to the consumer behavior specific to food products. It will help in finding answer towards our main objective “how do consumers use digital media to research food products?” and developing an understanding of their behavior towards two main types of food products, ready-to-eat food products and organic food products. These types of food products are getting famous in today’s fast paced working world and health conscious people from this fast paced world. MKTM021 ~ 18 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  19. 19. Capaldi (2006) discussed that consumer behavior is product specific which is proven to be true from the studies of other disciplines as well. The inspirations that persuade consumer’s decision for a cellular phone are poles apart from the ones that drive the decision of buying a new car. According to Blythe (2008), there is a huge room for researchers to learn from exploring how consumers behave in different ways when purchasing different types of products. This section presents an overview of recent research from marketing about consumer behavior specific to food products. Related literature from other disciplines of study has been discussed in this section as well. The category of food and drink serve as a necessary part in consumers’ lives. Consumers are well aware of this group of products. Specific consumer behavior can be examined through the psychology and composition of the consumption of food, which Capaldi (2006) suggests is explained by a number of reasons including food preferences are extraordinarily defiant to change, preference for a food increases with consumption, flavor-flavor learning and the dessert effect. a. Food preferences are extraordinarily defiant to change: food behavior is much less likely to change unlike other behaviors, as long as the consumer does not experience an adverse effect to the food such as food poisoning or nutritional deficiencies. b. Consumption of food’s relation to preference: the more consumers consume any food, the more they develop a preference for it. Shah & Oppenheimer (2008) have termed as ‘heuristics’ by researchers. c. Flavor-flavor learning: the preference for a new food is more likely to develop if it is matched with the consumption of an already liked food. d. The dessert effect: food relates not only to our hunger, health and tastes for certain products but also to our lifestyle, family and personality. Lonneker, et al. (2008) suggest buying and eating food is MKTM021 ~ 19 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  20. 20. no longer just an issue of sustenance, but one of status, personal selfmodeling and identity: opening a refrigerator in front of strangers ‘is like baring the soul’. Ozaki, et al. (2008) considered it tricky to study the consumer behavior regarding their purchasing preferences towards food products. Their study disclosed that consumers usually present socially popular answers when inquired about their behavior towards the purchase of food products, this leads to a difference of opinion between stated inclinations and their actual behavior. Consumers find it difficult to express and justify their motivators for making a decision for food purchases. Just (2006) discussed that consumer behavior towards the purchases of food products is probably motivated by an automatic and emotive thought process than controlled and cognitive process. This is evident by the regularity with which they buy food and it is dependent on much emotional and automatic favoritism. Food satisfies one of the most basic needs of consumers, i.e. hunger. The preference and habit of a specific food product would be affected if the consumer is hungry. Hence, the behavior of consumers is different in different circumstances. Cotton (2007) explored the major development in the food segment in relation to the promotion of specialist food producers. He reported the emerging trend of status symbols being transformed into status lifestyles. Consumers want better products rather than wanting more as the levels of prosperity increases and lifestyles gets better. Likewise, people would like to get the best in contrast to them wanting more in past as their status improves. Different cultures have different views regarding environmentally preferred food products and these products are desired to be consumed; no matter how consumers link these to their purchasing behavior. Baker & Hart (2008) explored this development of consumers towards seeking higher quality and coined the emergence of such consumers’ group as ‘Transumers’ (Trendwatching.com, 2006). Their MKTM021 ~ 20 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  21. 21. status lifestyle is one of transience which is driven exclusively by enjoying as many diverse products as feasible. However, the search for status lifestyles can contribute directly to the strengths of specialist food brands including environmentally preferable products, by offering experience and participation. This can be experienced through digital media or prospects for consumers to visit the food production site. Consumers are shifting from home cooking towards ready-to-eat food and dining out. Basically this is due to the modern lifestyle that leaves the consumer with less time for them while earning good money. The consumption of convenience meals is growing among the consumers; however, the consumers are also attracting towards a more relaxed entertaining approach to cooking for weekend meals including celebrations. In terms of marketing, Blythe (2008) proposed the use of cobranding for local products and ingredients to make the derivation of food more obvious and to increase food’s desirability. For example the use of milk from local farm with tea will possibly raise the value of both brands. Moving towards finding the answers to the research being undertaken, the researcher thinks that consumers’ perceptions are important to study in this research as according to Moorthy & Hawkins (2005) these affect the behavior of consumers towards a brand or product. These include quality perception, price perception, value perception and risk perception. a. perceived quality is considered as the most important driver of a consumer’s buying behavior De Maeyer & Estelami (2011). The quality of food products highly influence the attitude of consumer to search for any brand online. b. perceived price is another basic factor that consumer takes into consideration while searching for any product online and subsequently buying the product. c. perceived value has superseded quality in some respects as contended by Cronin, et al. (2000) and satisfaction Sweeney, et al. MKTM021 ~ 21 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  22. 22. (1999). The consumers perceive high value for their money spent on purchase of food products. d. perceived risk is the significance and uncertainty of consequences associated to any product Cho & Lee (2006) that a consumer assess in a decision making situation. The analysis of these perceptions would help this research to gather valid data that will help in arriving at a conclusion to research question “how do consumers use digital media to research food products?” As the researchers like (Capaldi, 2006; Blythe, 2008) suggested that consumer behavior is product specific, this research will therefore be finding answers for consumer behavior and the use of digital media specific to food products. 2.2 BRAND AWARENESS OF CONSUMERS TOWARDS FOOD PRODUCTS This objective relates to the awareness of food products among consumers and its importance. A. How aware are the consumers about branded food products? Brand awareness has been described by Keller (2008) as the strength of the brand itself in memory as reflected by consumers’ ability to identify various brand elements such as brand name, character, logo, symbol, packaging, and slogan under different situations. Several measures of awareness of brand elements are used by marketers to know the relative importance of brand awareness for consumer behavior and its role in the success of the marketing program. According to Solomon, et al. (2010), these elements include brand recognition, brand recall, corrections for guessing and strategic implications. MKTM021 ~ 22 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  23. 23. a. Brand Recognition is the identification of brand by consumers under a variety of circumstances and can rest on the identification of any of the brand elements. There are six criteria for brand elements in general including memo ability, meaningfulness, likability, transferability, adaptability and protect ability (de Chernatony, 2010). Variety of recognition tests are used by marketers and researchers ranging from basic to somewhat subtle tests. In basic tests, consumers are given a set of individual items orally or visually and asked whether they have previously heard or seen these items. While in other tests, perceptually degraded versions of products, which are distorted or masked, are given to consumers for brand recognition. Keller (2008) discussed that packaging is really important for brand recognition. The ideal conditions to recognize a brand by its packaging, as considered by researchers are, when a consumer i. with 20 – 20 vision ii. is face-to-face with a package iii. at a distance of less than five feet iv. under ideal lighting conditions. However the conditions under which the consumer shop may not be ideal, therefore a number of specific criteria are used by researchers to test the effectiveness of package for recognition. According to Keller (2008), these include the degree of shelf impact, recall of specific design elements of a package, distance and angle at which the package is first identified, speed with which the package can be identified and perceived package size. Marketers can determine the existence of specific brand elements and the extent of their strength of the association for brand recognition, by applying these direct and indirect measures and criteria. These measures provide an approximation MKTM021 ~ 23 ~ of potential REHMAN ASLAM recall-ability;
