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Isbt Technical Paper
 

Isbt Technical Paper

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This is the original Technical Paper put together after first ISBT Presentation in order for paper to be presented in the following years

This is the original Technical Paper put together after first ISBT Presentation in order for paper to be presented in the following years

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    Isbt Technical Paper Isbt Technical Paper Document Transcript

    • Beverage Production TURNING WASTE INTO PROFIT Haselden Recovery Systems Prepared by: OCTOBER 2005 Kent Haselden and Alan Sheppard
    • BEVERAGE PRODUCTION TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.1 Rising Costs of Treating Biological Oxygen Demand (B.O.D) Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.1.1 Municipal Plants Raising Surcharges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.1.2 Costs of Plant Facility Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.2 Sources of B.O.D. Waste. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 1.2.1 Syrup Room Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 1.2.2 Start-Up of a Flavor (Dump Filler) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 1.2.3 Out of Specification (Spec) Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 1.2.4 End of Flavor Run (Matching Containers to Beverage) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 1.2.5 Clean In Place (CIP) System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 1.3 Waste Prevention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 1.3.1 Accountability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 1.3.2 Product Recovery System (PRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 1.3.3 Syrup Recovery System (SRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 1.3.4 Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 1.4 Alternative Disposal Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 OCTOBER 2005
    • Beverage Production Turning Waste Into Profit Beverage Production Turning Waste Into Profit Opportunity vs. Surcharges 1.1 RISING COSTS OF TREATING BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (B.O.D) WASTE 1.1.1 Municipal Plants Raising Surcharges 1. Municipal waste treatment facilities are faced with similar budgetary constraints as many other government agencies. Therefore, to cover their rising costs while still providing an essential public service, waste treatment facilities must look for inno- vative ways to increase revenues. 2. In the past, beverage production facilities were charged a nominal fee in order to deal with the sugar discharged into the sewage system. However, the waste treat- ment facilities have now identified the cost of dealing with this type of waste and have raised the price to production facilities who require this service. • Surcharges have skyrocketed over the last 10 to 15 years due to new technology that allows the treatment facilities to monitor the amount of sugar being discharged into the sewage system. • These surcharges will continue to grow as do the costs to treat the waste. • Therefore, the beverage production facilities are faced with rising budgets to offset the price of the waste treatment facilities, and forced to look for alternative solutions in order to deal with the problem. 1.1.2 Costs of Plant Facility Treatment 1. Many production facilities have built their own waste treatment facilities on site in order to deal with the waste before it is discharged to the sewage system. These 1 October - 2005
    • Beverage Production Turning Waste Into Profit on-site facilities, while effective; require a large amount of resources to build, power and maintain. 2. An environmentally proactive and ultimately profitable alternative is to address the causes of the waste and deal with the problem at the source rather than reacting "after the fact" by taking the following actions: • Identify the areas where waste is generated. • Provide solutions to prevent or collect the waste. • Find alternative methods to deal with the waste as a by-product rather than an end problem. 1.2 SOURCES OF B.O.D. WASTE There are many areas that production facilities share as the primary sources for sugar waste being sent to the sewage system. 1.2.1 Syrup Room Design Many syrup rooms are inefficiently designed with a pump at the bottom of each syrup tank dictating the following process: 1. The syrup is pumped into the ceiling and down to a divert panel where it is then sent to the bottling line for blending of the beverage. 2. After a bulk syrup tank is CIPed (Clean In Place) the check valve above the syrup pump will retain water in the pipe from the final rinse of the wash. 3. This water has to be purged from the piping system in order to send in spec syrup to the blender located in the filler room. This is commonly done by opening the valve on the divert panel, turning on the syrup pump at the tank and allowing the syrup to push the water to the divert panel. 4. Once good syrup is seen by the operator on the floor, it is up to the operator to decide when all of the water is out of the syrup line (not diluted). 2 October 2005
