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Session 2A - Les Shephard

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Les Shephard, University of Texas at San Antonio Presentation

Les Shephard, University of Texas at San Antonio Presentation

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Session 2A - Les Shephard Session 2A - Les Shephard Presentation Transcript

  • October 26, 1011 The Energy – Water NexusImpacting the Future of TexasSome San Antonio Perspectives Re-Energize The Americas Conference El Paso, Texas Les Shephard and Daniel FisherTexas Sustainable Energy Research Institute University of Texas at San Antonio Dan Titerle San Antonio Water Systems
  • Water Water Everywhere!So….. What is the Problem?
  • “Fresh Water” is a Limited Resource  Only 2.5% of Earth’s water is fresh • Almost 70% of that is locked up in glaciers, ground ice, permafrost, and permanent snow cover  Freshwater lakes and rivers account Jug image from National Geographic for less than 0.3% of total global freshwater  Groundwater accounts for more than 30% of global freshwater resources If all the world’s water were AND contained in a 1-gallon jug, the Water Treatment is Energy Intensive! amount available for human use would fit in a tablespoonSource: National Geographic, April, 2010 View slide
  • Energy – Water Nexus A Global Context Future Freshwater World Population World Electricity DemandNeeds 9 7000 8 6000 Millions of Megaliters Withdrawn 7 35000 5000 Population Billions of kilowatt-hours 30000 Expected shortfall living under 6 25000 4000 severe water stress 5 Municipal and Billions 20000 3000 domestic Global 4 Industry 15000 population 2000 3 10000 Agriculture 1000 2 5000 0 0 1 2010 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2030 2030 -1000 0 2005 2030 -2000Courtesy IEEE Spectrum, July 2010 View slide
  • 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 45,000 50,000 Hawaii Alaska Oregon Washington California California Nevada Idaho Arizona Utah Montana Other Wyoming New Mexico Irrigation Colorado North Dakota Texas South Dakota Public Supply Nebraska TexasSource: USGS 3098, 2009; USGS Surface Water Use in the U.S., 2000 Kansas (million gallons per day) Oklahoma Thermoelectric Power Minnesota 2005 Withdrawals by Category Iowa Missouri Louisiana Arkansas Wisconsin Mississippi Illinois Alabama Tennessee Indiana Kentucky Michigan 21% Georgia Ground 79% Surface Ohio Rhode Island South Carolina Total Withdrawals West Virginia Florida North Carolina Virginia Pennsylvania the Most Water in the U.S. Maryland DC California and Texas Withdraw New York Delaware New Jersey Saline Connecticut 19% Vermont Fresh Massachusetts 81% Rode Island New Hampshire Maine Surface Withdrawals Puerto Rico US Virgin Islands
  • The Nexus in Texas! Texas Consumes ~ Energy – Water Portfolio Is KeyProduce A Diversified 157 Billion Gallons of Water to ~ 400 Billion kWh Annually – More Than Any Other State! For San Antonio’s Future CPS Energy Sources Water Electricity Demand Demand SAWS AND …… Texas Electricity and Water Demand Sources Projected to Increase!Source: Report on the Capacity, Demand, and Reserves in the ERCOT Region, May 2010;CPS Energy - SAWs Energy Water Nexus, April 2011; Texas Water Development Board
  • Strategic Move Toward Recycled Water Water Use by CPS Energy - 1962 to 2010 Creating a Sustainable Energy – Water Future! Total groundwater used Total surface water used CPS Energy 2020 Vision Goal 2020 Cumulative WaterReduction Impact Acre 1500 MW of Renewable Energy Feet 64,000 acre-feet Generation (21 Billion Gallons) 100 MW Non-Wind Generation 18,000 acre-feet (6 Billion Gallons) AMI and Smart Grid Roll-out Potential to further drive energy efficiency YearsCourtesy PS Energy - SAWs Energy Water Nexus, April 2011