  24. 24. therefore Temporal (2010) believes that we need measures of brand recall to determine whether consumers actually recall the brand elements under different scenarios. b. Brand Recall is a more demanding memory task not just asking consumers to say whether they have seen it before or not, but consumers have to retrieve the actual brand elements from their memory when given some related cue or probe. According to Franzen & Moriarty (2009), the most important issue is the prominence of brand, how quickly does a consumer recalls a brand; do they recall the brand under right circumstances? Is it automatically or easily recalled? Is it the first brand they recall? Test involving brand name recognition with missing letters Keller (2008) (refer Table I) may be particularly important for consumers to recall brands with high level of recognition. 1. D__NE_ DISNEY 2. K_D_K KODAK 3. L_G_ LEGO 4. N_K_ NIKE 5. G_LL__T_ GILLETTE 6. H_LL__RK HALLMARK 7. HY__T HYATT 8. D_LT_ DELTA Table I: Brand Awareness Test (Top of the Mind) It is evident from Table I that a brand with high level of awareness will be identified and recognized under less than ideal conditions with less information. The purchasing behavior of consumers is greatly subjective to awareness and attitude towards the product. The major source of information was considered to be the commercial advertisements on television and also the MKTM021 ~ 24 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  25. 25. product displays in the retail stores. Whatever the source of information be it, consumers are affected by the information they get about food products. Ramasamy, et al. (2005) believes that the decision making process of consumers is based on various features of the products including their own opinion of the product or brand. 2.3 DIGITAL MEDIA AND ITS USES The objective of discussing the digital media and its uses would help in answering the research question to explain what digital media is used by the consumers and why they use it. At the start of twenty-first century, some emerging media appear to have the potential of influencing how consumers access information about the products. According to Gorman & McLean (2003), this happened because the traditional media companies have adapted to deliver information about their products in a diverse manner. The use of new technologies by companies to serve customers is rapidly growing. Technological interfaces, called as Self-service technologies (SSTs) enable consumers to produce a service independent of direct employee interaction (Meuter, et al., 2003). According to Lin & Hsieh (2007) it has changed the way consumers interact with companies to create service outcomes. These new media include personal digital assistants and associated handheld devices including cellular phones. According to Gorman & McLean (2003), it also includes the devices that use WAP technology to access information electronically. Researchers suggest that marketspace transaction is replacing traditional marketplace transaction. Marketspace is referred to a virtual domain where products and services are available as digital information and can be disseminated through information based mediums (Rayport & Sviokla, MKTM021 ~ 25 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  26. 26. 1995). Marketspace transactions do not require any interpersonal contact between the buyer and seller, therefore the information conveyed through the digital media should have integrity, authenticity, accuracy and completeness. A. Which media(s) do they use to research and what information do they look for online on food products? There is no doubt the rapid pace of digital media growth has transformed the way consumers think, behave and interact with each other and with businesses. However, most consumer products companies struggle with adapting their strategies, capabilities and internal processes to meet these new consumer needs. Kung, et al. (2008) discussed that this major shift in the consumers’ dialogue with brand is because of the use of internet and contemporary new media. Feedback was restricted to one way communication as the information about these brands was disseminated consumers through television, newspapers and radio. Consumers use digital and social media throughout the purchasing process, from searching for a product, to the identification of product and comparison with similar other products, to purchasing and post-purchase customer services. The opportunity to engage with the consumers in an effective and timely manner to build long-term loyalty is huge. However, the implications are massive if the companies fail to provide effective and timely information and service to the consumers. Moving towards digital technology for marketing and corporate strategies by the consumer products companies help these to understand their consumers and their needs individually. It enables these companies to target them accordingly. The most common and favorite medium to search for information is internet which has become more popular than other means of doing so. Consumers use internet to collect information about brands and products. MKTM021 ~ 26 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  27. 27. Delafrooz, et al. (2009) opined that the success of businesses rely on the establishment of valuable communications between consumers and business’ websites. Consumers can search for their queries and required products on websites, and in case they couldn’t find what they are looking for, they can always communicate to the customer services through free phones or emails. The consumers expect quick responses related to their queries and in real time most of the times. If the consumers do not receive answers or even satisfactory response then they usually dislike the products. According to Cheng, et al. (2006), consumers spend more time on the Internet searching for products and brands than any other media. These consumers can interact with the product or brand for longer time than they do on the traditional mediums including television and radio. Such behavior of engagement by the consumers leads to a closer inspection which can result in picking up any errors in the information available on the websites. The information should be corrected and updated in case the consumers report any gap in the information. Brands have come under the era of two way communication after the introduction of internet and smart phones to search for information. Social networking websites, companies’ websites and online blogs have turned into chief sources of information related to food products. According to Crespo & del Bosque (2010), thousands of consumers have become habitual to communicate with the products, shopping online and providing reviews subsequently. These consumers relate themselves to the brands and products they are aware of and giving feedback to the businesses related to these products. This communication has now become interactive and constant; one medium of information can guide to the other one; such as from television to internet. Researchers like (Young, 2010; Thorson & Duffy, 2011; Shilbury & Westerbeek, 2009) have outlined many advantages of using digital media for marketing over the traditional mediums. These include: MKTM021 ~ 27 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  28. 28. a. reduced cost by avoiding printing ads in yellow pages directories and news papers, or telecasting advertisements on radio and television; b. measurability of impact on business and sales. Online marketing makes it easier to track the traffic of consumers online and impact on increased sales thereon; c. brand engagement by providing updated information online to consumers that make their purchase decisions easier and create brand awareness. According to Young (2010), all these advantages not only benefit the companies but also lead towards brand awareness, engagement and consumers’ intent to purchase the product. Barkhuus & Polichar (2011) investigated that consumers have adapted and adopted various features in smart phones to suit their lifestyles and needs. They prefer using smart phones to access internet even when there are other devices such as PCs available for it. According to Kiljander, et al. (2003) searching for information on the web using smart phones is a highly desirable activity of consumers. This ease and convenience permits the consumers to research for food products as well on the go. However, research done by Liu, et al. (2003) has shown that consumers give up looking for their required product or turn to traditional channels to purchase their required products if they couldn’t find what they are looking for. The incomplete or missing information lead to this attitude of consumers. This research would find how consumers can search for products online efficiently and what do companies need to do to keep the consumers stuck to their products. 