    • Beverage Production Turning Waste Into Profit 1.2.1.1 Potential Problems with this Design If any water is left in the pipe, the water or diluted syrup will be delivered to the blender and the brix or assay of the beverage will be corrupted resulting in both downtime and or product loss (due to weak product being produced). Therefore, the syrup room personnel must make sure to get all of the water out of the pipe before sending it to the blender. This becomes a judgment call on the part of syrup room personnel causing the operator to dump 5 to 10 gallons of syrup on the floor to prevent the chance of diluted syrup being sent to the blender. This problem is not as prevalent with a new flavor of syrup as when the operator is changing tanks from one tank of syrup to another tank of the same flavor. Horizontal bulk syrup tanks can also present a problem with the Syrup Room Design. These tanks are rarely used in newer beverage facilities but are often used in older sys- tems. Two problems occur with the use of older double shelled tanks that do not exist with the newer vertical tanks. 1. Settling of the inner tank (over many years of use) - Over a period of time the inner tank will settle and leave low spots between the ribs of the inner and outer shell. This can result in a puddling affect on the bottom of the inner shell. When the tank is emptied, residual syrup will settle in the low areas located between the structural ribs of the tank. 2. Pump cavitating as the tank is emptied - The pump (because it is located directly at the discharge outlet of the tank) can cause a vortex that will allow air to be pulled out of the tank over the top of the last gallons of syrup. This can cause the syrup pump to cavitate and possibly air lock, leaving behind gallons of syrup that will later be discharged during the CIPing of the tank. 1.2.2 Start-Up of a Flavor (Dump Filler) Anytime a new flavor of beverage is started, the blender and filler will retain water in the equipment from the previous rinse. Due to the collection of water the new flavor pro- duced will be diluted and weak. This problem is commonly remedied by flushing the filler with approximately two bowls of product to ensure that all of the residual water has been 3 October - 2005
    • Beverage Production Turning Waste Into Profit removed from the equipment. The product used for flushing the system is sent to the waste treatment facility. Once the blender and filler are cleared of all residual water they are filled with product allowing QA personnel to take samples to the lab for testing. 1.2.3 Out of Specification (Spec) Product Before a production run can begin, samples are taken to determine if the product meets the quality specifications. If the product is found to be out of specification, (brix, assay or CO2 content), the carbo-cooler or product holding tank and filler will have to be dumped sending all of its contents to the waste treatment facility. Also, if there are mechanical fail- ures or operator errors the product can go out of specification during the production run. In this case the blender and filler are dumped and the product is sent to the waste treat- ment facility. Once the issue is resolved, the production process starts over. 1.2.4 End of Flavor Run (Matching Containers to Beverage) 1. Another issue that must be addressed in the filler room is the container cut-off process (matching the correct number of containers to the volume of syrup and beverage). Most cut-off’s are performed by: (a) Looking at a sight glass on the bulk syrup tank, or (b) Opening the bulk syrup tank door and having the operator make an educated estimate as to how many gallons remain in the tank. (c) Once the operator estimates that the correct amount of gallons are left in the tank, the syrup room operator will call the depal operator to stop the loading of containers. There are many factors that must be taken into account when performing a suc- cessful container cut-off. 1. The first of which is the distance of the bulk syrup tank from the blender. Each bulk syrup tank is a different distance from the blender in the filler room. This distance is reflected by the length of piping between the bulk syrup tank and the blender. The farther the distance, the longer the piping. The distance of the piping to the blender must be considered when estimating the gallons of syrup.(i.e. If the sup- ply piping from the bulk syrup tank is 3" in diameter, the piping will hold approxi- 4 October 2005