  • Dos Rios Water Recycling Center Implementing the “Nexus” Implementing the Energy – Water Nexus • 140,000 tons/year bio-solids processed • Produces 1.5 Mcfd process gas – largely methane - SAWS receives a 12% royalty on the sale of gas • 10 million gallons water recycled daily --- largely for thermoelectric power production 240 230 225 • Installing 20 MW solar PV onsiteGallons per Capita Per Day 220 210 San Antonio Water System 200 Gallons Per Capita Per Day (GPCD) 190 1979 - 2009 Digesters 180 Outfall 170 160 150 140 124 130 Solar PV 120 110 Courtesy of San Antonio Water System
  • Shale Gas “A Bridge to the Next Global Energy Transition?” U.S. Unconventional Gas Outlook Shale Gas Proved Reserves by YearProduction Capacity (BCF/DAY) Trillion Cubic Feet Source: EIA, March 2010
  • Eagle Ford Shale A Glimpse of the Future Sustainable Development Is Critical Production Volumes 2009 - 2010 Drilling Permits 2008 - 2011 Energy Supply – Economic Prosperity – Responsible Environmental Stewardship 4000 2500000 3500 2000000 3000 Marked increase in oil/gas production – driven by “technology and economics” 2500 1500000 2000 2320262 Economic impact is HUGE - $21B estimated in economic revenues by 2020; 1500 3448 1000000 1629055 More than 30,000 new jobs projected! 500000 1000 1495 Water consumption nominally 4 to 6 million 0gallons per well – projections 500 33 94 304500 517593 0 suggest 45,000 acre-feet annually2011 peak production 2008 2009 2010 at Oil Production (Bbl) Condensate Production (Bbl) (Jan-July) Drilling Permits Issued Environmental impacts include possible “freshwater contamination” from 2009 2010 hydraulic fracturing, casing failure and produced water and air quality concerns San AntonioSource: All Consulting based on data from a fracture operation in the Fayetteville Shale, 2008; ANGA, February 2011
  • Educating Tomorrow’s America --- Today!The University of Texas at San Antonio
  • Energy and Water are Inextricably Linked! Water For Energy Energy For Water Energy and Power Water Production Require Water Production, Processing, Distribution, and End-use• Thermoelectric Cooling • Pumping Require Energy• Hydropower • Conveyance and Transport• Energy Minerals Extraction and • Treatment Mining • Use Conditioning• Fuel Production (Fossil • Surface and Groundwater Fuels, H2, Biofuels)• Emission Control
  • Freshwater Withdrawal by Sector* (~ 345 BGD in US) Public Supply Industrial Livestock 14% 6% 2% Irrigation Thermoelectric Power 39% 39%Source: USGS Circular 1268, March 2004 * *Does not include hydropower
  • Freshwater Consumption by Sector (~ 100 BGD) Freshwater Non-Ag Sector Consumption Consumption Livestock Domestic 3.3% 7.1% Irrigation Non-Ag 80.6% 16.1% Industrial Commercial 3.3% 1.2% Thermoelectric Mining 3.3% 1.2% Energy Accounts for ~ 27 Percent of Non-Agricultural Fresh Water ConsumptionSource: USGS, 1998
  • Growing Demand for Non-Traditional Water Resources 20 Projected Water Use of Non-Traditional Water (BGD) Waste Water Reuse Power Requirements For Treating Desalination 15 Today The Future 10 5 Conventional Brackish Brackish Sea Water Treatment Nano- Reverse Reverse filtration Osmosis Osmosis 1990 2000 2010 2020 Year • Desal growing ~ 10% per year; Waste water reuse ~ 15% per year • Non-traditional water use is energy-intensiveSources: EPA 2004, Water Reuse 2007, Mickley 2003; Einfeld 2007
  • The U.S. Energy Future The Energy – Water – Carbon “Trifecta” 1.0 Open Loop Closed US Electricity Generation Cooling Loop Cooling By Source COAL (Kilograms per Kilowatt-Hour) 0.8 Petroleum Other Renewables 2% 1% 9% 0.6 Carbon Nuclear Coal 19% 45% Natural 0.4 Gas NATURAL GAS 24% 0.2 GEOTHERMAL NUCLEAR SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYDROELECTRIC 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 WIND Water ConsumedSource: Lux Research, June 2009Global Energy: Unshackling Carbon from Water (Liters per Kilowatt-Hour)