2.4 PURCHASE BEHAVIOR OF CONSUMERS This objective explains the process of purchasing which includes information gathering, evaluation and making a decision to buy a product. MKTM021 ~ 28 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  29. 29. This will help in finding the reasons and factors that makes a consumer research about products. A. What research they do on food products that influence their decisions to buy or abstain from buying? Consumers look for contents to satisfy their specific and actual needs. The information available to them should be concrete and complete. Incomplete or even redundant information may confuse the consumers (Bakker & Sadaba, 2008). This information is necessary for consumers to develop intent for purchasing the product. According to Salzman, et al. (2003), consumers expect from the businesses that they consider their importance as consumers of their products and recognize their value by providing comprehensive and updated information of the products. These consumers have not limited themselves to searching for information and seeking opinions for the products they intend to buy. The consumer evaluates the information about any product and develops a consideration to purchase that product; this behavior is referred to as the purchase intention of the consumer. Keller (2001) discussed that the behavior can be viewed as a major factor for predicting consumers’ purchasing trends as well as their individual intentions. When consumers choose one good, the final decision depended on their intention. Therefore, most marketers think the intention of the consumers is a valuable method of forecasting purchasing by the consumers. In addition, both (Sudhir & Talukdar, 2004; Sethuraman, 2003) and offer that quality perception and purchase intention have a positive relationship. It is also assumed that consumers’ purchase intention will be influenced by quality perception, objective price and value perception. Quality perception of consumers is the result of individual’s judgment for a product, and consumers can evaluate a product by judging the superiority of products. MKTM021 ~ 29 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  30. 30. Perceived quality may be wholly objective or totally subjective. It includes a subject-object interaction because consumers would form a subjectively brand image by product or service diversity. Furthermore, quality consciousness of a product can be valued in contrast to other goods, and the sense is objective because it depends on the subjects and the context. Aaker (2000) defines that perceived quality is that the recognized level for the quality of whole product, as well as the subjective satisfaction in comparing with other brands’ quality for certain sakes. Therefore, perceived quality can make consumers have a subjective judgment and form brand differences of product or service. Finally, consumers’ perceived quality becomes an influence factor, when they want to buy a product. However, Aaker (2000) thinks there are some differences between perceived quality and actual quality. a. Different quality cognitions exist in consumers and manufacturers; manufacturers must focus on some product attributes, when they promote their products. However, consumers might do not consider the attribute is important for them. b. Prior image or knowledge; the consumers with more prior knowledge are inclined to have more interrelated schemata of product-related cognitions, which would affect their processing of quality-related information. Moreover, consumers may be affected by former bad quality, and then they do not want to believe that new products have already improved their quality. c. Incomplete product information; generally, consumers are seldom to acquire necessary information to evaluate the product objectively. Even though they have abundant information, they may not have enough time to judge the product (Binninger, 2008). Finally, what they only can do is that they just choose the most important information to evaluate MKTM021 ~ a 30 ~ product alternatively. REHMAN ASLAM Additionally,
  31. 31. consumers may choose wrong cues or do not know what the correct product information is. (Binninger, 2008; Sethuraman, 2003) found that the quality of products serves as an essential role in the satisfaction and purchase decision of the consumers. Online consumer behavior is complex and can be described as the process of purchasing products or services via the Internet. Researchers like Liang & Lai (2000) have indicated that this process have similarities with traditional shopping behaviors. Consumers use internet for searching related information for food products when they recognize a need for products or services during the process of internet shopping. If the information search result can meet their needs, the potential consumers evaluate alternatives in order to choose one of the best products or services, and finally purchase that product. After this whole purchase process, according to Teo & Yeong (2003), the post-purchase evaluation is done to assist in future purchase decisions. There are many studies of online consumer behaviors in recent years, most of them focus on the factors influencing the online consumer behaviors, and the researchers seem to find different factors in different ways. Moreover, there is a variety of studies which focus on comparisons between online and offline consumer behavior in relation to different products has been presented. Consumers often use the Internet search for product information before buying from online or offline stores. It makes the dependability on digital media and its information more important. According to Wolfinbarger & Gilly (2001), the Internet shopping allows consumers more freedom to continuously visit and purchase products; even they leave without a purchase. This research will find relationship between the purchase behavior of consumer while using digital media for searching about food products MKTM021 ~ 31 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  32. 32. online. The researcher believes that the quality of information available online has significant affect on the purchase behavior of consumers. This will be discussed in the light of research findings in coming chapters. 2.5 CONSUMER SATISFACTION Olsen, et al. (2005) defines consumer satisfaction as a global appraisal or a mind-set toward a product or service. Consumer satisfaction depends on the comparison between the initial or expected quality and the real results or experienced quality. The quality of information available to consumers about food products through the digital media convenient to use would develop intent to purchase which would result in the subsequent purchase of the product by the consumers. According to Bennett (2010), consumer satisfaction results in long lasting relationship with a brand which leads towards brand loyalty. Foxall (2005) described the process of determining consumer satisfaction where customer needs are identified, their expectations are determined, resulting in building relationship with that brand. It is observed that a customer buying a food product will only be satisfied if the food is of good quality and is hygienic. Satisfaction is a result of positive brand experiences which includes good product performance, confirmation of positive experiences from others and the effective customer service of the companies. Franzen & Moriarty (2009) opined that the consumer satisfaction is directly proportional to the brand relationship. The more satisfied the customer, the more long lasting the brand relationship. In case of this research, good quality food products would lead towards the positive brand experience and long lasting brand relationship. Satisfaction arises when the consumers’ expectation are met while dissatisfaction arises when these expectations are not confirmed. Dimitriades (2006) opined that if the customers are satisfied, they become MKTM021 ~ 32 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  33. 33. less price conscious, less susceptible to competitors’ attacks and brand loyal for longer period. This research is aimed towards finding answer towards consumer behavior and use of digital media for information search. If the information at the disposal of consumers is comprehensive and consumers have positive perceptions of the product then satisfaction level would be high. The survey to be undertaken during this research would prove this statement. 