E government, changing jurisdictions and boundary management
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E government, changing jurisdictions and boundary management Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Seminar on Electronic Government E-Government, Changing Jurisdictions and Boundary Management Victor BEKKERS Erasmus University Rotterdam, Faculty of Social Sciences, Public Administration Group, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands Reginald G. Ugaddan SKKU Graduate School of Governance 1
  • 2. Contents A. Introduction B. Organizational Jurisdictions and Legal Boundaries C. Other Organizational Models and Other Organizational Boundaries D. Nature of Organizational Boundaries E. Interorganizational Information Processing F. E-government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries G. Management of Organizational Boundaries and Changing Organizational Jurisdictions 2
  • 3. Introduction E-government is synonymous with the modernization of Public Administration 3
  • 4. CitizensExchange of Information andknowledge & communication Government (E-government Initiative) Other GOs NGOs/POs Companies 4
  • 5. Blurring of Organizational Boundary Organizational Government Blurring of (E-Government Geographical Organization Initiatives) Functional Barriers 5
  • 6. Blurring of Organizational Boundary Government Quality of Service Blurring of (E-Government Organization Initiatives) Accessibility & Transparency Efficiency of Gov’t Operations 6 Government
  • 7. Reasons why boundary management is an issue in PA 1. Changing organizational boundaries affects several organizational domains: structure of the organization, its process, culture, and the power relations within the organization. 2. E-government can have a profound impact on the exchange and communication in relations with relevant stakeholders in the environment of an organization: the nature of existing relations could alter while new relations could be added. 3. The boundary management of e-government has important normative implications that are reflected in the notion of jurisdiction. 7
  • 8. From the notion of information ecology of e-government… In Davenports idea of information ecology, it is important to take into account the internal and external environment in which e-government initiatives are initiated.External Environment Information Architecture Strategy of the Organization Efficacy of ICT Characteristics of ICT Organizational Politics Culture and Staff Business Processes Internal Environment 8
  • 9. Organizational Jurisdictions and Legal Boundaries RATIONAL MODEL OF ORGANIZATION Rational organization is the rational coordination of the activities of a number of people for the achievement of some common explicit purpose or goal, through division of labor and function and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility. Emphasis lies on the organizational structure. How are the boundaries of organization conceived in this model? 9
  • 10. Organizational Jurisdictions and Legal Boundaries Sub-goals Tasks and competencies All tasks and competencies are laid down in all kinds of laws and regulations that define its organizational jurisdiction. 10
  • 11. Organizational Jurisdictions and Legal Boundaries Formalization is the extent to which rules and procedures are followed in an organization in order to reduce uncertainty, variety and subjectivity. FORMALIZATION Organizations use formalization to increase their rationality. In one sense formalization is an attempt to make behavior more predictable by standardizing it. Formalization 11
  • 12. Organizational Jurisdictions and Legal Boundaries LEGAL MODEL OF THE ORGANIZATION Government organizations should function according to some principles of the Rechtstaat. What is Rechtsstaat? 12
  • 13. Rechtsstaat Rechtsstaat (German: Rechtsstaat) is a concept in continental European legal thinking, originally borrowed from German jurisprudence, which can be translated as "legal state", "state of law", "state of justice", or "state of rights". It is a "constitutional state" in which the exercise of governmental power is constrained by the law, and is often tied to the Anglo-American concept of the rule of law. (Wikipedia) 13
  • 14. Rechtsstaat In Rechtsstaat, government action which influences and very often restricts the behavior of citizens should be based on the law. The degree of formalization of the content of a task and territorial and/or functional domain define to some extent the legal boundaries of the government organizations. Constitutional Right of the Citizen. They are seen as a safeguard against abuse of government organizations such as right of privacy. 14
  • 15. Other Organizational Models and Other OrganizationalBoundaries Cultural Model of Organization Political Model of Organization Open System’s Model of Organization Open’s Systems Model of Organization Extended: Inter-organizational Relations 15
  • 16. Other Organizational Models and Other OrganizationalBoundaries Cultural Model of Organization an organization is a community in which it has culture which can be described in terms of values and norms, rituals, heroes, legends and communication patterns. These reduce uncertainty and create stability and safety in the organization. Political Model of Organization Organization is seen as an arena in the political perspective wherein it consists of a conglomerate of parties with conflicting, but also with mutual interests. 16
  • 17. Other Organizational Models and Other OrganizationalBoundaries Open System’s Model of Organization Organizations are seen as natural and open systems that are connected to an environment through all kinds of input and output processes. An organization draws its resources from the environment (input) and transforms these resources into good or services (output). Open’s Systems Model of Organization Extended: Inter-organizational Relations Organizations are not fully in control of themselves. Access, distribution and availability of resources are controlled by other organizations. There is some external control and power over them. 17
  • 18. Nature of Organizational Boundaries Organizational boundaries refer to the management of critical uncertainty and ambiguity of the outside world and uncertainty that can be controlled and managed in the organization itself. At the same time, organizations become more (inter) dependent from each other, which very often leads to an increase in the exchange of information. ICT facilitates these exchange process. 18