    • Beverage Production Turning Waste Into Profit mately 1 gallon of syrup to every 4' of piping.) The distance between the closest tank to the farthest tank may differ by up to 200' with all of the other tanks located somewhere in between. The syrup room personnel must include this calculation to accurately perform cut-off’s for each tank in the syrup room. Example: The closest tank will need 70 gallons of syrup to perform the cut-off when syrup room personnel notify the depal operator to stop putting on containers. The farthest tank will need 20 gallons of syrup in the tank when syrup room personnel notify the depal operator to stop putting on containers. All other tanks that are located between these tanks will also have a different number of gallons needed in accordance to the length of piping or volume of syrup held in the piping between the tank and the blender. 2. The next factor that must be added into the cut-off equation is the ratio of the syrup being blended at the blender. This ratio is the amount of water that will be added to the syrup at the blending equipment. Different syrups are blended at dif- ferent ratios dependent upon blend specifications set forth by the production facil- ity. These blend ratios can differ from a 4 to 1 ratio to a 6 to 1 ratio. There are many different ratios that different syrups are blended at and this calculation must also be added into the equation before the depal operator is notified to stop load- ing the containers. Example: If there is 100 gallons of syrup in the bulk syrup tank, at a 4 to 1 ratio it will produce 500 gallons of finished product. This same 100 gallons at a 6 to 1 ratio will produce 700 gallons of finished product. 3. The size of the container being run must also be figured into the equation. Most production lines run more than one size container. Many facilities run as many as 5 different size packages. These various container size volumes must be factored in to perform a successful cut-off and eliminate waste. 1.2.5 Clean In Place (CIP) System The cleaning of the bulk syrup tank is another source of B.O.D. being sent to the waste treatment facility. The first rinse of a bulk syrup tank that has had a sugar syrup in the tank will be discharged to the drain at the CIP system. The clingage to the walls of the tank along with any residue left in the bottom of the tank (horizontal tanks) will all be added to the waste treatment facility. 5 October - 2005
    • Beverage Production Turning Waste Into Profit Packaged Out of Spec Product The final major source of B.O.D. comes from product that is considered out of specifica- tion, yet has already been put into the container. These include low fills, hold product or out of spec product, out of date product, and closure failure. These containers must have the beverage extracted and the container recycled. The extracted beverage is sent directly to the waste treatment facility. 1.3 WASTE PREVENTION 1.3.1 Accountability A very important tool that can be used for the prevention of B.O.D. waste is the use of a log in the syrup room and filler room to track B.O.D. waste. Anytime syrup is dis- charged to the floor of the syrup room or syrup or beverage is lost in the filler room, a log should be kept to help the QA, Maintenance and Production departments recognize potential problems and develop solutions to keep the issue from reoccurring. This log can also be used to accurately track syrup yields, recognize potential mechanical issues and identify personnel training issues. Example 1: The carbo-cooler and filler are normally dumped on average 1 to 2 times per week, due to out of spec product. This week they were dumped 5 times, again due to out of spec product. A well maintained log will give management the records needed to determine whether there is a potential problem with the machinery, or if 4 out of the 5 dumps were all on one shift and the same operator was running the machinery, indicating the need for more training focused on the particular operator. Example 2: Syrup room personnel notice that a few gallons of syrup are remaining in the bulk syrup tank or in the pipe between the tank and the syrup pump at the end of the run. This has been consistently reported from the same tank. Maintenance personnel may want to inspect the check valve above the syrup pump to make sure the Nitrogen or CO2 blow is not blowing syrup back into the tank or syrup supply line to the pump. Maintenance personnel may also want to check the slope on the piping between the bulk syrup tank and the syrup supply pump. If a hanger has come loose and the slope of the pipe has been corrupted, affecting the drainage of the tank and therefore leaving gallons of syrup in the supply line. In either case the syrup that is left behind will end up as B.O.D. waste when the CIP cycle is performed on the tank. By logging the problem with the tank, management will be able to take corrective action and avoid waste disposal costs. 6 October 2005