2.6 BRAND LOYALTY Brand loyalty has been described by Franzen & Moriarty (2009) as a commitment of consumer to buy a brand on an ongoing basis in the future which results in repurchase of the brand despite of competitors’ efforts to enforce brand switching behavior and situational influences as well. According to Temporal (2010), brand awareness leads to involvement of consumers after getting information about the product and purchasing followed by trust and respect for the brand which eventually turns into brand loyalty. Oliver (1999) opined that brand loyalty has a behavioral as well as an attitudinal aspect. The brand commitment from consumers reflects their future brand buying behavior. According to Cai & Hobson (2004), brand loyalty should be confirmed through positive and encouraging customer experiences. On the other hand Franzen & Moriarty (2009) discussed that some experts criticize the brand loyalty of consumers and believe that consumers are loyal to a group of preferred brands within a category and rarely to a specific brand. The consumers switch among the brands in the category depending upon the marketing factors such as availability, price, service and consumer’s previous experience with the specific brand and similar brands of competitors. According to Phillips (2007), most people born during the last two decades of the twentieth century are not brand loyal. These consumers are less MKTM021 ~ 33 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  34. 34. brand loyal than previous generations, due to their constant exposure to price promotions. They want products that match their personality and lifestyle, paying little attention to brands. Littman (2008) discussed that these consumers’ choice of new brands is often determined by peer recommendation transmitted directly or through social networking channels. This makes the role of digital media and the quality of information available to the consumers online very important. Researcher of this dissertation believes that a satisfied customer who had good experience with a product or brand may lead the customer to that product or brand when a similar product is to be purchased. The researcher will find an answer to this statement through the findings of the survey. 2.7 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW The main question of this research, “how do consumers use digital media to research food products?” was distributed into three main objectives, to help in finding answers about the research topic while focusing on the relevant published literature and the research carried out. A. How aware are the consumers about branded food products? Consumer behavior is transforming from searching for food products through traditional media towards contemporary digital media and they are now involving more in digital media use for getting information about food products according to Crespo & del Bosque (2010), developing intent to purchase, making decision to buy the product (Aaker, 2000), level of satisfaction and subsequent loyalty towards the products and brands. Their perceptions about the quality, value, price or risk while decision making are relatively easier to fulfill than in the past. They can research thousands of similar food products online to minimize their concerns about the products. MKTM021 ~ 34 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  35. 35. Ideally consumers should be more aware about the products due to the free access to product information online. The consumer behavior towards food products is less likely to change unless the consumers do not experience an adverse effect to that product. Their preference increase as they consume more of the same product. Lonneker, et al. (2008) & Capaldi (2006) suggest that this consistent behavior has turned into the lifestyles of the consumers. Consumers are more conscious is researching for food products and subsequently buying these products as these relate to things ranging from our health, personality to our life expectancy. This behavior suggests that the consumers would thoroughly research for the food products more than they do for other products. The awareness about any food product would influence their behavior towards the product as well. Solomon, et al. (2010) discussed that brand awareness includes brand recognition and recall which let the consumers recognize any brand when they see it. These two elements also help in searching for information using digital media. B. Which media(s) do they use to research and what information do they look for online on food products? Over the years digital marketing has changed how consumers engage with brands and is rapidly changing the landscape of traditional marketing strategies and structures (Thorson & Duffy, 2011). Food industry has also changed the way it used to communicate and market its products to the consumers. Kung, et al. (2008) also opined that the medium has been changed from traditional to digital over the years which show the importance of digital media in the businesses and their marketing. MKTM021 ~ 35 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  36. 36. Consumers’ behavior towards a food product and their ability to recognize a brand has provided convenience of searching about these products online using different digital media including smart phones, tablet PCs and laptops. Researchers like Barkhuus & Polichar (2011) and Kiljander, et al. (2003) investigated that smart phones have become popular in searching for information on the web. Consumers have customized their smart phones applications to provide them the information on the go. They stated that consumers prefer using smart phones over other digital media to search for information. According to Bakker & Sadaba (2008), the quality of information available to users online should be appropriate and not incomplete or even redundant. This directly relates to their behavior to be favorable or adverse towards any product. The consumers expect the information to be complete, comprehensive and updated. C. What is the behavior of consumers after they research about food products? The consumers search for food products according to their needs and recognize the brands that they are familiar to. Smart phones are the most popular and common digital media gadget used to search for information (Kiljander, et al., 2003). Consumers develop intent to purchase the product after assessing the information and comparing the results with similar products online. Once they choose the best option, they buy the product and experience the actual product. If the actual result of the product is as per the expectations and need of the consumers than they develop the behavior of satisfaction for that specific product or brand (Olsen, et al., 2005). According to Cai & Hobson (2004), this satisfaction through positive brand experience leads to brand loyalty. This satisfaction makes them less price conscious towards the specific brands and products (Dimitriades, MKTM021 ~ 36 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  37. 37. 2006). Eventually consumers buy the products repeatedly. They also recommend the products and the brand to their friends and in their social circle. The literature review has helped in finding the answer to the research topic “how do consumers use digital media to research food products?” Changing lifestyles of consumers are resulting in a trend where basic food preferences are being surpassed by seeking new food experiences and using contemporary digital media for information on these products. Consumers mostly research about food products using smart phones which are getting popular and most commonly used as the digital media gadget. They research a wide range of option due to the ease of search on the World Wide Web. Their positive product experience after buying the actual product and experiencing the expected quality with the actual one makes them satisfied towards the product and loyal to the brand. MKTM021 ~ 37 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  38. 38. CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MKTM021 ~ 38 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  39. 39. 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The objective of this research is to find answer to the research question “how do consumers use digital media to research food products?” making use of the theories and research on consumer behavior, digital media, consumer buying behavior, consumer satisfaction and brand loyalty. The main research question was dismantled into the following objectives to help in focusing on the relevant published literature and research carried out: A. How aware are the consumers about branded food products? – Consumer behavior and Brand awareness B. Which media(s) do they use to research and what information do they look for online on food products? – Digital Media and its uses C. What is the behavior of consumers after they research about food products? – Purchase behavior of consumers, consumer satisfaction, brand loyalty The academic literature referred to and discussed in the literature review (chapter 2) of this dissertation has given us the answers to the research carried out on the topic of dissertation in relevant areas. This suggests that the quality of information available online and appropriate digital media helps consumers in researching about the food products making their decision of buying convenient and effective. The information provided online, if matches the original product when bought, provides great satisfaction to the consumer and subsequently developing brand loyalty. According to Kiljander, et al. (2003) the use of digital media to search for information online is getting popular. People prefer using smart phones over traditional media to search for information. This rapid and huge shift towards MKTM021 ~ 39 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  40. 