  • 19. Inter-organizational Information Processing Characteristics of Communication Potential. Presence availability in terms of sharing the same time, place and location is not an essential condition for effective communication anymore. Network technologies offer new possibilities for establishing all kinds of links between people and organizations. They become ‘wired’ and the quality and quantity of their interaction increases. 19
  • 20. Characteristics of Enhances the transparency and access of organizations. Information systems of government agencies can be consulted through internet. There is virtual reality. Everything that occurs in the real world also happens in cyberspace. 20
  • 21. Do boundaries exist in cyberspace if everythingis connected? Through ICT information processing, communication and interaction are being facilitated in the organization – wiring of organizations. Consequently, lose some of their autonomy. 21
  • 22. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries Two (2) Types of Scenarios Scenarios about Scenarios the Changing Regarding the Direction of Changing Nature Organizational of Organizational Boundaries Boundaries 22
  • 23. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries Two (2) Types of Scenarios Scenarios about Scenarios the Changing Regarding the Direction of Changing Nature Organizational of Organizational Boundaries Boundaries 23
  • 24. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries Scenarios about the Changing Direction of Organizational Boundaries The integration of organizations 24
  • 25. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries an organization tries to formalize and discipline the exchange of data by extending its discretion through ICT in the exchange of data. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) favors this kind of colonization strategy. Electronic Data Interchange 25
  • 26. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries Scenarios about the Changing Direction of Organizational Boundaries The integration of organizations 26
  • 27. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries In this scenario we see the opposite. The organization can be penetrated by the environment thereby using ICT and confronting the focal organization with new and unknown forms of uncertainty. The boundaries become electronically permeable. 27
  • 28. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries Scenarios about the Changing Direction of Organizational Boundaries The integration of organizations 28
  • 29. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries The integration of organizations In this scenario, the information between organizations is shared and exchanged in such a way, that organizations integrate or couple their information processing, planning and other working processes in order to further reduce uncertainty This integration takes place between organizations that are a member of the same value-chain. The electronic coupling of the links in the chain created new interdependencies between them 29
  • 30. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries Two (2) Types of Scenarios Scenarios about Scenarios the Changing Regarding the Direction of Changing Nature Organizational of Organizational Boundaries Boundaries 30
  • 31. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries The blurring of organizational boundaries Scenarios Regarding the The fixation of Changing Nature organization boundaries of Organizational Boundaries Controlled transparency 31
  • 32. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries The blurring of organizational boundaries Boundary blurring can be understood from a cultural and political model. If people from other organizations can look into certain information systems, this influences the notions like awareness and interdependency It influences how these people at the other end of the line conceived, for instance in terms of ‘Big Brother’.(e.g. District Attorney’s Office of Dutch City of Rotterdam and Dutch BVE Network) 32
  • 33. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries The blurring of organizational boundaries Scenarios Regarding the The fixation of Changing Nature organization boundaries of Organizational Boundaries Controlled transparency 33
  • 34. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries The fixation of organization boundaries Organizations are afraid of external uncertainty that is mobilized by ICT. They try to put their own autonomy by establishing firewalls or buffers. Boundaries are reinforced by using ICT applications. it’s a company-wide network that very often operates like the internet but has none or a limited amount of access to the outside world. 34
  • 35. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries The blurring of organizational boundaries Scenarios Regarding the The fixation of Changing Nature organization boundaries of Organizational Boundaries Controlled transparency 35
  • 36. E-Government and the Re-Definition of Organizational Boundaries Controlled transparency Combination of blurring and fixation of organizational boundaries (Scenario 1 + Scenario 2). The degree to which organizations become transparent to each other is fixed within a certain limits. Within a well-defined framework they become mutually transparent. 36
  • 37. The Management of Organizational Boundaries andChanging Organizational Jurisdictions Environment are being colonized Organizations are Blurring of penetrated by the Boundaries outside environment Integration of organizationsThe management of organizational boundaries is an important strategic issue in thediscussion about the nature of E-government because E-government initiatives influencethe definition of organizational jurisdictions. 37
  • 38. The Management of Organizational Boundaries andChanging Organizational JurisdictionsIssues: 1. Some jurisdictions become more powerful and dominant while other shrink or integrate . 2. A question of whether the original description and allocation of certain tasks and competencies still matches with the changing organizational boundaries and jurisdictions and the corresponding changes in the distribution of power. 3. Checks and balances are challenged while perhaps new checks and balances are created which do not correspond with well-established principles of the legal system. 38
  • 39. Organizational Boundaries Organizational JurisdictionsIt is important to analyze and assess e-government initiatives frominformation ecological perspective: looking at the complex interplay offactors which relate to external and internal and institutional environment ofa government organization and the technology which is selected, used andimplemented. 39
  • 40. Reginald G. UgaddanSeminar on Electronic Government Thank You! 40