    • Beverage Production Turning Waste Into Profit Example 3: Filler room personnel are reporting in the log that approximately 30 gallons of product are being dumped at the filler at the end of a flavor run. This information will alert management of a potential loss of yield as well as excessive B.O.D. waste and corrective action can be taken. 1.3.2 Product Recovery System (PRS) In the past, during the start-up phase of the flavor run, the blender and filler would have to be rinsed with product to get rid of the residual water left in the blender and filler from the previous rinse of the previous flavor. This would result in approximately two to three bowls of product being transferred to the filler and dumped to the floor. With the addition of the Product Recovery System (PRS) to the production line, (see Figure 1-1) this prod- uct can now be saved and reintroduced back into the system with virtually zero losses to the production facility. This is achieved by collecting the weak product in the PRS, start- ing the production run and micro metering the weak product back into the production stream. The impact of systematically introducing the weak product into the main produc- tion stream is negligible and is barely detectable by the in-line monitoring systems. Figure 1-1 Product Recovery System 7 October - 2005
    • Beverage Production Turning Waste Into Profit Another issue that must be addressed when looking at B.O.D. waste and syrup yields is product that goes out of spec due to mechanical or operator error (brix, assay or CO2 content) during the production run. This previously meant dumping the carbo-cooler or product holding tank and filler to the floor, rectifying the problem and restarting the equip- ment. This would result in 200 to 300 gallons of product being sent to the floor and con- sequently to the waste treatment facility. With the PRS on the production line this product can also be saved by metering the product back into the production stream once produc- tion has been restarted. Example: The following chart (Table 1-1) shows the mathematical impact that the diluted beverage will have on different container sizes, different injection rates and different strengths of product, in the PRS. Table 1-1 Product Recovery System Calculated Return Flow Impact Containers / Total Return Recovery% @ Calculated Min BRIX Water Syrup Deviation GALS/MIN Gals/MIN SPEC Results 11.30 211.25 176.04 35.21 3 95%/10.74 11.29 0.01 400 2lt/min 11.30 211.25 176.04 35.21 6 95%/10.74 11.28 0.02 11.30 211.25 176.04 35.21 9 95%/10.74 11.28 0.02 11.30 168.75 140.63 28.13 3 90%/10.17 11.28 0.02 1800cans/min 11.30 168.75 140.63 28.13 6 90%/10.17 11.26 0.04 11.30 168.75 140.63 28.13 9 90%/10.17 11.24 0.05 11.30 109.37 91.14 18.23 3 85%/9.60 11.26 0.04 700 20 oz./min 11.30 109.37 91.14 18.23 6 85%/9.60 11.23 0.07 11.30 109.37 91.14 18.23 9 85%/9.60 11.20 0.10 11.10 211.25 176.04 35.21 3 95%/10.55 11.09 0.01 400 2lt/min 11.10 211.25 176.04 35.21 6 95%/10.55 11.08 0.02 11.10 211.25 176.04 35.21 9 95%/10.55 11.07 0.03 11.10 168.75 140.63 28.13 3 90%/9.99 11.08 0.02 1800cans/min 11.10 168.75 140.63 28.13 6 90%/9.99 11.06 0.04 11.10 168.75 140.63 28.13 9 90%/9.99 11.04 0.06 11.10 109.37 91.14 18.23 3 85%/9.44 11.06 0.04 700 20 oz./min 11.10 109.37 91.14 18.23 6 85%/9.44 11.01 0.09 11.10 109.37 91.14 18.23 9 85%/9.44 10.96 0.14 8 October 2005
    • Beverage Production Turning Waste Into Profit 1.3.3 Syrup Recovery System (SRS) Section 1.2.4 identifies the different factors that must be calculated into the equation in order to perform a successful cut-off of containers to product. They consisted of the vol- ume of syrup in the syrup tank, location of the syrup tank in the syrup room or volume of syrup held in the piping system from each tank, the ratio of the syrup to water to be blended in the filler room and the size of the container on the production line. As noted, many of these calculations relied on the estimates and judgements of facility personnel. The SRS (see Figure 1-2) is a computer based system that networks the syrup room, filler room and the depallitizer to achieve a successful cut-off within ¾ of a layer of con- tainers. This computer based system eliminates the need to know the volume of syrup in the syrup tank, location of the syrup tank in the syrup room and the ratio of syrup to water to be blended in the filler room, and greatly reduces the chance of human error. Figure 1-2 Syrup Recovery System 9 October - 2005