40. new digital media has attracted the interest of the researcher towards this research “how do consumers use digital media to research food products?” 3.1 INTRODUCTION The basic objective of this chapter is to compose and gather dependable and valuable data about consumer behavior towards food products available online that helps in answering the research question; the data for this research is composed through professional and reliable practices. This chapter explains the study methodology which consists of research problem and objective, research approach and strategy, sampling method, data collection method, analysis of data in general and methodology used for this study in particular with limitations of data collection. In this section the tools of research are highlighted, that were chosen to evaluate the current behavioral state of consumers towards researching about food products using digital media. According to Saunders (2009), Amaratunga, et al. (2002) and Feurer & Chaharbaghi (1995), when we are dealing in a highly dynamic marketing environment, there is no single method that can be publicized as the best. However, to carry out the research and find answers to the research question, this research paper followed an exploratory research which explored and examined the current behavior of consumers related to searching about food products online. According to Denscombe (2010), this approach helps the researcher in generating information and insights. After analyzing the current situation, an investigation has been done to figure out whether there exist any shortcomings to the current situation. SPSS was used to analyze the data gathered through survey questionnaire for this research about searching food products using digital media and consumer behavior. This has helped the researcher in correlating the results of finding with the research already done. MKTM021 ~ 40 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  41. 41. 3.2 RESEARCH APPROACH AND DESIGN Saunders, et al. (2003) proposed two research approaches which are ‘deductive’ and ‘inductive’. A systematic approach which is well structured is quite crucial in order to conduct a research, no matter what area is being researched and which strategy is adopted. According to Easterby- Smith, et al. (2002), a deductive research is the one that generally begins with a theory, principle or an idea; based on these the researcher make a hypothesis which is then testing by collecting information and data to arrive at a result if the hypothesis was right or wrong. On the other hand, inductive approach is a responsive approach as there is no requirement of existing and proven theories to collect information and data. Researchers adopting inductive approach tend to study a small sample in contrast to a large sample used in deductive approach. These researchers tend to use qualitative data, and other mixture of data to establish different concepts of phenomenon. This research thus adopts inductive approach as promoted by Thomas (2006) to condense the extensive raw data about consumers’ pre-purchase as well as post purchase behavior towards food products and the use of digital media. This data is collected through the responses of the questionnaire from seventy eight respondents and condensed into a summary. The researcher has established links between the research objectives and the findings derived from the research data in order to arrive at the answers to the research question (David, 2003). In order to attain the objective of this research, a questionnaire has been sent to different internet users who use digital media and social networks. The tools have been chosen keeping in mind the complexity of data involved and time constraint. According to Blumberg, et al. (2005) these mentioned factors play a significant role in choosing a research methodology for business research. MKTM021 ~ 41 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  42. 42. 3.3 METHOD OF SAMPLING The main objective behind conducting a primary research is to better understand the topic and determine significance about a specific situation, experience and constructing a theory (Kent, 2001). The motive behind this research was to find answer to how does consumers research about food products using digital media; therefore, the candidates for questionnaires were intentionally selected to successfully reach a conclusion. These candidates were articulate and reflective, willing to share their experience openly and active users of digital media and internet. Tomlinson & Boorman (2001) have proposed and described three types of non-random sampling methods namely snowball, purposive and theoretical sampling. Denscombe (2010) describes purposive sampling as a method which allows the researcher to deliberately choose people for the research based on their known attributes i.e. their relevance and knowledge towards the topic. Snowball sampling is also known as chain sampling or referral sampling. Biggam (2011) describes this method as a process in which a few people from relevant area of research are known to the researcher who request them to refer more interested people to participate in the research being undertaken. A mix of purposive and snowball sampling method is chosen for this research to reach the quality of work useful for this research. This mix of methods would consume less time to gather data and would help in increasing the sample size as well. The researcher had sent the questionnaire to twenty (20) people known on the basis of their relevance and knowledge towards online food products purchasing. These people were requested to send the questionnaire to others with same attributes. In this survey, the sample consisted of one hundred (100) consumers from which seventy eight (78) could respond back. As Denscombe (2010) stated that small sample size is sufficient for small scale qualitative research, the number of respondents to the questionnaire ensures that adequate data is collected for this research and MKTM021 ~ 42 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  43. 43. that the sample represents the characteristics of the population. The consumers, including but not limited to, housewives, students, accountants, engineers and marketers across North America, Europe, Middle East, Asia, Africa and Australia were chosen for the purpose of this research. This diverse selection of consumers became possible due to researcher’s experience in industry and connections with people across the world. 3.4 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION According to Nguyen & Oloufa (2001) telephonic interviews, face to face interviews and mail self administered questionnaire are the most common survey methods to analyze collected data. All of these methods assist the researcher to gather data personally and address the specific issue and areas important to research. According to Hox & Boeije (2005), primary data collection also gives control over data to the researcher. A questionnaire was drafted covering all research objectives in order to collect the data in an efficient manner to represent an evocative winding up of the research. It was written in simple English making it easily understandable by the respondents. This was taken into consideration keeping in view the diverse sample of respondents from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. The use of jargons was avoided to avoid misinterpretation of questions asked as suggested by Blumberg, et al. (2005). Piloting has also been done to minimize the ambiguity in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to active internet users who were carefully selected by the researcher for the purpose of this study. Researcher thinks that the best understanding of the research depends on the selection of sample. This research deals with consumer behavior linked with digital media. MKTM021 ~ 43 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  44. 44. 3.5 THE QUESTIONNAIRE AND SURVEY PERIOD Polonsky & Waller (2005) have suggested that the response rate of the respondents significantly depends on the length of questionnaire, personalization and introductory notification. Therefore, these factors have also been taken care of while designing the questionnaire. The mind sets of respondents were developed well in advance by informing them about the questionnaire to be sent to them. The length of the designed questionnaire is also appropriate; it consists of 27 questions which require less than 15 minutes to answer them. It was distributed in nine parts to assist the researcher to study and analyze the responses more precisely. The respondents were given two weeks’ time to respond to the questionnaire so the responses came in time, as delays in sending and receiving the responses via email were already accounted for within the two weeks’ time frame. Breakup of Questionnaire 7 14 6 Consumer Behavior & Brand Awareness Digital Media & Information Purchase Behavior, Customer Satisfaction and Brand Loyalty Figure I: Breakup of questionnaires research area wise MKTM021 ~ 44 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  45. 45. 