Recap : Medieval eraActivities were• occasional due to limited time and energy• simple in nature and orally passed downthrough generations• functional first particularly for hunting anddefence• participated in during feasts and festivals• mainly local in nature due to lack of mobility
Popular games and recreations ofpre-industrial Britain• Real Tennis – confined to gentry and privilegeddue to cost of equipment and facilities.
Popular games and recreations ofpre-industrial Britain• Football – a winter activity played especially atnew year and Shrove Tuesday. Little rulesapart from distinct teams and goals. Injuryand damage to property a regular occurrence
• Cricket – originated in southern Englandprimarily as a pastime for shepherds. Thegame allowed both peasants and gentry toparticipate together usually estates playedone another. Rules published early on which isunique to sport in this time.Popular games and recreations ofpre-industrial Britain
19th Century Athleticism and the roleof the public school.• Public schools -fee paying schools• attended by the upper classes.• Pupils would board at these schools.• Facilities were basic and life was brutal.• Discipline was maintained by flogging andbullying and fagging were common.
19th Century Athleticism and the roleof the public school.The barbarian phase.• Boys would have brought recreations they had takenpart in at home to the school e.g. mob games whichwere spontaneous and violent.• Animal sports were also popular e.g. hunting, cockfighting.• Many of the sports had associations with gambling anddrinking.• Schools tried to limit the boys participation leading tomore conflict between staff and pupils.• Cricket was readily accepted as it had beencodified, was non violent and seen as suitable forgentry.
19th Century Athleticism and the roleof the public school.• The Arnoldian / athleticism phase• House system lead to formation of early sports teams• Prefects would organise games• Bounds established so games confined to school grounds• Muscular Christianity where it is thought that there is aclose link between Christianity and sportsmanship• Philosophy of character – where you developed characterthrough participating in sport.• Boys were allowed to play sports every day. However theywere still isolated due to lack of travel and different rules.Games evolved to suit the grounds of the school e.g. eatonwall game
19th Century Athleticism and the roleof the public school.The games cult and philistine copies• Due to the industrial revolution there was a new affluent classresulting in a need for more private education.• An increase in public schools.• These were called ‘philistine schools’ as opposed to the ‘barbarianschools’ which were the original private schools.• Teachers who had worked in the original schools carried ideas tothese new schools.• The Clarendon Commission investigated the management andprogrammes of 9 great public schools. It found that schools instilledcharacter in pupils many of whom went on to be influential leadersin all walks of life and that team games was the main developer ofcharacter at these schools.
19th Century Athleticism and the roleof the public school.The impact of athleticism on society• COLONIAL – boys left school and took posts helpingadminister and govern the Empire’s colonies. They took theirsport with them initially playing each other then introducingthe sports to the population.• ARMY – another popular career was as commissionedofficers. Again they took sports to the armed services to filltheir own boredom and to instil moral value in the workingclass soldiers• PATRONAGE – supporting sporting events by buying trophiesor giving land for pitches• UNIVERSITY – they gave them time to pursue and refinesports. Since the men came from different schools withdifferent rules for the same games compromise had to bereached.
19th Century Athleticism and the roleof the public school.• INDUSTRY – boys went from school to their father’sfactories where they took their sports.• CHURCH – careers in the church were popular becausetheir education had had a religious backgroundMuscular Christianity promoted sport as a way forteaching morals and virtues.• CLUBS – many old boys formed their own clubs so theycould continue to play sport on leaving school• Administration – when they could no longer play menformed and developed governing bodies for theirsports to administer rules etc.
HOMEWORK QUESTIONS1. Explain how public schools in the 19th century used sport andgames as a means of social control. (4)2. Give reasons for the importance of combat sports in pre industrialsociety. (4)3. Outline the main characteristics of festival games in the UK before1800. (5)4. In pre-industrial Britain, peasant sports were described as‘occasional and rural’.(i) Explain when and where peasant sports would take place. (3)(ii) Outline four other main characteristics of peasant sports in pre-industrial Britain. (4)5. Explain how public schools, at the beginning of the 19thcentury, adapted festival games in order to make them an essentialelement in the training of a gentleman. (5)