    • Beverage Production Turning Waste Into Profit The SRS acts as a syrup reservoir that consists of a 260 gallon tank that sits next to the blender in the filler room. The reservoir is equipped with a level transmitter that con- stantly monitors the amount of syrup in the syrup system and performs the following functions. • The data base in the SRS computer system stores the blend ratio and size of containers for all flavors that the production line produces. At the end of the production run the bulk syrup tank is allowed to run dry. • The SRS notifies syrup room personnel that the tank is empty and syrup room personnel will initiate the Nitrogen or CO2 blow from the syrup room. All of the syrup in the piping system will then be blown into the SRS. The level in the SRS will then fall to the designated amount of gallons of syrup for that particular flavor and will automatically close the filler gate on the filler. • The SRS will then notify the depallitizer operator to load the empty container conveyor until the conveyor is full. Once the conveyor is full, the depallitizer operator will press an acknowledgement button that is linked to the SRS computer system. • The SRS will then open the filler gate with an inventory of syrup, product and containers which will result in a consistent cut-off and virtually no waste remaining in the filler. This will eliminate most of the B.O.D. waste that is now being sent to the waste treatment facility due to improper calculations and resulting in missed cut-offs. Figure 1-3 Recovery System Control Panels (with Allen-Bradley Touch Screen Monitors) 10 October 2005
    • Beverage Production Turning Waste Into Profit 11 October - 2005
    • Beverage Production Turning Waste Into Profit Another issue that the SRS will eliminate is air bubbles that are trapped in the syrup dur- ing tank changes from one tank of syrup to another tank of syrup of the same flavor. This is one of the leading causes for product going out of spec during the middle of the flavor run. Problem: When one tank of syrup runs out in the syrup room and another tank is placed on line, air bubbles are introduced into the piping system. These air bubbles will eventu- ally arrive at the blender as a light syrup and the brix ratio or assay will drop. SRS Solution: As syrup enters the SRS the air bubbles rise to the top of the syrup reser- voir while good syrup is pulled from the bottom of the reservoir. In essence, the SRS purges the air from the syrup allowing only pure undiluted syrup to be delivered to the blender. 1.3.4 Collection B.O.D. waste is generated in some areas that cannot be prevented. In these instances a collection system can be designed to capture this waste and alternative sources are available to dispose of what will now be referred to as a plant by-product. An example of a non preventable B.O.D source is the rinsing of a bulk syrup tank after sugar syrup has been run out of the tank. The first and second bursts of rinse water from the CIP system can be sent directly to the collection system. The remaining rinse can then be sent to drain with most of the sugar residue being captured by the collection sys- tem. In cases dealing with a product that has been packaged but is out of specification (low fills, hold product or out of spec product, out of date product and closure failure packag- ing and must be destroyed) the beverage must be removed from the container before the container can be compacted for recycling. This is commonly done by sending the con- tainers through a shredder or grinder. This will remove the beverage from the container and allow the container to continue to a compactor for recycling. The beverage will then fall to the floor and be sent down the drain. A modification can be made to the shredder or grinder by placing a catch pan under this piece of machinery. The catch pan will also consist of a pump, drain valve and a control switch which will be labeled sugar and diet products. Sugar products will be destroyed separate from diet products due to the fact that the diet products do not contain sugar. During diet production runs the control switch will be set to the diet position. This will allow the non-sugar product to go to the drain. During sugar production runs the switch 12 October 2005
    • Beverage Production Turning Waste Into Profit will be turned to the sugar setting. This will turn off the drain valve and the level in the catch pan will activate the pump, sending the sugar product to the collection system. 1.4 ALTERNATIVE DISPOSAL OPTIONS There are options open to the plant on how to get rid of the sugar by-product. Some of these include yeast production, livestock feed and ethanol production. At present there are already plants that are making use of some of these resources to dispose of the sugar by-product. 13 October - 2005