3.6 THE MEASUREMENT MODEL – LIKERT SCALE The most generally used psychometric scale among psychological measurements that involve self-reporting is the Likert scale (Wakita, et al., 2012). Likert Scale is used to gather the empirical data; this is a well established research tool which allows ascribing quantitative value to qualitative data making it amendable to statistical analysis. The questionnaire was prepared to aid the respondents to understand the questions easily and to answer swiftly. The Likert scale for the questionnaire includes six variables from strongly agree to strongly disagree giving the respondents a wide range to answer the questions. The element of neutral response has been excluded from this research to minimize ambiguity in the responses from respondents. 3.7 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS Kent (2001) opined that when the data is gathered, analysis of that data is the next step. This analysis helps in providing information about the research objectives and describing relationship among these objectives. Quantitative and qualitative approaches are the most common tools of data analysis. According to Saunders, et al. (2003), quantitative model is based on a scientific approach (surveys, feedback forms) whereas qualitative model is descriptive (case studies, interviews). This research would make use of both the approaches as according to Feurer & Chaharbaghi (1995) a right balance between the two approaches is helpful in the achievement and implementation of the most appropriate researching strategy. The following illustration clarifies this balance between the two approaches: MKTM021 ~ 45 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  46. 46. Figure II: Contingent approach to research (Source: Feurer and Chaharbaghi, 1995) 3.7.1 RELIABILITY OF DATA The consistency and accuracy of information gathered in a survey is referred to as reliability of data by Flick (2006). According to him it is easier and simpler to test the reliability of qualitative data in contrast to the quantitative data. The method of data analysis used in this research has been described by the researcher to avoid any issue with reliability of data. Bryman (2004) suggested that repetition of the data collection on different locations and occasions ensures reliability. Researcher has collected data from consumers from ten different countries within two weeks, making the data collected at multiple places and occasions to ensure reliability. Transparency of theoretical work is also maintained by relating the structure with the research and providing substantiation to the conclusion drawn. MKTM021 ~ 46 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  47. 47. 3.7.2 VALIDITY OF DATA According to Robson (2002) there are various types of errors or biases that affect the research from the researchers’ point of view. Researcher can mould and manipulate the responses received during the research in order to make these compatible with the desired outcome of the research. The validity of content has been achieved, as opined by Brod, et al. (2009), by generalizing the responses of the survey into a broader domain with the intention of obtaining a representative of the whole domain as relevant as possible. The researcher has presented the results as received from the respondents but in a generalized manner. Efforts have been made to avoid individual responses to be presented as the representative of the whole survey. 3.8 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION This research complies with The University of Northampton code of ethics to account for core ethical reflection, covering informed consent and issues of confidentiality. The business ethical requirements are observed during this research and therefore the right of participants and data gathered from research is fortified. According to Polansky (1998) there are various ethical issues that are faced by researchers during data gathering. These include subject recruitment issue (justification for sample chosen), autonomy and information issues, data analysis issues, harm issues (any harm to respondents physically or otherwise) and anonymity and confidentiality issues. Researcher has taken all necessary steps to comply all the ethical considerations. The participants involved in this research were fully made conscious of the research and any possible risk implicated, and it was guaranteed that no participant will be affected by the research adversely. MKTM021 ~ 47 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  48. 48. Anonymity is maintained of the respondents and can only be disclosed with their consent. It was ensured that no disturbance is made to the routine tasks of the participants. Therefore the questionnaire was sent to them via email and it was filled and responded back by them according to their time of convenience within the requested two weeks. The confidentiality of data is also ensured and no third party could have access to the information gathered. 3.9 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter has provided detailed description of research methodologies used and adopted in order to answer the research objectives. A mix of purposive and snowball sampling methods is used to save time and get data from more respondents. The questionnaire was introduced with the reason for adopting primary research and the benefits of it for this research. Qualitative method is used to gather data while a mix of both qualitative and quantitative methods are used to analyze the data gathered through questionnaire. Compliance of code of ethics lay down by researchers and The University of Northampton is also mentioned in the chapter. Discussion based on the results of data gathered is carried out in the next chapters with subsequent findings and conclusions drawn from the discussion and findings under the literature reviewed in chapter 2 of this dissertation. SPSS is used to analyze the data and the results are presented in tabular and graphical illustrations. MKTM021 ~ 48 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  49. 49. CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS MKTM021 ~ 49 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  50. 50. 4. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS This chapter focuses on the research findings from the questionnaire (refer Appendix – A) prepared under methods and procedures mentioned in previous chapter, research methodology (refer Chapter 3) and analysis of these findings. Research findings will be discussed under the areas discussed in literature review (refer Chapter 2) to provide clarity to the reader and to provide a base for discussion in proceeding chapter of this dissertation. Graphical presentation will help in understanding the findings convenient. The questionnaire was based on the literature review discussed in this research’s Chapter 2. The questionnaire was sent to one hundred (100) consumers from which seventy eight (78) consumers responded (refer figure III). These respondents provided their feedback on every question of the questionnaire that made it possible for the researcher to analyze the data in its entirety. Response of Questionnaires Sent 22 Respondents who replied Respondents who did not reply 78 Figure III: Breakup of response of questionnaires sent MKTM021 ~ 50 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  51. 51. 4.1 PILOT TEST The pilot test was carried out for the questionnaire initially prepared by the researcher by sending it to five respondents including a marketer, a housewife, a postgraduate student, an online shopper and a professor of marketing in Pakistan. Statements in the questionnaire were reviewed by these people who are active internet users, to ensure that they had no confusion in understanding it. Statements were amended in the light of their feedback to make it easy to understand for the complete sample. The final questionnaire (refer Appendix A) was sent to hundred consumers following a mix of purposive and snowball sampling. 4.2 ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SAMPLE The research questionnaire was sent to 100 consumers from ten different countries across the world out of which 78 consumers participated in this survey. The questionnaire was resent to the consumers who didn’t respond in the first time to achieve uniformity in number of respondents from each country. The researcher made every possible effort to get the uniformity, though only seven responses were received from two countries in contrast to eight from every other country. These countries included Australia (8), Canada (8), Germany (8), India (8), Pakistan (8), South Africa (7), Switzerland (7), United Kingdom (8), United Arab Emirates (8) and United States of America (8). The research is about the consumer behavior towards food products using digital media so it was important to include the participants with the background of using internet and online shopping. Their views have given a better view about the research and are helpful in the answers to the research question. Their opinion about the online information, perceptions about quality, value, price and risk, online purchasing behavior, post purchase behavior including satisfaction and brand loyalty has helped in finding answer to the main research question of this dissertation. MKTM021 ~ 51 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  52. 52. 