Adult learning (3)


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Adult learning (3)

  1. 2. <ul><li>Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps learning stays young. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Ford </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Think back to the past 60 days. What is one thing you learned? </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Perhaps you learned to play chess because you always wanted to learn to play the game. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps you had a flat tire on the way home, and you had to learn to change the tire because you had to do it. You didn’t want to, but you had no choice. </li></ul><ul><li>If you’re like most adults, you learn to do most things as an adult because </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>you want to learn it </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>you need to learn it. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Objectives <ul><li>By the end of this session ,participants will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Define adult learning/Andragogy </li></ul><ul><li>Define pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between pedagogy and Andragogy </li></ul><ul><li>Apply adult learning principles in training adults </li></ul>
  6. 7. What is adult learning? What else can we call it?
  7. 8. Andragogy <ul><li>The term “ Andragogy ” was coined by researchers of adult learning in order to contrast their beliefs about learning to the pedagogical model. </li></ul><ul><li>Malcolm Knowles first introduced the concept in the US in 1968. </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of Andragogy implies self-directedness and an active student role, as well as solution-centered activities. </li></ul><ul><li>It was derived from the Greek word“aner” (with the stem andr-) meaning “man, not boy.” </li></ul>
  8. 9. What is pedagogy?
  9. 10. pedagogy <ul><li>The term “ pedagogy ” was derived from the Greek words “paid” (meaning “child”) and“agogus” (meaning “leading”). </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, it is defined as the art and science of teaching children. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Can you mention only one example on pedagogical learning?
  11. 12. <ul><li>children’s formal learning is usually led by someone else and is based on their learning specific tasks to prepare them to learn additional, more complicated tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, you learned to count to 100 in kindergarten, so that you could learn to add and subtract in first grade, so that you could learn to multiply and divide in third grade, so that you could learn algebra in eighth grade, so that you could learn trigonometry in high school, so that you could learn calculus in college. </li></ul>
  12. 13. What are the differences between the two concepts ; pedagogy and Andragogy?
  13. 14. <ul><li>Self Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Need to Know </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>Time Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation to learning </li></ul>
  14. 15. Comparing pedagogy and Andragogy assumptions Andragogy pedagogy Adults expect and enjoy independence Children are dependent on teacher and enjoy dependence. Self Concept • They like control, i.e., like to take control. Expects to be taught. Takes no responsibility of teaching self. Learning is a process of sharing with the teacher and one another. Expects teacher to be dominant in determining what, when, and how to be learned. • Teacher has responsibility to encourage and nurture the process of self-direction.
  15. 16. Comparing pedagogy and Andragogy assumptions Andragogy pedagogy Adult learners need to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it. Children need to know what the teacher teaches in order to pass and get promoted. Material does not need to be “life applicable Need to Know
  16. 17. Comparing pedagogy and Andragogy assumptions Andragogy pedagogy Have many experiences; therefore, teacher must draw on adult-learner experiences. Children have few experiences relevant to what is being taught; therefore, teacher must create pertinent experiences Experience Trade-off. Anyone in class also could share. Teachers or experts are the transmitters of experience In some areas, students may have more experience than the instructor. Teacher seldom recognize experiences that children do have Elicits 2- and 3-way communication: instructor to student and student to student. Elicits little discussion in class--teacher to student, one-way communication
  17. 18. Comparing pedagogy and Andragogy assumptions Andragogy pedagogy Adults normally come to class motivated and ready to learn, because they’ve chosen the training. Children are not necessarily ready to learn. Teacher must decide when it is time to learn specific skills or knowledge and tries to create motivation. Readiness to Learn Adults learn in order to cope with real-life tasks We impose uniform curricula on children by classes and age groups Adults do not group by age, sex, but by experience.
  18. 19. Comparing pedagogy and Andragogy assumptions Andragogy pedagogy Pragmatic—want application today. Children are believed content to study for the future. (“Someday you’ll need this.”) time Perspective Can barely tolerate studying anything that can’t be applied to a task they expect to perform. Children are believed content to only accept knowledge and understanding level, not application level.
  19. 20. Comparing pedagogy and Andragogy assumptions Andragogy pedagogy Adults and teachers need to be problem or task centered. Children and teachers of children are subject-centered and enjoy being so (1:00 reading, 2:00 math, etc.) Orientation to learning Learning is a process of increasing competence to achieve full potential in life. Learning is a process of acquiring subject matter content to be used at a later time in life.
  20. 21. Who is Malcolm Knowles?
  21. 22. <ul><li>Malcolm Knowles is considered the father of adult learning theory. Because </li></ul><ul><li>pedagogy is defined as the art and science of teaching children, European adult educators coined the word Andragogy to identify the growing body of knowledge about adult learning. </li></ul><ul><li>It was Dr. Knowles’ highly readable book, The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species, published in 1973, that took the topic from theoretical to practical. </li></ul>
  22. 23. How can we apply adult learning principles in training adults?
  23. 24. Trainers and adult educators began to implement practical applications based on Dr. Knowles’ six assumptions <ul><li>Adults have a need to know why they should learn something before investing time in a learning event. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainers must ensure that the learners </li></ul><ul><li>know the purpose for training as early as possible. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Adults enter any learning situation with an image of themselves as self directing, responsible grown-ups. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainers must help adults identify their needs and direct their own learning experience. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Adults come to a learning opportunity with a wealth of experience and a great deal to contribute. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainers are successful when they identify ways to build on and make use of adults’ hard-earned experience. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Adults have a strong readiness to learn those things that help them cope with daily life effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Training that relates directly to situations adults face is viewed as relevant </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Adults are willing to devote energy to learning those things that they believe help them perform a task or solve a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainers who determine needs and interests and develop content in response to these needs are most helpful to adult learners. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Adults are more responsive to internal motivators such as increased self-esteem than external motivators such as higher salaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainers can ensure that this internal motivation is not blocked by barriers such as a poor self-concept or time constraints by creating a safe learning climate. </li></ul>
  29. 30. What can a trainer do to apply adult learning effectively?
  30. 31. How can a trainee make the best use of adult learning or training?
  31. 32. If you’re the trainer <ul><li>Create a learning environment that is safe. </li></ul><ul><li>Be organized, have well-defined objectives, and establish a clear direction </li></ul><ul><li>for your session based on the participants’ needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Be so well organized that it is easy to be flexible when the participants’ needs are different from what you anticipated. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that your content is meaningful and transferable to the learners’ world. </li></ul><ul><li>Treat your learners with respect, understanding, and genuine concern. </li></ul><ul><li>Invite learners to share their knowledge and experiences. </li></ul>
  32. 33. If you’re the learner <ul><li>Be an active learner, participating in the interactive exercises. </li></ul><ul><li>Be critical of poorly defined sessions, an unprepared trainer, or processes that prevent your learning; provide constructive feedback to the trainer. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure your personal success by encouraging feedback from the trainer. </li></ul><ul><li>Delivering constructive feedback is a key action expected of all professional trainers. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners have a right to receive feedback from their trainers. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize that you’re responsible for your own learning, so ensure that all your questions are answered. </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to your own success by clearly identifying a learning plan for yourself; then do your part to achieve your objectives. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts. ~ Winston Churchill