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Michael Payne
Michael Payne
Michael Payne
Michael Payne
Michael Payne
Michael Payne
Michael Payne
Michael Payne
Michael Payne
Michael Payne
Michael Payne
Michael Payne
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Michael Payne

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  • 1. Rural Pollution IssuesRural Pollution Issues and progress towards solutionsand progress towards solutions Michael PayneMichael Payne
  • 2. Sources of rural pollutionSources of rural pollution  AgricultureAgriculture  ForestryForestry  Atmospheric depositionAtmospheric deposition  Rural housingRural housing  Sewage worksSewage works  Septic tanksSeptic tanks  InfrastructureInfrastructure - roads- roads - railways- railways - airports- airports - leaking water mains and sewers- leaking water mains and sewers  WildlifeWildlife
  • 3. IssuesIssues  Nutrients (N and P)Nutrients (N and P)  SedimentSediment  PesticidesPesticides  Pathogens/Faecal Indicator Organisms (FIOs)Pathogens/Faecal Indicator Organisms (FIOs)  ColourColour  AmmoniaAmmonia  Hydromorph.Hydromorph.  Etc …….Etc …….
  • 4. Rural pollution - ObjectivesRural pollution - Objectives  Surface freshwaters – Good Ecological StatusSurface freshwaters – Good Ecological Status  TRAC waters – Good Ecological StatusTRAC waters – Good Ecological Status  Fresh groundwaters – Good StatusFresh groundwaters – Good Status  Artificial and heavily modified waters – GoodArtificial and heavily modified waters – Good Ecological PotentialEcological Potential  Drinking Water Protection (Article 7)Drinking Water Protection (Article 7)  Bathing Water standardsBathing Water standards  Shellfish Water standardsShellfish Water standards  No deteriorationNo deterioration
  • 5. What is needed to achieve objectives?What is needed to achieve objectives?  Assess current status – classificationAssess current status – classification  Compare with objectivesCompare with objectives  Any gap needs to be bridged to achieve objectiveAny gap needs to be bridged to achieve objective  BUTBUT current status may not be stablecurrent status may not be stable  Need to assess Business As Usual scenario (BAU)Need to assess Business As Usual scenario (BAU)  If there is an improving trend, less action or no actionIf there is an improving trend, less action or no action may be neededmay be needed  If there is a deteriorating trend, more action will beIf there is a deteriorating trend, more action will be neededneeded  Trends are a particular issue for groundwaters: UKTrends are a particular issue for groundwaters: UK aquifers have long response timesaquifers have long response times
  • 6. BAUBAU  Defra has carried out 3 BAU studies for agricultureDefra has carried out 3 BAU studies for agriculture  Most recent was 2007 and is now datedMost recent was 2007 and is now dated  CAP reform likely to significantly alter BAUCAP reform likely to significantly alter BAU  BAU is a real issue: nitrate exampleBAU is a real issue: nitrate example  Fertiliser N consumption has reduced by 40% overFertiliser N consumption has reduced by 40% over 25 years, and livestock numbers have also reduced25 years, and livestock numbers have also reduced  Nitrate levels in surfacewaters have been fallingNitrate levels in surfacewaters have been falling since about 2000 (pre-dating NVZ measures in mostsince about 2000 (pre-dating NVZ measures in most areas)areas)  NVZ measures may add to effect of industryNVZ measures may add to effect of industry developmentsdevelopments
  • 7. Government hierarchy of measuresGovernment hierarchy of measures  AdviceAdvice  IncentivesIncentives  Regulation (last resort)Regulation (last resort)
  • 8. Examples of AdviceExamples of Advice  Catchment Sensitive Farming DeliveryCatchment Sensitive Farming Delivery Initiative (Government)Initiative (Government)  Campaign for the Farmed EnvironmentCampaign for the Farmed Environment (Industry)(Industry)  PLANET Nutrient Management (Government)PLANET Nutrient Management (Government)  Tried and Tested Nutrient ManagementTried and Tested Nutrient Management (Industry)(Industry)  Wagrico (Water Industry)Wagrico (Water Industry)
  • 9. Examples of IncentivesExamples of Incentives  Environmental Stewardship (ELS and HLS)Environmental Stewardship (ELS and HLS) (Government)(Government)  SCAMP (Water Industry)SCAMP (Water Industry)  Upstream Thinking (Water Industry)Upstream Thinking (Water Industry)  Paying for ecosystem services provides basisPaying for ecosystem services provides basis for funding, although challenging to developfor funding, although challenging to develop comprehensive schemecomprehensive scheme
  • 10. RegulationRegulation  Works NoticesWorks Notices  Water Protection ZonesWater Protection Zones  Use of regulation where stakeholderUse of regulation where stakeholder engagement failsengagement fails
  • 11. Examples of new initiativesExamples of new initiatives  Demonstration Test CatchmentsDemonstration Test Catchments  Catchment-Based ApproachCatchment-Based Approach  River Ray ProjectRiver Ray Project  Defra Strategic Evidence and PartnershipDefra Strategic Evidence and Partnership ProjectProject  EA/NFU Single Issue Phosphate projectEA/NFU Single Issue Phosphate project
  • 12. Modelled probability of annual average OP concentrations in fresh river waters being less than ecological good status thresholds as a consequence of diffuse source phosphorus inputs only. 2005 Business as Usual

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