4.3 RELIABILITY TEST The reliability of data and responses is one of the most important things in any research as opined by (Flick, 2006). SPSS was used to test the reliability of data through carrying out Cronbach’s Alpha analysis. According to (Sijtsma, 2009), this is considered to be the most reported statistical indicator of test scores’ quality. As per Table II, the score of Cronbach’s alpha is above the acceptable limit of 0.70, which has been considered highly reliable by researchers like (Carmines & Zeller, 1988; Bryman, 2004) and is represented in figure IV. These scores suggest that the responses are internally consistent. Reliability Statistics Area of research No. of Items - Consumer Behavior & Brand Awareness - Digital Media & Information - Purchase Behavior, Consumer Satisfaction and Alpha 14 .798 6 Brand Loyalty .759 7 .765 Table II: Cronbach’s Alpha showing Reliability Statistics MKTM021 ~ Cronbach's 52 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  53. 53. Reliabilty of Responses 0.82 0.80 0.798 0.78 0.765 0.76 0.759 0.74 Cronbach's Alpha 0.72 0.70 Consumer Behavior & Brand Awareness Digital Media & Information Purchase Behavior, Customer Satisfaction and Brand Loyalty Figure IV: Cronbach’s Alpha above minimum acceptable limit of 0.7 4.4 COLLATING AND PRESENTING THE RESULTS This research is focused on the research question “how do consumers use digital media to research food products?” In order to analyze the responses received through the survey, the researcher has aligned the responses with the research objectives: A. How aware are the consumers about branded food products? – Consumer behavior and Brand awareness B. Which media(s) do they use to research and what information do they look for online on food products? – Digital Media and its uses C. What is the behavior of consumers after they research about food products? – Purchase behavior of consumers, consumer satisfaction, brand loyalty MKTM021 ~ 53 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  54. 54. SPSS was used to analyze the data collected through survey for addressing the responses and collating these with the objectives and presenting the same in tabular and graphical form. 4.4.1 HOW AWARE ARE THE CONSUMERS ABOUT BRANDED FOOD PRODUCTS? – CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND BRAND AWARENESS The consumer behavior towards food products and brand awareness is the essential part of this research and the major part of the questionnaire was focused towards these areas. 81% respondents agreed to the statements in the questionnaire representing the whole population of seventy eight. The mean of this section i.e. 2.31 (calculated by the sum total of means, divided by the number of questions) supports this agreement towards the research questions related to this area. These respondents agreed to the statements relating to perceptions about quality, value, price and brand awareness. They responded about perceived risk strongly in agreement. Table III presents the mean of each area where likert scale was used for the questionnaire, scaling from 1 being strongly agree to 6 being strongly disagree. Figure V shows the pictorial representation of individual areas with their respective means. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND BRAND AWARENESS N Mean ALL 2.31 PERCEIVED QUALITY - Std. Deviation 1.15 2.73 I think quality is an important choice 78 - I trust quality in online products - I think online products seem to be good quality 2.63 1.397 78 criteria when I buy the product online 2.76 1.341 78 2.79 1.333 table continued … MKTM021 ~ 54 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  55. 55. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND BRAND AWARENESS N Mean PERCEIVED VALUE - I think online products generally appear to 78 2.19 1.117 78 I think the package of online products looks similar to the ones in stores - Deviation 2.01 be good value - Std. 2.54 1.439 78 1.29 .941 When I buy the online products, I would like to be sure that I am getting my money’s worth PERCEIVED PRICE - 2.53 I think price is an important factor when I buy online products - The price of online products is generally lower than I would expect them to be - I compare prices of other brands online before I choose one 78 2.38 1.209 78 2.86 1.307 78 2.33 .784 PERCEIVED RISK - 1.79 I am always certain that online brands provide real value for money in terms of 78 2.31 1.435 78 1.54 .935 78 1.51 .849 product quality - When I buy a product online, I would never make a mistake to buy wrong product - When I am researching a product online, I will make that choice very carefully BRAND AWARENESS - 2.60 I search for the brand of food product I recognize - I recognize a brand when it comes up in the search 78 2.33 1.245 78 2.86 1.492 Table III: Consumer behavior and brand awareness statistical results MKTM021 ~ 55 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  56. 56. 3 2.5 2 2.73 1.5 2.6 2.53 2.01 1.79 1 0.5 0 Area of Research Perceived Quality Perceived Value Perceived Risk Perceived Price Brand Awareness Figure V: Consumer behavior and brand awareness graphical representation 4.4.1.1 CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS The perceptions of consumer related to quality, value, price and risk are essential to discuss here as they affect the consumers’ behavior related to searching for information and buying for food products as well. Positive perceptions of the consumer towards food products would lead to buying the products, and subsequently good product experience will lead to consumer satisfaction and brand loyalty. Therefore it is important to put forward the findings of the survey related to consumer’s perceptions. MKTM021 ~ 56 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  57. 57. A. PERCEIVED QUALITY Perceived Quality 25% Agree 75% Disagree Figure VI: Responses for the questionnaire section – Perceived Quality The first objective of this research is focused towards the consumer behavior and brand awareness of food products. Consumer behavior was mainly aimed towards consumer perceptions. Figure VI shows the responses of consumers focused towards quality perception. Out of seventy eight respondents, 75% believes that quality is an important choice criterion and they trust that the food products available online are of good quality. 25% people disagreed with the statements as they think that quality of the online products is not good and that food products should be bought in stores. 18% of the total population (refer A-1 Appendix A) preferred other factors such as price over quality while shopping online. MKTM021 ~ 57 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  58. 58. 100% 82% 73% 80% 71% 60% 40% 20% 27% 29% 18% Agree Disagree 0% I think quality is I trust quality in I think online an important online products products seem choice criteria to be good when I buy the quality product online Figure VII: Responses for the individual statements – Perceived Quality Figure VII shows that 82% respondents agreed (refer A-1 Appendix A) that they consider quality as the major element while searching for products online and also while subsequently purchasing the products. 73% respondents (refer A-2 Appendix A) trusted in the quality of the online food products, while 71% (refer A-3 Appendix A) perceive the quality of online food products to be good. The respondents in disagreement to these statements believe that quality is not the major element for online food products, and they don’t trust the quality and perceive the quality of these products to be good. MKTM021 ~ 58 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  59. 59. B. PERCEIVED VALUE Perceived Value 16% Agree Disagree 84% Figure VIII: Responses for the questionnaire section – Perceived Value Figure VIII shows the consumers’ perception about value associated to food products available online. Overall 84% of the 78 respondents believe the food products should provide value for money spent and they consider that these products appear to be of good value. 16% respondents think otherwise that these products do not worth buying online. 100% 96% 86% 80% 69% 60% 31% 40% 20% 14% 4% 0% I think online I think the products package of generally appear online products to be good value looks similar to the ones in stores Agree Disagree When I buy the online products, I would like to be sure that I am getting my money’s worth Figure IX: Responses for the individual statements – Perceived Value MKTM021 ~ 59 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  60. 60. Figure IX portrays that 86% respondents (refer B-1 Appendix A) perceived that the food products available online appear to have a good value. 69% respondents (refer B-2 Appendix A) believed that the package of online products is similar to the ones in stores and 96% (refer B-3 Appendix A) wanted to get the best value of the money they spent on online food products. The respondents in disagreement perceived the value of food products available online are not worthy. C. PERCEIVED PRICE Perceived Price 19% Agree 81% Disagree Figure X: Responses for the questionnaire section – Perceived Price Figure X portrays consumers’ perception about value associated to food products available online. Overall 81% of the respondents believe that price is also an important choice criterion when they are searching for food products online. They compare the prices of similar products before they make their choice to buy any product. 19% of the respondents preferred other factors such as quality to be more important than price. MKTM021 ~ 60 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  61. 61. 100% 90% 88% 80% 64% 60% 36% 40% 20% 12% 10% Agree Disagree 0% I think price is The price of I compare prices an important online products of other brands factor when I is generally online before I buy online lower than I choose one products would expect them to be Figure XI: Responses for the individual statements – Perceived Price Figure XI displays that 88% respondents (refer C-1 Appendix A) consider the price of a food product to be an important factor while searching and buying the product. 64% (refer C-2 Appendix A) think that the prices are cheaper online. And 90% (refer C-3 Appendix A) compare the prices of similar food products online while searching and purchasing. The respondents in disagreement did not think that price is the major element in their search for food products online. These people emphasize more on quality and other elements. These quality conscious people do not compare the prices of other brands before they decide what product to buy. MKTM021 ~ 61 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  62. 62. D. PERCEIVED RISK Perceived Risk 13% Agree Disagree 87% Figure XII: Responses for the questionnaire section – Perceived Risk Figure XII displays the consumers’ perception about risks associated to food products available online. Overall 87% of the respondents perceive the risks attached to the online information and products beforehand. They are careful in making their choices and would avoid any mistakes. Overall 13% of the respondents are not very careful in the risk assessment about food products while searching online. 80% 95% 91% 100% 76% 60% 40% 24% 20% 9% 5% 0% I am always When I buy a When I am certain that product online, I researching a online brands would never product online, I provide real make a mistake will make that value for money to buy wrong choice very in terms of product carefully product quality Agree Disagree Figure XIII: Responses for the individual statements – Perceived Risk MKTM021 ~ 62 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  63. 63. Figure XIII reflects that 76% respondents (refer D-1 Appendix A) believed that the online brands provide real value for money, 91% (refer D-2 Appendix A) would be keen never to make a mistake while buying food products online. They wanted to be sure that the food products available online match their need and requirement before they make decision to buy these. 95% (refer D-3 Appendix A) would make their choice very carefully. On the other hand, the people who disagreed were the ones who like to experience new things and hence they would take risks in buying food products online. 4.4.1.2 BRAND AWARENESS Brand Awareness 22% Agree 78% Disagree Figure XIV: Responses for the questionnaire section – Brand Awareness Figure XIV portrays the responses about the brand awareness, brand recognition and brand recall of the food products available online. Overall 78% of the respondents are aware of the brand of food products they search for online or recognize these brands when they come up in the search results. 22% of the respondents are indifferent as to which brand to search for or does not recognize the brands when they come up in the search results. MKTM021 ~ 63 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  64. 64. 100% 85% 80% 71% 60% Agree 40% 29% Disagree 15% 20% 0% I search for the brand of I recognize a brand food product I recognize when it comes up in the search Figure XV: Responses for the individual statements – Brand Awareness It is clear from figure XV that 85% respondents (refer E-1 Appendix A) searched for the food products they already recognized and 71% (refer E-2 Appendix A) responded that they recognize food products and brands when these come up in the search. 4.4.2 WHICH MEDIA(S) DO THEY USE TO RESEARCH AND WHAT INFORMATION PRODUCTS? DO THEY LOOK FOR ONLINE ON FOOD – DIGITAL MEDIA AND ITS USES Consumers are using digital media to search for food products as it is evident from the responses of the questionnaire. 85% of the respondents agree that they use digital media such as smart phone, laptops, tablet PCs to search for food products online. The overall mean of this area i.e. 2.5 (refer table IV), suggests that responses are internally consistent. The individual means of digital media and information are graphically represented in figure XVI. MKTM021 ~ 64 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  65. 65. DIGITAL MEDIA AND INFORMATION SEARCH N Mean ALL 2.50 DIGITAL MEDIA - I use smart phone to search for food I use laptop/tablet PC to search for food I always search for products using digital media 2.33 1.560 78 2.13 1.221 78 2.10 1.039 INFORMATION - 2.81 I think products available online have 78 comprehensive product information - I think the information available online is relevant - I think the information available online is updated 2.99 1.274 78 2.54 1.439 78 2.91 1.637 Table IV: Digital media and information search statistical results 3 2.5 2.81 2 1.5 1.15 78 products online - Deviation 2.19 products online - Std. 2.19 1 0.5 0 Area of Research Digital Media Information Figure XVI: Digital media and information graphical representation MKTM021 ~ 65 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  66. 66. A. USE OF DIGITAL MEDIA Use of Digital Media 15% Agree 85% Disagree Figure XVII: Responses for the questionnaire section – Use of Digital Media The second objective of this research is focused on the use of digital media and information search by consumers related to food products. The questionnaire included statements related to the use of digital media by consumers and the frequency of searching about food products using these digital media. Figure XVII shows that overall 85% respondents actively use digital media including smart phones, tablet PCs and laptops to search for the food products online. 92% respondents have accepted that they always use digital media to search for information about food products which was one of the statement in the questionnaire (refer F1 Appendix A). Overall 15% respondents use other traditional digital media to search for food products. MKTM021 ~ 66 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  67. 67. 100% 80% 92% 88% 76% 60% 40% Agree 24% 20% 12% 8% Disagree 0% I use smart I use I always search phone to search laptop/tablet PC for products for food to search for using digital products online food products media online Figure XVIII: Responses for the individual statements – Use of Digital Media 76% respondents (refer F-1 Appendix A) frequently use smart phones to search for food products online as shown in figure XVIII. 88% respondents (refer F-2 Appendix A) use other digital media gadgets like laptops and tablet PCs including smart phones for the same purpose. 92% respondents (refer F-3 Appendix A) replied that they always search for information related to food products online. The respondents who disagreed are the ones who still refer to traditional digital media for information search regarding food products or prefer going to stores for the same purpose. MKTM021 ~ 67 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  68. 68. B. INFORMATION SEARCH Information Search 31% Agree 69% Disagree Figure XIX: Responses for the questionnaire section – Information Search Figure XIX shows responses of the consumers related to the quality of information available to consumers about the food products. Overall 69% of the respondents believe that the information available online about food products is comprehensive, relevant and updated. Whereas 31% believes that the information is not comprehensive and is outdated. 100% 80% 72% 69% 65% 60% 40% 28% 31% 35% Agree 20% Disagree 0% I think products I think the I think the available online information information have available online available online comprehensive is relevant is updated product information Figure XX: Responses for the individual statements – Information Search MKTM021 ~ 68 ~ REHMAN ASLAM
  69. 69. More than 65% of the total respondents agreed that the information related to food products online is comprehensive and updated which exhibits their exploratory surfing behavior. However 28% to 35% respondents think otherwise as shown in figure XX; according to their responses the information available online is neither comprehensive nor updated. 4.4.3 WHAT IS THE BEHAVIOR OF CONSUMERS AFTER THEY RESEARCH ABOUT FOOD PURCHASE BEHAVIOR SATISFACTION, OF PRODUCTS? – CONSUMERS, CONSUMER BRAND LOYALTY Table V displays the statistical results for the consumer purchasing behavior, their satisfaction of the product and brand loyalty. The overall mean of 2.71 suggests that the respondents have agreed that they prefer buying online due to convenience. They are satisfied with the products they buy and turn into brand ambassadors recommending the products to their acquaintances. The individual means of these three areas of research are graphically represented in figure XXI. PURCHASE BEHAVIOR, CONSUMER SATISFACTION AND BRAND LOYALTY N Mean ALL 2.71 PURCHASE BEHAVIOR I think products are worth buying online - I consider purchasing the products online 1.36 I always buy products online 69 ~ 78 2.99 1.274 78 2.41 1.409 78 because it is convenient MKTM021 ~ Deviation 2.50 - - Std. 2.10 REHMAN ASLAM 1.315 table continued …

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